NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-6| Climate

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I This chapter NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-6| Climate. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-6| Climate

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EXERCISE

I. Choose the correct answer.

1. The direction of the monsoon wind in summer is

(a) South-west

(b) North-west

(c) North-east 

(d) South-east

Ans:-(c) North-east

2. Which of the following is not a part of Indian seasons?

(a) Hot Weather Season 

(b) Advancing Monsoon Season 

(c) Freezing Season 

(d) Retreating Monsoon Season

Ans:-(c) Freezing Season

3. The period of transition from hot and rainy to dry and cold season occurs in:

(a) August-September 

(b) September-October

(c) October-November

(d) November-December

Ans:-(c) October-November

4.The highest rainfall in the world is recorded in

(a) Mumbai

(b) Jaisalmer

(c) Mawsynram

(d) Delhi

Ans:-(c) Mawsynram

5. Mango showers fall in which of the following states?

(a) Kerala – Karnataka

(b) Bihar-Uttar Pradesh

(c) Gujarat-Rajasthan

(d) Odisha – Andhra Pradesh

Ans:-(a) Kerala – Karnataka

6. The monsoons begin to withdraw from the Northern Plains in the month of

(a) August 

(b) September 

(c) October

(d) November

Ans:-(c) October

7. In which season the Western Disturbances cause rainfall in western parts of India? 

(a) Summer 

(b) Winter 

(c) Auturn

(d) None of these

Ans:-(b) Winter

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. Define climate.

Ans:- Climate is the long term effect of the Sun’s radiation on the rotating Earth’s Surface and atmosphere.

2. What are mango showers?

Ans:- When the summer season is about to reach an end Kerala and Karnataka experience pre-monsoon shows which will help ripening of mangoes. So people call these shower as mango showers.

3. List the elements that affect the climate of India.

Ans:-The elements that effect the climate of India are temperature and precipitation.

4. List the factors that determine the climate of a place.

Ans:-The following factors are responsible to determine the climate of a place. 

(i) Location 

(ii) Altitude 

(iii) Distance from the sea

(iv) Pressure and winds 

(v) Upper Air Currents

5. Which part of India experiences continental type of climate? 

Ans:-Northern Plains experiences the continental type of climate in India.

6. List the four main seasons of India

Ans:- The four seasons of India are-

(i) Hot Weather Season 

(ii) Cold Weather Season 

(iii) Advancing Monsoon

(iv) Retreating Monsoon

7. List the two branches of advancing monsoon. 

Ans:- The two branches of Indian Monsoon are:

(i) The Arabian Sea branch 

(ii) The Bay of Bengal branch.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. How do Himalayas affect the climate of India? 

Ans:- The Himalayas lies in the north of India. It serves as a climate diviser. It stops the cold wind from central Asia entering to India and gives comparatively warmer climate. Thus the Himalayas helps to have a uniform and moderate temperature in India.

2. Give two characteristics of winter season.

Ans:- The two Characteristics of the winter Season are:-

(i) It occurs between November to February

(ii) The temperature increases from south to north.

3. What is meant by vagaries of the monsoon?

Ans:- Vagaries of the Monsoon means the unequal or strange occurrence of the monsoon. The monsoon does not occur equally in all the places. Some places they get heavy showers and certain places scarcely rained.

4. How have monsoons been a ‘unifying bond’ in India?

Ans:-The monsoons have been unifying bond in India because. They give a regular cycle of seasons and moderates the climate in India. The monsoons have a profound influence on India’s festivals, life style of people, the agricultural routine, animal and plant life and the landscape too.

5. What is Loo? When and where does it blow?

Ans:- The loo are strong, hot and dry winds that blow during the day in summer, over northern and north-western India.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. Write about the characteristic features of hot weather season and cold weather season in India.

Ans:- The hot weather season occurs from March to May. During this season, the Sun’s northward movement causes the global heat belt to shift northwards and increases the temperature. When certain places experience high temperature others may have. moderate temperature. When the temperature is 380c in Deccan plateau, the temperature in Gujurat and Madhya Pradesh will be 420c and northwestern region will have 480c.

A unique feature of the hot weather season in India is the loo. It is a strong, hot and dry wind that blows during the day in Summer, over northern and northwestern India. Many people suffer from heat strokes or other fatal consequences when they are exposed to these hot winds.

Cold weather season

The characteristic features of cold weather season are:

  1. Northeast monsoon takes over from the southwest monsoon. 
  2. Light winter rainfall in northwest India is very useful for the rabi crop, especially wheat.
  3. Temperature goes on decreasing towards north of Tropic of Cancer
  4. The season is of great economic importance for wheat in northwest India and rice in Tamil Nadu.
  5. The season is marked by fine cool weather, low humidity and large variation in the range of temperature. 

2. How do south westerly winds bring rains in India?

Ans:- The trade winds which originate over the Indian Ocean move to Bay of Bengal and at last reach the Arabian sea. As they flow over the sea they absorb moisture and cross the equator and come through south-west direction. These winds are very strong and they blow at the speed of 30 km and suddenly bring rainfall with thunderstorm and lightening, which is known as breaking of monsoon.

3. Discuss how distribution of precipitation differs all over the country.

Ans:- The uncertainty and changes of the monsoon winds causes distribution of precipitation which varies region to region. Western coast and north western regions receive high rainfall over 400cm. But the western Rajasthan, parts of Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat receive very low rainfall. The rest of the regions receive almost moderate rainfall while snowfall occurs in the Himalayas.

4. Discuss features of the ‘Retreating Monsoons”.

Ans:- The monsoons trough of low pressure grows weaker by October-November. It is then slowly replaced by high pressure and the monsoon gradually withdraws. This is known as ‘retreat of monsoon. The period of transition from hot and rainy to dry and cold season occurs during this period. Clear skies and rising temperature are prominent marks of retreating monsoon. During the daytime the temperature remains high but nights are pleasant and cool. Due to high temperature and humidity, weather becomes oppressive, which is known as ‘October Heat”.

5. Discuss the monsoon season in India.

Ans:-Indian Monsoon is a term used for the various aspects of a distinct climatic regime found in India. Scientists are still researching on the age old phenomenon of the monsoon. The nature and cause of monsoon still pose a mysterious challenge to them. The meteorological data collected by experts from land Oceans and upper atmosphere all over the world have thrown significant light on the nature and mechanism of monsoon. In India the “Meteorological Department of India’ works to make Jong term predictions of monsoons” duration and capacity which is based on 16 parameters. The predictions of this department

have been true for many years. 

6. Explain how upper air circulation operates as a factor influencing climate of India.

Ans:- The higher level of the atmosphere experiences an altogether different pattern of air circulation. The fast blowing winds have a steady velocity and move in a narrow zone of the upper atmosphere. These fast blowing winds are called jet streams. The westernly jet streams has a great influence on in India. The western disturbances find entry into India from the west and the northwest during winter and are carried in by these air currents. Tropical depressions are brought into India by an easternly jet stream and low pressure region over land. These depressions aid in the distribution of monsoon rainfall over whole of India.

7. Why is the western part of Rajasthan arid in spite of the Aravalli Hills? (HOTS] 

Ans:-The western part of Rajasthan is arid inspite of the Aravalli Hills for the following reasons:

  1. Amount of rainfall goes on decreasing northwards.
  2. The moisture laden winds passing over Rajasthan do not saturate as the heat in the desert region increases their capacity to hold moisture.
  3. The Arabian sea branch gets exhausted by the time it reaches Punjab.
  4. The moisture laden blow all over the country but leaves the extreme north west.

8. Why Shillong has more rainfall than Kolkata? [HOTS] 

Ans:- Rainfall in Shillong is more than Kolkata because of the following reasons:

  1.  Though both this places are fed by the Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon its main target is the low pressure area in North Myanmar where it is nearest to Shillong.
  2. Mawsynram near Cherrapunji stands at the end of a funnel shaped valley which acts as a trap for rain bearing Bay of Bengal branch and forces them to shed moisture whereby Shillong also gets its share of rainfall as it is just 50 km away.
  3. The Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon is deflected towards west along the Himalayas where it pass through Kolkata but the rainfall goes of decreasing as it proceeds towards north-west.

V. Map Work

1. On an outline map of India show seasonal rainfall from June to September marking the areas receiving rainfall 20-40 cm, 60-100 cm and 200-400 cm.

2. On an outline map of India show the areas receiving annual rainfall 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm, 100-200 cm and above 400 cm.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions. 

The heaviest rainfall (11520 cm) in the world has been recorded in Mawsynram (Meghalaya), while the western part of Jaisalmer district (Rajasthan) is one of the driest parts of the world, recording about 9 cm of rainfall in a year. There is a wide contrast in the amount of rainfall received by different parts of the country. Total rainfall increases generally eastward.

Depending upon the total annual rainfall, the country can be divided into five major discontinuous regions.

Regions having low rainfall (less than 30 cm in a year) – There are two belts which receive less than 30 cm of rainfall in India. 

  1.  The Karakoram mountains and the areas lying to the north of the Zaskar range (north of the Great Himalayas).
  1. Western part of Kutch and Rajasthan lying to the west of a line starting from Jakhu (Kutch Coast) running northward through the delta of the Luni and touching Haryana state near Hissar, are the areas under this region.

Regions having Rainfall (30 to 60 cm a year) – These are the semi-arid areas of India. The three distinct areas of low rainfall are-(a) A narrow belt of mountainous country running in north- west, south-east directions and comprising mainly Deosai mountains and the Zaskar range. (b) A crescent-shaped belt of 150 to 300 km wide running in northsouth direction and comprising (i) The Punjab, Haryana plains, west of a line starting roughly from Amritsar and passing a little west of Delhi, (ii) Central belt of Rajasthan (iii) Western Gujarat excluding the more arid western Kutch. (c) A narrow belt of 100 km wide, running in northsouth direction and lying east of the Western Ghats.

1. At which place has the maximum rainfall in the world been recorded?

(a) Karakoram 

(b) Mawsynram (Meghalaya)

(c) Amritsar

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(b) Mawsynram (Meghalaya)

2. What is the length of the crescent-shaped belt?

(a) 100 to 110 km

(b) 150 to 300 km

(c) 180 to 200 km 

(d) 250 to 400 km

Ans:- (b) 150 to 300 km

3. Which among the following is one of the driest parts of the world?

(a) Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) 

(b) Kutch

(c) Jaipur

(d) Jabalpur

Ans:-(a) Jaisalmer (Rajasthan)

4. Which of the following regions does not receive the rainfall (30 to 60 cm a year)?

(a) Narrow belts of mountains running in north-west, south-east directions.

(b) A crescent-shaped belt of 150-300 km running in north-south direction and comprising Punjab, Haryana etc. 

(c) A narrow belt of 100 km wide which is running in north-south direction and lying east of the Western Ghats.

(d) Jaisalmer district (Rajasthan)

Ans:-(d) Jaisalmer district (Rajasthan)

5. In which direction is the Karakoram mountains located?

(a) North of the Zaskar range (North of the Great Himalayas) 

(b) South of the Zaskar range (South of the Great Himalayas)

(c) West of the Zaskar range 

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(a) North of the Zaskar range (North of the Great Himalayas)

Additional Questions:

1. List the elements that effect the climate of the India?

Ans:- The elements that effect the climate of India are Temperature and precipitation.

2. What is the important of the “Tropic of Cancer”? 

Ans:- The tropic of cancer divides India into two equal parts.

3. Which is an important characteristic of the Indian Monsoon? 

Ans:- A distinct seasonality is an important characteristic of the Indian monsoon.

4. What temperature variations occur in Indian during summer?

Ans:- During summer, in India the Temperature various form place. to place It may reach 500 or even more in some places of Rajasthan. At some time it may be 200 in Jammu and Kashmir. The temperature of 480 is common around May in north western region.

5. Write about temperature contrast in coastal areas?

Ans:- Generally the coastal regions have minimum contrast in temperature. In coastal region the temperature of day and night doesn’t vary much.

6. Give the characteristics of the Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch of Monsoon. 

Ans:-The main characteristics of the Arabian Sea branch are:

  1.  The Western Ghats pose an obstruction to this branch of Monsoon.
  2. Heavy rains occur on the windward side of the Sahyadris
  3. This monsoon branch cross the ghats, reach the Deccan plateau and Madhya Pradesh and cause some rainfall.
  4. It also enters the Ganga plains to meet the Bay of Bengal branch.
  5. It passes over western Rajasthan and causes scanty rainfall. 

Characteristics of the Bay of Bengal branch_

  1. This branch of monsoon is naturally directed towards part of southeast Bangladesh and coastal Myanmar.
  2. This deflection occurs due to the Arakan Hills along Myanmar’s Coast.
  3. Thermal low in northwest India causes the branch to split into two-one of which moves westward and the other moves to the north and northwest India.
  4. The westward branch reaches the Punjab plains along the Ganga plains, while the other branch moves up the Brahmaputra valley to cause heavy and widespread rains in north-eastern India.

7. Why does the climate condition of India widely vary? 

Ans: It is because of the unusual topography and geographical position of India.

8. Why do the Northern plains experience a continental type of climate?

Ans:- The Northern plains experience a continental type of climate because they are located away from the Sea’s influence. 

9. What are jet streams?

Ans:- Jet stream are strong and fast blowing winds high above the earth and that has an effect on the weather.

10. What is the unique feature of the hot weather season in India?

Ans:- The unique feature of the hot weather season in India is the loo.

11. What is loo?

Ans:-The loo are strong, hot and dry winds that blow during the day in summer, over northern and northwestern India.

12. What is meant by mango showers?

Ans:- When the summer season is about to reach an end Kerala and Karnataka experience pre-monsoon showers which will help ripening of mangoes. So people call these showers as mango showers.

13. Name the winds which prevail over the country during the winter season?

Ans:- During the winter season the north-east trade winds prevail over the country.

14. Which region has no particular winter seasons why?

Ans:-The peninsular region has no particular winter season. Because there is not much seasonal change in the distribution pattern of temperature due to the influence of the sea.

15. Name the place which receive the highest average annual rainfall in the world.

Ans:- Mawsynram, located on the crest of the southern range of Khasi Hills.

16. What are the special characteristics of the monsoon? 

Ans:- Uncertainty and changes are the special characteristics of the monsoons.

17. What is meant by “October Heat”?

Ans:- During the retreating monsoon high temperature and humidity cause the day-time weather to become rather oppressive; and is known as “October Heat”.

18. What is meant by Windward side?

Ans:- Windward side means the side or direction from which the wind is blowing.

19. What is Leeward side?

Ans:-It is the side or direction that is sheltered from the wind.

20. What is cyclone?

Ans:- It is a violent tropical storm in which strong winds move in a circle.

21. Define weather.

Ans:- Weather can be defined as the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, such as the temperature, wind, rain etc.

Multiple Choice Questions:

22. Monsoon is a word derived from-

(a) Arabic

(b) Indian

(c) Persian

(d) Sanskrit

Ans:- (a) Arabic

23. Temperature extremes are confined largely on the slope of the-

(a) Northern plains

(b) Himalayas

(c) Coastal regions

(d) None of the above.

Ans:- (b) Himalayas

24. The tropic of cancer divides India into-

(a) two equal parts

(b) three equal parts

(c) four equal parts

(d) none of the above.

Ans:- (a) two equal parts.

25.__________ region has no particular winter season.

(a) The peninsular.

(b) Coastal.

(c) Northern plains.

(d) None of the above.

Ans:- (a) The peninsular.

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