NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-12| Democracy in India

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I This chapter NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-12| Democracy in India. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-12| Democracy in India

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EXERCISE

1. Choose the correct answer.

1. When was the Constitution enacted and passed?

(a) 26 November, 1949

(b) 26 November, 1950

(c) 26 January, 1950

(d) None of these

Ans:-(b) 26 November, 1950

2. The Constituent Assembly of Independent India had how many members?

(a) 300

(b) 299

(c) 385

(d) 388

Ans:-(c) 385

3. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on

(a) 9 December 1946

(b) 10 December 1947

(c) 15 August 1947

(d) None of these

Ans:- (a) 9 December 1946

4. Who was the chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution?

(a) Rajendra Prasad

(b) B.R. Ambedkar

(c) J. L. Nehru

(d) K. M. Munshi

Ans:-(b) B.R. Ambedkar

5. Who was elected the president of the Constituent Assembly?

(a) Dr Rajendra Prasad 

(b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

(c) Mahatma Gandhi

(d) Jawaharlal Nehru

Ans: (a) Dr Rajendra Prasad

6. When were the words ‘Socialist’, ‘Secular’ and ‘Unity and integrity of the nation’ added to the Constitution?

(a) 1975 

(b) 1976 

(c) 1977 

(d) 1978

Ans:-(b) 1976)

7. When was the Constitution of India enforced? 

(a) 1947 

(b) 1948 

(c) 1949

(d) 1950

Ans:-(d) 1950

II. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Why is the concept of democracy not new to India? 

Ans:- The concept of Democracy is not new to India because it has followed a historical path in India. 

2. What was the role of Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in the framing of our Constitution?

Ans:- Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of the Constituent Assembly and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the Drafting Committee

3. What is Universal Adult Franchise?

Ans:-Universal Adult Franchise means the right given to all the Adults and above 18 years to vote. 

4. Why was the Indian Constitution made amendable?

Ans:- The Indian Constitution was made amendable because it has faced many difficulties since India became a Republic in 1950 and people of India have many differences.

5. Which were the new words added to the Constitution in 1976? 

Ans:- The two new words added to the constitution in 1976 were “Socialist’ and Secular”,

6. When was the Indian Constitution adopted and when was it enforced? 

Ans:-The Indian constitution was adopted on 26th November, 1949 and it came into force on 26th January, 1950. 

7. What has India borrowed from the Constitution of the United Kingdom?

Ans:-India borrowed the Parliamentary System with Prime Minister as its head from the Constitution of United Kingdom.

III. Long Answer Type Questions

1. What is a Constitution? Why do we need a Constitution? [HOTS]

Ans:-A constitution is a set of well-defined rules that explain the powers of different organs of the government. It is a body of fundamental principles according to which a state is governed. It tells us about the rights and duties of the citizens. Every law which a government frames has to be according to the Constitution.

2. Describe the salient features of the Indian Constitution. 

Ans:- Salient Features of the Constitution are as follows:

1. The Sovereign Democratic Republic

a) Sovereign: It means supreme power. As a supreme power it is free from any kind of external control. The people of India have the right to make their own decisions on external as well as internal matters. The Constitution derives its authority from the people, and the people are sovereign.

b) Democratic: India is a democracy where the people elect their own government at all levels (central, state and local). They choose their representatives on the basis of universal adult franchise and hold periodical free and fair elections.

c) Republic: It is a form of government where the head of the State is elected by the people for a specific period i,e, the President. A republic does not have a hereditary ruler.

2. Socialist Secular State

a) Socialism or Socio-Economic Equality: The term socialism means production and distribution of goods and services is a shared responsibility in a socialism there is no privately owned property.

b) Secular State: Secularism basically means separation of the state from religion and as such the state is neither pro-religion nor anti-religion, but it allows people of all faiths equal freedom of worship.

3. To Secure Justice, Liberty, Equality and to Promote Fraternity.

a) Justice: Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender etc, and everyone should be treated equally. Social inequalities have to be reduced.

b) Liberty: There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action. It menas freedom given to all.

c) Equality: All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.

d) Fraternity: All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.

3. Write short notes on:

(i) A federal state

(ii) Independent judiciary

Ans:- (i) A federal state: Federal state denotes that the power is divided into two-one at the centre level and the other at the state level.

(ii) Independent judiciary: The constitution provides the people of India with an independent and impartial judiciary. In case of any conflict between the union and the State governments, the judiciary plays the role of an impartial umpire. The supreme court of India decides all the disputes between the centre and the states.

4. Explain the following terms:

(i) Justice 

(ii) Liberty

(iv) Fraternity

(iii) Equality

Ans:-(i) Justice: Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities have to be reduced. Government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.

(ii) Liberty: There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action.

(iii) Equality: All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.

(iv) Fraternity: All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizens as interior.

5. Describe the basic features of the Indian Constitution. Why they cannot be amended? [HOTS]

Ans:-(i) The Sovereign Democratic Republic:

(a) Sovereign: means Supreme power. As a supreme power it is free from any kind of external control. The people of India have the right to make their own decisions on external as well as internal matters.

(b) Democratic: India is a democracy where the people elect their own government at all levels (central, state and local). They choose their representatives on the basis of universal adult franchise and hold periodical free and fair election.

(c) Republic: A republic does not have a hereditary ruler (e.g., the British Queen). The head of the state, i.e., the President, is elected by the people for a specific period.

(ii) Socialist Secular State:

(a) Socialism or Socio-Economic Equality: India has a long history of reforms which tried to break down the barriers of low and high castes, customs and superstitions. Gandhiji worked all his life against untouchability. Socialism by the Constitution and all major political parties in India as an ideal primarily means an equal distribution of wealth in society, lessening of economic disparities and protection of the working people against exploitation.

(b) Secular State: Secularism basically means separation of the state from religion and as such the state is neither pro-religion nor anti-religion, but it allows people of all faiths equal freedom of worship.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT 

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions based on it.

Every society must develop in its people a social responsibility. This is something that we, in India, have been falling short of.

We are very individualistic and don’t relate ourselves to our society as such. Very seldom do we actually go out and do something, which is beneficial to the society and which does not have side benefit for ourselves as individuals. And this is another thing that must be built into the education system.

Our young boys and girls coming out must have a feeling for oar society. There is a special responsibility that you have, that we all have in building up the spirit. We have to see that what we learn is not used only for our own personal benefits that every task we do is such that it benefits the weak and the poor, as Gandhiji has said.

India, today, is striving out into the modem world. We are looking ahead to new technology, to high technology, new methods, new types of employment, and a new dynamism in our economic growth.

But while we look ahead, we must not forget the millions who are still below the poverty line. When we look at technology. when we look science, when we look at development, our attention must not be diverted from what is still a major stumbling block in India-the poor and deprived groups. And everything we do must be targeted in a manner that the benefits will flow to the weak, the deprived and the depressed.

Tick the right option. 

1. According to the author, the Indian people:

(a) Are socially very responsible 

(b) Lack of social responsibility

(c) Have several responsibilities 

(d) Are highly irresponsible

Ans:-(b) Lack of social responsibility

2. Indians do not do anything beneficial to society unless:

(a) There is a benefit for themselves

(b) It involves personal sacrifices 

(c) Other individuals are benefitted. 

(d) The whole society benefits by it

Ans:-(a) There is a benefit for themselves

3. The author says that India:

(a) Wants to acquire new technology

(b) Does not want new technology 

(c) Already has sufficient new technology

(d) Can export technology to other countries

Ans:-(a) Wants to acquire new technology

4. The author wants to bring welfare rnainly for: 

(a) People belonging to intellectual background 

(b) People belonging to political background 

(c) People belonging to poor and deprived groups 

(d) People belonging to rich class 

Ans:-(c) People belonging to poor and deprived groups

5. We do not care for the development of our society as a whole. We should use our spare time for the development of the society but it is not so. Why?

(a) Because neighbours are very selfish that’s why no one is interested to bring about welfare in the society 

(b) Because people have become too much individualistic

(c) Because people have not even a single minute to think about society

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(b) Because people have become too much individualistic

6. The word ‘seldom’ used in the above passage means:

(a) Unable to see

(b) Not often, i.e. rarely 

(c) A method of learning

(d) The process by which a person’s character and abilities are developed

Ans:-(b) Not often, i.e. rarely

Additional Questions:

1. What does the term ‘Dharma’ actually means?

Ans:- The word ‘Dharma’ refers to “code of law”.

2. What was the single most powerful influence on the development of democracy in India?

Ans:- Indians were influenced by ‘Sarva Dharma Sambhav’ precept which helped on the development of democracy in India.

3. State two distinct features of India democracy not found in the older and established democracies of the world.

Ans:-The two distinct features of India democracy are ‘Strong central rule’ and ‘Single citizenship’ which are not found in the older and established democracy of the world.

4. What does a constitution of a country signify?

Ans:-The constitution od a country signifies the fundamental principles according to which the country in governed. It gives the power of the different organ, states, responsibilities and right of the citizens etc which shows that the India is a independent country.

5. On which basic foundation is the structure of our constitution built?

Ans:-The basic foundation on which our constitution built is based on certain values such as social equality, freedom of the individual, secularism, socialism etc.

6. Name two sources which confirm or provide proof that India had republic in the Post-Vedic period?

Ans:-(a) Writing of Greek historians. 

(b) Budhist and Jain Scholars.

7. When and where were universities established by the British?

Ans:-The British established universities in 1857, in Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai.

8. Which is the most difficult process for amending the constitution?

Ans:- The ‘third category’ is the most difficult process for amending the constitution.

9. Explain the importance of the preamble to the constitution?

Ans:- The preamble is very important to the constitution. It is an introduction to and constitution contains the basic ideas and principles. It also speaks about the important features of justice, liberty, equality and fraternity etc.

10. What kind of problem has the constitution faced between 1947 and 2006? With example illustrate how they have been dealt with and the change made.

Ans:- The constitution has faced number of problems since Independence to 2006.

The following are some of these:- 

  1.  The constitution has been amended more than 100 times.
  2.  The age of voting has been reduced from 21 to 18.
  3. The right to property is no longer a fundamental right. It has become a legal right.
  4.  Fundamental right has been incorporated in the constitution.
  5. The boundaries of the state have been carved out.
  6. The president is bound by the advice of his ministers etc. All these changes have been made amending the constitution from time to time. 

11. When did the Indians get the idea of democracy, the parliamentary system of govt.?

Ans:-The Indians got the idea of democracy during the colonial rule in India.

12. What led the development of modern democracy in India?

Ans:-The British rule led the development of modern democracy in India.

13. Which act gave the formation of Parliamentary form of government in India?

Ans. The Indian Council Act 1909, the govt. of India Act of 1919 and 1935 gave the formation of parliamentary system in India.

14. Name some of the problem faced by India after independence? 

Ans:-India faced many problem after independence such as:

(a) Widespread illiteracy 

(b) Poverty 

(c) Under development etc

15. Who was the chairman of the Drafting Committee of the constitution?

Ans:- Dr. B.R.Ambedkar.

16. Which country in the world has the largest democracy? 

Ans:- India has the largest democracy in the world.

17. What has India borrowed from the constitution of U.S.A? 

Ans:- India has borrowed, A republic with the President as its head and Federal system of the government from the U.S.A.

18. What did Indian Constitution borrow from France?

Ans:-Indian Constitution borrowed from France the ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity.

19. What is meant by the term Republic?

Ans:- The term Republic refers to a state which has elected head There is no hereditary ruler.

20. What is meant by Sovereign?

Ans:- The term Sovereign means a nation free from external control.

It also means the nation derives its authority from the people.

21 . What is meant by ‘Secular State’?

Ans:-Secular state means the state accepts all the religions. They will have equal importance and the states will not prefer any particular religion.

22. Why did the Constitutional Assembly form?

Ans:-The constitutional Assembly was formed to make constitution for India. 

23. What is meant by constitutional amendments?

Ans:-Constitutional amendments are those changes that are made in the constitution.

24. What categories of subjects come under union lists? 

Ans:-Subjects of national interests such as defense, foreign policy, atomic energy etc. Come under union lists.

25. What are the salient features of Indian Constitution?

Ans:-The salient feature of Indian Constitution are the following:

  1.  India is a sovereign democratic republic. 
  2. Socialist secular state
  3. Federal features.
  4.  The parliamentary system.
  5. Fundamental Rights.
  6. Independent and Impartial Judiciary. 
  7. Directive principles of State policy
  8. Reservation policy
  9. Language policy.

26. What are Fundamental Rights?

Ans:-The Constitution guarantees certain basic rights to all the citizen of India, and they are called Fundamental Rights.

Multiple Choice Questions:

27. The concept of Directive principles of state policy was borrowed from:-

(a) Irish Constitution

(b) France Constitution

(c) Constitution United Kingdom 

(d) Constitution of United States of America

Ans:-(a) Irish Constitution.

28. Which country in the world has the largest Constitution?

(a) America

(b) France

(c) Britain

(d) India

Ans:- (d) India.

29. Which of the following country has an unwritten constitution?

(a) U.S.A 

(b) U.K

(c) Germany

(d) Italy

Ans:- (b) U.K

30. The Constitution of India was framed by:-

(a) The parliament 

(b) The president

(c) The representative of Indian people 

(d) Different organs of the government

Ans:-(c) The representative of the Indian people

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