NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-14| Institutions of Parliamentary Democracy

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I This chapter NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-14| Institutions of Parliamentary Democracy. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-14| Institutions of Parliamentary Democracy

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EXERCISE

1. Choose the correct answer.

1. Who appoints the Prime Minister?

(a) President

(b) Speaker

(c) Chief Justice

(d) Vice President

Ans:-(a) President

2. The Lok Sabha has a superior status because: 

(a) It is directly elected by the people.

(b) It controls the Union Council of Ministers.

(c) It only can pass a Money Bill.

(d) All the above.

Ans:- (a) It is directly elected by the people. 

3. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding a Money Bill?

(a) Concerns the finance of the country.

(b) It can be sanctioned by both Houses.

(c) The Rajya Sabha can reject a Money Bill.

(d) The government cannot spend a rupee without the sanction of the Lok Sabha.

Ans:- (c) The Rajya Sabha can reject a Money Bill. 

4. The allocation of portfolios is done by

(a) President

(b) Prime Minister

(c) Speaker of the Lok Sabha

(d) None of these

Ans:-(b) Prime Minister

5. Which House is also called the Lower House?

(a) Lok Sabha

(b) Rajya Sabha

(c) Both of these

(d) None of these

Ans:-(a) Lok Sabha

6. Which of the following has superior powers regarding a Money Bill?

(a) Lok Sabha

(b) Rajya Sabha

(c) President

(d) Speaker of Lok Sabha

Ans:-(a) Lok Sabha

7. An Ordinary Bill has to be passed by

(a) Lok Sabha

(b) Rajya Sabha

(c) Both of these

(d) None of these

Ans:-(c) Both of these

8. Who presides over the joint session of both the Houses?

(a) Speaker

(b) President

(c) Vice President

(d) Prime Minister

Ans:-(a) Speaker

II. Very Short Answer Questions 

1. What are the two Houses of Parliament?

Ans:- The two Houses of parliament are Lok Sabha and Rajya. Sabha.

2. Give one reason why Lok Sabha is given a superior status by our constitution. 

Ans:-Lok Sabha is given a superior status by our constitution because it is directly elected by the people.

3. Why does the will of the Lok Sabha prevail in a Joint Session of the Parliament to solve an issue when there is a deadlock?

Ans:-The will of the Lok Sabha prevails in a joint session of the parliament to solve an issue when there is a dead lock because the Lok Sabha has more numbers than the Rajya Sabha.

4. Give one proof to show that the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha do not have equal powers in the passing of the Budget.

Ans:- In the case of financial matters, the Lok Sabha has more powers than the Rajya Sabha, that is to say, once the Lok Sabha passes a budget, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain the difference:

(i) The Powers of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

The Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha as the former is elected directly by the people. Any bill that is passed by the Lok Sabha cannot be rejected by the Rajya Sabha. In the case of money bill, it is first introduced in the Lok Sabha. The most important power of the Lok Sabha is that it controls the executive or the government. The government remains in power as long as it enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha. But the Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and it connot be dissolved

(ii) A Money Bill and an Ordinary Bill.

Money Bill concerns the finances of a country only the Lok Sabha can sanction any expenditure by the government. All money bills are introduced in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha cannot reject any money bill passed by the Lok Sabha. An ordinary Bill is one asks for change in a law or passing of a new law on any other subject except finance. The Lok Sabha

and the Rajya Sabha have equal rights on an ordinary Bill. 

2. Describe the powers and functions of the Council of Ministers.

Ans:-The council of ministers are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister. There are three categories of minister such as cabinet Rank, Ministers of state and Deputy Ministers. Three powers and functions of the council of ministers are as follows:-

  1. The cabinet plays an important role in the determination of national policies. The policies have to be ratified by the parliament.
  2. The cabinet discusses all sorts of problems under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister. All decisions of the cabinet are unanimous.
  3. The cabinet takes decisions about the Bills to be introduced in the ensuring session of the Lok Sabha. The drafts of these Bills are approved by the cabinet before introduction in the parliament. The Ministers of state and the Deputy Ministers are there to help the cabinet Ministers.

3. How is the President of India elected?

Ans:-The president of India is elected by an Electoral College. It consists of the elected members of both the Houses of parliament, members of the Legislative Assemblies of the states and the Union territories.

4. Describe the power and functions of the President.

Ans:- The President as the Head of the State is the First Citizen of the country; the highest political executive. But as India is a parliamentary democracy, the head of the state has only nominal powers. The President of India is not as powerful as the President of USA, because the latter is directly elected by the people. The President of India is indirectly elected.

While the Prime Minister is the head of the government, the President is the head of the state. In our political system the head of the state exercises only nominal powers. The President supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country so that they operate in harmony to achieve the objective of the state. A candidate standing for Presidents’ post has to get a majority of votes to win the election. This ensures that the President can be seen to represent the entire nation. At the same time the President can never claim the kind of direct popular mandate that the Prime Minister can. This ensures that he remains only a nominal executive.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions:

1. ‘The most powerful office in the Central Government is that of the Prime Minister.’ Discuss.

Ans:- The president appoints the leader of the majority party as the Prime Minister in our country. He exercises most of the real powers. The president is only a nominal head. The power are rested in Prime Minister. The Prime Minister’s is the most important political office in the country. The council of ministers are selected by him and distributes the portfolios to the ministers. The Prime Ministers is responsible for ensuring that all ministers perform in tune with the policies drafted and approved by the cabinet. The Ministers can be dismissed if so desired by the prime minister. He acts as the chief spokesman of the government on the floor of the House. He also acts as the ex-officio Chairperson of the planning commission.

2. Discuss the powers and functions of the Parliament.

Ans:-The powers and functions of the parliament are as follows: 

  1. It regulates on matters that fall within the Central List
  2. The income and expenditure to be incurred by the central government are approved and controlled by the Union Parliament.
  3. The parliament alone has the powers to amend the provisions laid down in the Constitution of India.
  4. The parliament has powers to impeach the president and the judges of the High Courts and the Supreme Court 
  5. The parliament approves proclamation made by the president during the period of Emergency
  6. The two Houses jointly elect the Vice President 
  7. Parliament exercises control over the executive
  8. Parliament also has powers to create a new state or alter the name and boundary of an existing state.

3. Explain how an Ordinary Bill becomes a law,

Ans:-All legislative proposals are initiated in the parliament in the form of Bills. As soon as a proposal is conceived the ministry concerned work out its administrative, financial and other implication are examined by the Ministry of Law and Attorney General of India. The Bill is then given a final shape. The Bill is then presented in either of the two House. It has to undergo three Readings in each House before it become an act or law.

(a) First Reading: In the firstReading, the Bill is introduced in the House by the minister incharge. 

(b) Second Reading: It is the most elaborate and important stage. It is given a detailed examination and studied clause by clause. 

4. Discuss the ‘collective responsibility’ of the council of ministers.

Ans:-Collective responsibility means that the ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, The Council of Ministers can continue in office only as long as it has the support of the majority of members of the ÿpLok Sabha. Every Minister is individually responsible for what happens in the ministry under his/her charge. There have been Occasions when a minister has owned responsibility for something going wrong in his ministry and resigned.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT

Read carefully the following passage. 

Do We Need a Parliament?

Legislature is not merely a law making body Law making is just one of the functions of legislature.

It is the centre of all democratic political process. It is packed with action-walkouts, protests, demonstrations, unanimity, concern and co-operation. All these serve very vital purposes Indeed, a genuine democracy is inconceivable without a representative, efficient and effective legislature. The legislature also helps people in holding the representatives accountable. This is indeed the very basis of representative democracy.

Yet in most democracies, legislatures are losing central place to the executive. In India too, the Cabinet initiates policies, sets the agenda for governance and carries them through. This has led some critics to remark that the Parliament has declined. But even very strong cabinets must retain majority in the legislature A strong leader has to face the Parliament and answer to the satisfaction of the parliament. Herein lies the democratic potential of the Parliament. It is recognised as one of the most democratic and open forums of debate. On account of its composition, it is the most representative of all organs of government. It is, above all, vested with the power to choose and dismiss the government.

Tick the right options.

1. According to the passage, the Parliament is

(a) Only a law-making body

(b) It performs many functions 

(c) It is centre of all democratic political process.

Ans:-(c) It is centre of all democratic political process.

2. By “It is packed with action” the writer means:

(a) That regular fights take place in the parliament

(b) There are lots of activities taking place, both unanimously and for good purpose or in the form of protests.

(c) A lot of confusion is created by the Parliament 

Ans. (b) There are lots of activities taking place, both unanimously and for good purpose or in the form of protests.

3. The word inconceivable can be replaced by:

(a) Possible

(b) Credible

(c) Unthinkable

Ans-(c) Unthinkable

4. The writer believes that real democracy:

(a) Cannot exist without a powerful and effective legislature 

(b) Can do much better without the interference of the parliament 

(c) The President and the Prime Minister can carry out governance without the help of the Parliament. 

Ans:- (a) Cannot exist without a powerful and effective legislature

5. A Parliament is essential because:

(a) Even a strong leader cannot carry out his policies without its support.

(b) A strong leader, without the parliament to challenge his activities, will end up as a dictator 

(c) A Parliament forces the leader to face it and answer for his actions before it.

Ans:-(c) A Parliament forces the leader to face it and answer for his actions before it.

6. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

  1. Parliament is recognised as one of the most democratic and open forums of debate 
  2. It is the most representative of all organs of government
  3. It is not vested with the power to choose and dismiss the government

Ans:-(c) It is not vested with the power to choose and dismiss the govemment

Additional Questions:

1. Why is India called a federal nation?

Ans:- India is called a federal nation because it is a union of states and the power are divided between the central and state governments

2. Why can the President not refuse to sign any bill passed by the parliament?

Ans:-The President is only the nominal head and his powers are limited. The real power vests under the PM and the council of ministers. Therefore, if a bill is passed by the parliament the president cannot refuse.

3. What happens to the ministry if the Prime Minister quits? 

Ans:- When the Prime Minister quits the Ministry can select another leader or the entire ministry may be dissolved

4. Explain two judicial functions of the President.

Ans:-(i) The President has the power to grant reprieves, remission or pardons of any Punishment. 

(ii) The President appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts. He has the Power to remove them when recommended by the parliament.

5. On which grounds can the President impose President’s rule in a state?

Ans:-The president can impose President’s rule in a state under the following circumstance

  1. When external aggression, war or Armed rebellion occurs which threatens the security of the country.
  2. Failure of Constitutional Machinery in a state 
  3. When Financial crisis occurs.

6. What are the Emergency Powers of the President? Under what circumstances can he declared an emergency?

Ans:-The Emergency Powers of the President are

a) National Emergency: If the security of the India is threatened by war or external aggression or armed rebellion within the country, the President can declare emergency.

b) Failure of constitutional Machinery in state: If a governor of any state reports that its government can’t be carried in accordance with the provision of the constitution, the President can declare emergency in that state.

c) Financial Emergency: If the country’s financial or system of credit is threatened the President may proclaim financial emergency

7. Name the different organs of the government. 

Ans:-The different organs of the government are the Legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary.

8. What is the need for a government? 

Ans:- We need government to look after the law and order in a society and to see the welfare of the people.

9. Define state.

Ans:- The state can be defined as a political organization of people in a definite territory.

10. Name the four essential elements of a state. 

Ans:-The four essential elements of a state are

(i) Population

(ii) Territory 

(iii) Government 

(iv) Sovereignty

11. Why the Rajya Sabha is a Permanent body?

Ans:-The Rajya Sabha is a Permanent body becaue it in not dissolved. The Rajya Sabha members serve for six years, with one third members retiring every second year.

12. What are three categories of Ministers?

Ans:-The three categories of ministers are 

(a) Minister of Cabinet Rank

(b) Minister of State

(c) Deputy Ministers.

13. What is the supreme Power of the Parliament?

Ans:- Once a vote of no-confidence is passed, the government including the Prime Minister has to resign. This makes the Parliament Supreme Power 

14. What is Presidential System of government?

Ans:-In Presidential System of government the President is directly elected by the people and he has Supreme power. The President might belong to a party which does not have majority in the Parliament. He cannot be removed if they disapproved of his her policies.

15. Name the two Houses of Indian Parliament.

Ans:-a) Lok Sabha (House of People) 

b) Rajya Sabha (Council of States).

16. How are the members of the Lok Sabha elected? 

Ans:- The members of the Lok Sabha are elected directly by the people.

17. How are the members of the Rajya Sabha elected? 

Ans:- The member of the Rajya Sabha are elected from the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies.

18. Who elects the President?

Ans:- The Electoral College elects the President.

19. How is the Electoral College formed?

Ans:-The Electoral College is formed by members of the Parliament (both Houses), elected members of all the Legislative Assemblies of the States including the National Assemblies of Union Territories.

20. Who preside over the Lok Sabha Sessions?

Ans:- The Speaker presides over the Lok Sabha Sessions.

21. What is meant by Collective responsibility of the council of ministers?

Ans:-It means that the ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. The council of ministers can continue in office only as long as it has the support of the majority of members of the Lok Sabha:

22. Who elects the vice-president of India?

Ans:-The Vice-President of India is elected by the Parliament (both Houses)

23. What is meant by “Adjournment Motion”?

Ans:- It is a proposal for postponing the business of the House to discuss a matter of urgent public importance.

Multiple Choice Questions:

24. The President of India is elected by: 

(a) Directly by the people of India

(b) The Parliament

(c) Electoral college

(d) Prime minister and his councilors

Ans:-(c) Electoral College

25. Who can amend the Indian Constitution?

(a) Indian Parliament

(b) The President of India.

(c) The Cabinet

(d) Indian Judiciary

Ans:-(a) Indian Parliament

26. The real executive of the government of India is:

(a) The President of India

(b) The Prime Minister of India 

(c) The Chief Justice of India

(d) Vice-President of India 

Ans:-(b) The Prime Minister of India.

27. The Presiding officer of the Lok Sabha is: 

(a) The President

(b) The Prime Minister

(c) The Vice-President

(d) The Speaker

Ans:-(d) The Speaker

28. Lok Sabha is directly elected by the people for a period of:

(a) 4 years 

(b) 5 years

(c) 6 years

(d) 7 years

Ans:- (b) 5 years.

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