NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-13| Electoral Politics in a Democracy

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I This chapter NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-13| Electoral Politics in a Democracy. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-13| Electoral Politics in a Democracy

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EXERCISE

1. Choose the correct answer.

1. Seats are reserved for certain weaker sections, because:

(a) They would never get an opportunity to win an election.

(b) They would never have resources to fight an election. 

(c) They would never have the education and contacts to fight an election

(d)All the above.

Ans:-(d) All the above.

2. A symbol is given to each party fighting an election because:

(a) The majority of voters are illiterate, they cannot read.

(b) They help the voters, as they are easy to recognise. 

(c) Special symbols are given to special parties to help them win.

(d) None of the above.

Ans:-(a) The majority of voters are illiterate, they cannot read. 

3. What is the total population of Nagaland as per the latest Census (2011)?

(a) 19,80,600

(b) 19,88,636

(c) 19,80,602

(d) 20,00,000

Ans:-(c) 19,80,602

4. How many total seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the present Lok Sabha?

(a) 120

(b) 130

(c) 140

(d) 150

Ans:-(a) 120

5. Door to door canvassing is allowed till hours before the polling starts.

(a) 36

(b) 40

(c) 48

(d) 72

Ans:-(c) 48

6. What is the minimum age required to be eligible as a Member of Lok Sabha?

(a) 20 years 

(b) 18 years 

(e) 25 years 

(d) 30 years

Ans:-(c) 25 years

7. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioner?

(a) Prime Minister

(b) President

(c) Chief Justice of India 

(d) Vice President

Ans:-(b) President

8. Which state has the largest number of members in the Vidhan Sabha?

(a) Goa 

(b) Bihar

(c) U.P.

(d) Maharashtra

Ans:-(c) U.P.

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions 

1. What is a constituency?

Ans:-A Constituency is an area, based on population, from which one representative is sent to the state legislature or to the Lok Sabha

2. What is Universal Adult Franchise?

Ans:-Universal Adult Franchise means every adult has the right to vote

3. How does elections lead to political competition? 

Ans:-Elections lead to political competitions in various forms such as: 

  1. It is a competition among various political parties.
  2. It involves competition among various ideologies and politics of the political parties.
  3. It also takes competition among the candidates.

4. What is the expenditure limit for a candidate during a Lok Sabha election?

Ans:-70 Lakhs.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain the difference between:

(i) Ballot Paper and EVM

(ii) General Constituency and Reserved Constituency 

Ans:- (i) Ballot Paper and EVM: A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the contesting candidates and their party’s name and symbol are listed. Whereas on EVM are used to record votes. EVM also shows the names of candidates and their symbols on it the voters have to just press the button against the candidate whom they want to vote for

(ii) General Constituency and Reserved Constituency: General constituency means the constituency from which any one can contest in the election. Where as Reserved constituency means the constituency which is reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and only a person who belong to Sc/St can stand for election.

2. Why have seats been reserved for weaker sections in Lok Sabha and Assemblies?

Ans:- Seats have been reserved for weaker sections in Lok Sabha and Assemblies because people belonging to weaker sections, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes would, without reservations, never get an opportunity to win an election and become members of the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabhas. They would never have the resources, the education and contact to fight an election on equal terms against other candidates.

3. Describe the model code of conduct for an election campaign. [HOTS]

Ans:-A model code of conduct for election campaign are:

  1. Any place of worship will not be used for election purposes.
  2. Personal lives of opponents will not be limited to their attacked. Criticism to be limited to their policies, programmes, past record and work.
  3. Government transport (aircraft, vehicles, machinery and personnel) will not be used by the ruling party.
  4. No flags, banners, notices, slogans shall be placed on buildings without the permission of the owner.
  5.  Ministers shall not announce any projects or any foundation stones once elections have been announced.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. Briefly discuss the steps taken to hold elections.

Ans:- The following steps are taken to hold elections.

(i) Fixing the number of constituencies: A constituency is an area, based on population, from which one representative is elected. According the country the state is divided into number of constituencies.

(ii) Preparing voter’s List: After the number of constituencies are decided the voters list is prepared to decide who can vote. 

(iii) Nomination of Candidates: Political Parties nominate their candidates who get the Party symbol and support.

(iv) Election Campaign: Election Campaigns are done in different form by the political party or the candidates to win the support of the voters.

(v) Polling and Counting of Votes: It is the last stage of an election. when the voters ‘cast’/’Poll’ their votes. It may be done in a ballot paper or through EVM.

(vi) Declaration of the Result: When the counting is over in all the constituencies, the result will be declared.

2. In a democracy elections are a must. Discuss.

Ans:-Democracy means the government ruled by the people Since our constitution makes India a representative democracy, at all levels all political decision have to be taken by the elected representative of the people. Elections as such become an integral part of our political system. In all the levels of the government the decision are taken by the representatives of the people. There is no other democratic way of selecting representatives except through elections and voting. That is the only way to make sure that government represents the will, the choice of the people. In an election voters can choose the party that would make policies and guide the government in law making

They will choose the people who will make laws for them.

They will choose the people who will sit in government and take major decision. Therefore elections are a must in a democratic set up.

3. Is it good to have political competition? Why? Why not? 

Ans:- It is good to have political competition Election without competition would become meaningless. Elections make the people aware of the national problems. Through the manifestos of different political parties, people come to know how each party is going to deal with the national problems. Competitions among top leaders of various parties make a kind of personality race. Competition among various ideologist and policies of different political parties also make good programmes.

4. Discuss the basic features essential for a democratic election. [HOTS]

Ans:-The basic features essential for democratic, elections are as below: 

  • Universal adult suffrage – Every citizen should be able to vote.One vote for one person and every vote should have the same value.
  • There should be candidates and parties who are allowed to contest elections.
  • Elections should be free and fair. Every person chosen by the people should get elected.
  • Elections should be held at regular intervals.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Democracy

If elections are important for a democratic country, so are the political parties. One-party rule cannot be called a democratic rule. It is dictatorship under the garb of a popular government. The rule of the Fascist party in Italy and the Nazi party in Germany was nothing but dictatorship. So many parties take part in elections to make the government more democratic. It is mostly the political parties which select their candidates for fighting the elections. In addition to the party candidates, there are other candidates who are called independents. They are not the spokesmen of any political party and as such no political party comes to their help. Their resources are limited and consequently they stand very little chance of success.

As such under the modern election system, most of the candidates belong to political parties because of the following main reasons:

  1. It facilitates the voters to know the aims and ideologies of different candidates.
  1. The voter knows for certain for whom he is voting.
  1. No candidate has all the desired finances, organisation and other resources which are needed for fighting an election. Being a member of a political party, he gets the required finances and other facilities.

Choose the most appropriate answer:

1. Which kinds of countries are called democratic countries? 

(a) Where different political parties participate in an election to form the government

(b) Where people have no rights to participate in an election

(c) Where only old people participate in an election 

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(a) Where different political parties participate in an election to form the government

2. Fascist and Nazi governments were examples of:

(a) Dictatorship 

(b) Democracy

(c) Monarchy 

(d) Oligarchy

Ans:-(a) Dictatorship 

3. Why do the candidates join the political parties?

(a) It is a necessity for people to join the political parties 

(b) So that they could come in contact with peasants 

(c) So that they could come in contact with people

(d) So that they could get economic help from political parties during elections

Ans:-(d) So that they could get economic help from political parties during elections

4. The word ‘spokesmen’ used in the above passage stands for:

(a) A person who supports dictatorship 

(b) A person who supports democracy

(c) A person who opposes democracy

(d) A person who speaks on behalf of a group or organisation

Ans:-(d) A person who speaks on behalf of a group or organisation 

5. After the existence of more than one political party, a democracy is termed as a successful democracy, why it is so?

(a) More political parties provide more option for people to choose the government

(b) More political parties symbolise less conflict in a democracy.

(c) More political parties help bureaucrats in their executive kinds of work

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(a) More political parties provide more option for people to choose the government

Additional Questions:

1. Why do we need constituency?

Ans:- We need constituency because only through constituency people can sent /choose their representatives to the Lok Sabha or the legislative Assembly.

2. Elections are necessary in a democracy. Do you agree?

Ans:-I do agree with the statement. Since our constitution makes India a representative democracy, at all levels all political decisions have to be made by the elected representative of the people. If elections are not conducted our democracy cannot function properly. Therefore elections are necessary in a democracy.

3. What is the electoral strength of India?

Ans:-67 crores 50 lakhs.

4. Which country in the world, can be called as the ‘Mother of Election”?

Ans:-India.

5. What are the basic features essential for election?

Ans:-The basic features essential for election are

a) Universal adult suffrage

b) There should be candidates and parties who are allowed to contest election.

c) Election should be free and fair.

d) Elections should be held at regular intervals.

6. What is a general Election?

Ans:-When election are held for the Lok Sabha or a Vidhan Sabha in all the Constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within a few days is called a general Election.

7. What is Electoral Roll?

Ans:- It is a complete list of names of voters eligible to vote in an election. It is also called the voters list.

8. What is EPIC?

Ans:- EPIC is the full form of Election Photo Identity Card. Which should be carried by every voter when he/she goes for voting:

9. What is meant by Party Ticket?

Ans:- Political Parties nominate their candidates who get the party symbol and support This is called getting the “Party Ticket”

10. What is Election Campaign?

Ans:- All those activities or works that the political parties or candidates do before the election, in order to canvas the people or to get the support of the people, are known as Election campaign.

11. What is Election Manifesto?

Ans:-It is the programmes and policies of the Political Parties or the candidates regarding what they will do for the people if they are elected to Power

12. What is ballot paper?

Ans:- A ballot paper is a sheet of paper on which the contesting candidates and their party’s name and symbol are listed.

13. What is EVM?

Ans:- It is an Electronic Voting Machine which is used to record votes.

14. What measures are taken to ensure free and fair election in India?

Ans:- The following measures are taken to ensure free and fair elections in India Commission.

a) Independent Election 

b) Voter’s Identity Cards

c) Electronic Voting Machine and restriction on election expenses:

Multiple Choice Questions:

15. What is the minimum age to be nominated as a candidate? 

(a) 25 years 

(b) 30 years 

(c) 18 years

(d) 21 years

Ans:-(a) 25 Years

16. Voter list is prepared at regular interval of:

(a) Every year

(b) Every two years

(c) Every three years

(d) Every five years

Ans:-(d) Every five years.

17. Which country in the world is considered as the ‘Mother of Democracy’?

(a) India

(b) England

(c) America

(d) Britain

Ans:- (b) England.

18. The most important qualification needed for being an MP or MLA is:

(a) Graduation

(b) Political background

(c) Ability to understand the people’s problem

(d) One of the above

Ans:-(c) Ability to understand the people’s problem.

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