NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-10| Map Reading

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I This chapter NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-10| Map Reading. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-10| Map Reading

Here You can learn or understand this chapter’s notes and question answer for NBSE Syllabus, all the materials are given in the basic and easy to learn for the students. We describe all the questions answer briefly in every state.

EXERCISE

I. Choose the correct answer.

1. Early maps were based on:

(a) Astronomical determination 

(b) Scale

(c) Surveying of the land

(d) Latitudes and longitudes

Ans:-(a) Astronomical determination

2. The White colour on a map denotes:

(a) Oceans and Seas

(b) Forest areas

(c) Uncultivable land

(d) Settlement huts

Ans:-(c) Uncultivable land

3. The art and science of map making is called

(a) Cartology

(b) Cartography

(c) Cartonomy

(d) None of these

Ans:-(a) Cartology

4. A line drawn on the map joining places of equal temperature is called an 

(a) Isotherm

(b) Isobar

(c) Isophel

(d) Isopleth

Ans:- Isotherm

5. A line drawn on a map connecting places experiencing equal amount of atmospheric pressure is called

(a) Isotherm 

(b) Isopleth 

(c) Relief 

(d) Isobar

Ans:-Isobar

6. By which colour water bodies like oceans, seas, lakes are shown on a map?

(a) Blue

(b) Yellow

(c) White

(d) Green

Ans:-(a) Blue

7. Which of the following is not a cardinal direction?

(a) North 

(b) South

(c) East

(d) North-East

Ans:-(d) North-East

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is a map?

Ans:- A map is the representation of the earth or a part of it. 

2. What is meant by scale?

Ans:- A scale is the relationship of distance on the ground and that represented on the map.

3. Why are conventional symbols so called? 

Ans:- Conventional symbols are so called because the design shape of these symbols has been laid down by mutual agreement and among nations.

4. What is the importance of colour in a map?

Ans:- The colours represent particular features and are more useful for representation of information and reading of survey maps.

5. Name the four intermediate directions. Ans:-The four intermediate directions are

  1.  North-West (NW)
  2. North-East (NE)
  3. South-East (SE)
  4. South-West (SW)

6. Name the two main types of map. are

Ans:- The two main types of maps 

(i) On the basis of scale

(ii) On the basis of purpose and content. 

7. What is meant by ‘Linear Scale’?

Ans:- In this case a graphic line is drawn on the map. Each division of the scale represents a certain distance on the ground.

8. What is meant by Representative Fraction?

Ans:-Representative fraction: It is similar to ratio proportion but may indicate the same result by a mathematical formula.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Briefly describe the importance of maps.

Ans:-Early developments in map-making are the following:- 

  1. Earliest map was drawn on a clay tablet in 2300 B.C.
  2. Romans used surveying of land for laying roads. 
  3. Early maps were based on astronomical determination.
  4. In the medieval period many aids for map-making like astrolabe and compass were used for finding direction and location. 
  5. In the medieval period use of latitudes and longitudes was also made to plot information on maps. 

2. Explain any two ways of representing scale.

Ans:- The two ways of representing scale are:-

(i) Statement method:- In this method the scale of the map is expressed in words. It may be simply stated that 5 km on ground is equal to Iem on the map.

(ii) Ratio proportion method:- In this case I unit on the map may represent several thousand units on the ground. Eg 1:50,000 may mean 1 cm on the map is equal to 50,000 cm on ground.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. Describe essential elements of map-making.

Ans:- Some elements of map-making are:

(i) Scale: A Scale is the relationship of distance on the ground and that represented on the map

(a) Statement– In this method the scale of the map is expressed in words. It may be stated that Sem on ground is equal to 1 cm on the map

(b) Ratio proportion method – In this case 1 unit on the map may represent several thousand unit on the ground.

(c) Linear Scale-In this case a graphic line is drawn on the map.

(d) Representative fraction– It is similar to ratio proportion but may indicate the same result by a mathematical formula. eg. Distance on the map Distance on the ground

(ii) Conventional symbols: These are commonly used symbols to avoid crowding of information on a map.

(iii) Colour: The symbols lines and ground area on a map may also be shown in different colours. The colours represent particular features and are more useful for representation of information and reading of survey maps.

2. Give the importance and function of colour on maps.

Ans:- The colours represent particular features and are more useful for representation of information and reading at survey maps Important colours may mean the following:-

Blue-It indicates Ocean, seas, lakes and other water bodies.

Yellow-It indicates cultivable land on a survey map. On Atlas maps it means rough land.

Green-It denotes forest area grasslands

Red-It shows settlement huts on survey maps.

White-It indicates uncultivable land on survey maps, an unvegetated land on Atlas maps

3. What are known as cultural maps? Explain the different types of cultural maps.

Ans:-Cultural maps have a specific purpose content. These maps are used in different methods to show cultural features like population. Maps may show distribution of population by means of dots, or colour or just use statistical data.

The major cultural maps are:-

(i) Dot maps-Dots of uniform size and thickness may represent say 10,000 population, and double thickness of the dot may represent 20,000 population. In ordinary case the number of dots of uniform thickness may be used to show the multiples of dots to indicate the population of an area

(ii) Choropleth maps-They also show the same effect by degrees of shading. Shading in different thickness is done. The choropleth method can be used successfully in physical maps like showing distribution of rainfall.

4. Why are conventional signs not drawn to scale?

Ans:- Conventional signs are not drawn to scale because these are standard symbols used on maps conveying a definite meaning which are accepted universally. These are commonly used symbols to avoid crowding of information on map at the same time requires less interpretation and is readily understood by a layman. They are called conventional because the design and shape of these symbols has been laid down by mutual agreement among nations. This has been done to enable tourists and other people read the map of a country for interpretation and location. In it the scale diminishes with the distance and it shows only the side of picture which is in front of you.

Additional Questions: 

1. Define grid reference.

Ans:- Grid Reference consists of the values in terms of latitudes (horizontal) and longitude (vertical).

2. Why is map projection necessary? 

Ans:- Map projection is necessary to minimize the distortion caused by spherical shape features on a flat surface.

3. What is a map projection? Name the three types of map projection.

Ans:- Map projection is an orderly arrangement of the lines of latitudes and longitudes to minimize distortion caused by spherical shape of the earth while presenting the features on a flat surface, The three types of map projections are:

(a) Cylindrical projection. 

(b) Conical projection 

(c) Azimuthal projection.

4. What are the important Parameters used to make accurate maps.

Ans:- (a) Scale and Direction. 

(b) Contour intervals for showing heights in physical maps

(c) Dimensions or extent of the maps stated in degree and geographical coordinates,

(d) Directions.

5. Name the four Cardinal Directions. 

Ans:- North-South and West – East:

6. What is Angel of Declination?

Ans:- The angular deviation between the two direction is called Angle of Declination.

7. What is Bearing?

Ans:- The angel measured from some given point is called Bearing. 

8. What is Cartography?

Ans:- It is the art and Science of map making. It also involves production of maps. 

9. What is Isotherm?

Ans:- Isotherm is the line drown on the map joining places of equal temperature.

10. What is Isopleth?

Ans:- A line drown on a map connecting places with an equal incidence of any feature. It is also Isoline.

11. What is Isophel?

Ans:- A line drawn on a map connecting places experiencing equal amount of Sunshine.

12. What is Isodapane?

Ans:- A line drawn on a map joining places of equal transport cost is known as Isodapane. It is used for calculating insdustrial cost and delivery between Points.

13. What is Isochrone?

Ans:- It is the line drawn on a map connecting places with same timing of flowering of tree or harvesting of agricultural crops.

Multiple Choice Questions:

14. Conventional symbols are used:-

(a) To give more information. 

(b) To avoid more crowding of information.

(c) To give a particular information in more details.

(d) None of the above.

Ans: to avoid crowding of information.

15. Physical maps indicate:

(a) Relief

(b) Climate

(c) Vegetation 

(d) all the above

Ans:- All the above.

16. Map making was popularized in ancient times by: 

(a) The Greeks

(b) The Romans

(c) The Greeks and the Romans

(d) The Italians.

Ans:- (c) The Greeks and the Romans

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