NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-5| The Locational Setting and Relief

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I This chapter NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-5| The Locational Setting and Relief. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-5| The Locational Setting and Relief

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1. Choose the correct answer.

1. India covers how much of total world area?


(b) 2.3%

(c) 2.4%

(d) 2.5%

Ans:-(c) 2.4%

2. The Coromandal Coast is in:

(a) Northern part of Western Ghats 

(b) South of Go

(c) Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu 

(d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Ans:-(c) Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

3. The islands formed by coral deposits are:

(a) Great Andamans 

(b) Nicobar Islands

(c) Lakshadweep Islands

(d) The Maldives 

Ans:-(c) Lakshadweep Islands

4. The most popular hill stations of North India, (Example Mussoorie, Shimla, etc.) lie in:

(a) Great Himalayas or Himadri

(b) Shivalik or Outer Himalayas

(c) Himachal or Middle Himalayas 

(d) Assam Himalayas

Ans:-(a) Great Himalayas or Himadri

5. Which latitude divides India into two parts?

(a) Equator

(b) Tropic of Cancer

(c) Tropic of Capricom

(d) None of these

Ans:-(c) Tropic of Capricom

6. The Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills are located in which state?

(a) Assam

(b) Arunachal Pradesh

(e) Nagaland

(d) Meghalaya

Ans:-(d) Meghalaya

7. The highest peak in the world, the Mount Everest, is located in which range of the Himalayas?

(a) Himadri 

(b) Himachal 

(c) Shiwalik

(d) Purvachal

Ans:-(a) Himadri

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. Name the southernmost point of the Indian mainland.

Ans:-Kanayakumari is the Southernmost Point of the India mainland.

2. What is the land area of India?

Ans:-India’s land area is 3.287, 263 Sq Km 

3. Which countries share the land boundaries with India?

Ans:- Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Bangladesh. Afghanistan and Myanmar share the land boundaries of India

4. Which are the three main physical regions of India?

Ans:- The three main physical region of India are

(a) In the North are the Himalayas and karakoram mountain, the Himalayan food hills and the Naga Hills 

(b) South of the Himalayas are the plains of the Indian, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers

(c) On the Southern peninsular of the Indian subcontinent is the Deccan Plateau

5. Why is the ‘Indian subcontinent’ called so?

Ans:-Indian subcontinent is called so because of its isolation from the rest of Asia due to the Himalayas ranges.

6. List the important passes in the Himalayas.

Ans:-The important passes in the Himalayas are: 

(a) Shipkila 

(b) Nuthula 

(c) Bomdila and 

(d) Korakoram

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Write briefly about the island groups of India. 

Ans:-India has got two major Islands: Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. The Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bangal have five large Isalunds grouped together, called the great Andamans and to its south is the Island of little Andamans Nicobar Islands south of the Andaman are a group of 19 Islands out of which 7 are uninhabited. Lakshandweep Island, which means 100,000 Islands, lie scattered of in the Arabian Sea. They are formed of coral deposits called Atolls.

2. Write a note on the middle Himalayas.

Ans:-The middle Himalayas or Himachal lies to the South of the Himadri extending over an average width of 50 km and about 370 to 4500m high Important ranges of the Middle Himalayas are the Mahabharat, the Dhaoladhar and the Pir-Panjal. It consists of hill stations such as Shimla, Mussoorie, Dalhousie and Dharamshala

3. Define (i) Khadar (ii) Bangar (iii) Tarai and (iv) Bhabar. 

Ans- (i) Khadar: It is the younger or new alluvium deposit soil of the flood plains.

(ii) Bangar: The older alluvium deposite

(iii) Tarai: The wet and marshy area having a thick forest and a variety of wildlife

(iv) Bhabar: They are a narrow belt covered with pebbles along the slope of the river.

4. Write about the western coastal plains.

Ans:- The plain area stretching from Kerala to Gujarat is known as the western coastal plain. It is rather narrow except for the Gujarat part. This highly rugged and dissected coastal plain is called the Konkan coast in the northern part. The coast south of Goa is called the Malabar Coast.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. The vast latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is unique. Discuss.

Ans:- India has a vast latitudinal and longitudinal extension. Its latitudinal extension covers between 804′ N and 3706 N and longitudinal extension is between 680 7 E and 950 25 E. It covers a vast area of 3,287,263 sq km. Both the latitudinal and longitudinal difference covers almost the same degrees, ie, 300. Accordingly from the north to south it extends about 3200km which is more than that of the east to west distance which is approximately 3000km.

2. What is the Standard Meridian of India? What is its importance?

Ans:- The standard meridian of India is 82030’E longitude passing through Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. It helps to have a uniform time in India. Otherwise, there would have been different timings due to the vast distance between North-South and west to east Now because of the standard meridian, i.e. 82030’E we follow same timings in all over the country.

3. Discuss the four main sections of the Himalayas in an east-west direction.

Ans:-The four main sections of the Himalayas in an east-west direction are the following

(i) The Nepal Himalayas-It lies between the Kali and the Tista 

(ii) Assam Himalayas-This area lies between Tista and the Dihang (Tangpo)

(iiu) Western Section – It lies between Sutlej and the Indus.

(iv) Punjab Himalayas

4. What do you know about 

(i) the Northern Plains 

(ii) the Deccan Plateau 

(iii) The Thar Desert

Ans:-(i)The Northern Plains: Northern plains lie between the peninsular and the Himalayas. This plain is formed by the great rivers, the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra. This Plain is also called the Indo-Gangetic lowland stretches from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. It is the most productive and the most densely settled region of India.

(i) The Deccan Plateau: Deccan Plateau is a part of peninsular plateau. The deccan plateau has its southward extension from the Satpura, the Mahadeo and the Maikal ranges to the southern tip of the peninsula. Some parts of deccan plateau have abrupt heights of 900-1100 meters. Its western and eastern parts are called Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats respectively.

(iii) The Thar Desert: The Thar Desert is known as the great Indian Desert. It is an extensive region of Sandy desert. The Thar Desert is in Rajasthan covering 805km in length and 485km in width. This region receives sparse rainfall averaging from 127 to 254mm annually. The temperature in the area can be as high as $2.80c in July. Most of the people in the Thar Desert are engaged in Pastoral activities and also in hide and wool industries.

V. Map Work

1. On a political map of India mark the states of India and the neighbouring countries.

2.On an outline map of India mark and label:

(i) Coromandel Coast 

(ii) Western Ghats

(iii) Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta 

(iv) The Thar Desert 

(v) Lakshadweep Islands

3.On an outline map of India mark and label: 

(i) Shillong Plateau 

(ii) Malwa Plateau

(iii) Bundelkhand

(iv) Chhotanagpur Plateau

4. On an outline map of India mark and label:

(i) Karakoram Range

(ii) Zaskar Range

(iii) Pir Panjal Range

(iv) Patkai

(v) Purvanchal

(vi) Jaintia Hill

(vii) Vindhyachal

(viii) Aravali

(ix) Cardamom Hills

(x) Malabar Coast

Additional Questions:

1. Name the important islands of India?

Ans:-The important islands of India are Andaman and Nicobar and Lakhshadweep.

2. Which is the Southern most point of the Indian Union?

Ans:-Lakshadweep Island

3. Why did the Portuguese come to India?

Ans:- The Portuguese came to India to establish trade relationship with India.

4. What happened after opening of the Suez Canal in 1869?

Ans:- The Suez canal was opened in 1869 and this led to the reduction of distance between Europe and India by 7000 km.

5. How were land routes helpful?

Ans:-Land routes were helpful in exchanging trade goods and ideas

6. What is the crust?

Ans:- The outermost layer of the earth is called the crust.

7. Define Lithosphere? 

Ans:- Lithosphere is defined as the earth solid exterior crust.

8. What is asthenosphere?

Ans:- It is a weak plastic zone in the interior of the earth in the upper part of the mantle, 2900km below the surface, extending 100 to 400 km.

9. Which river has their source in the Himalayas?

Ans:- River Indus, River Ganga and River Brahmaputra have their source in the Himalayas

10. What is a Gorge?

Ans:-A Gorge is an I-shaped valley which has steep vertical walls on either side of the river.

11. What is the difference between tributaries and distributaries?

Ans:- A tributary joins the main river and adds water from its  basin. Whereas distributary takes away the water from the main rivers.

12. What are Doabs?

Ans:- Doabs are the local term for the land between two rivers. 

13. Which rivers flow across the peninsular plateau? 

Ans:- River Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri and Mahanadi flow across the peninsular plateau.

14. Define an escarpment?

Ans:-An escarpment is a natural slope or cliff mounting to a ridge. 

15. What is the role of the Himalayas in India? 

Ans:-The Himalayas play an important role in India such as-

  1.  They act as natural barrier and save India from Chinese attack.
  2. They are the source of rainfall in India
  3. Many major rivers originate from the Himalayas.
  4. Himalayas have various valleys and hill station which are the centers of tourist attraction. 
  5. They add to the forest of India

16. Which countries does India connect to through sea routes?

Ans:- India is connected with East-Africa, West Asia, South and South East Asian countries through sea routes. 

17. What shapes the earth’s major land forms?

Ans:- The sliding plates and drifting continents cause to shape the earth’s major landscape features. 

18. Write about rivers from the Kailas Mansarovar region. 

Ans:-The Kailas-Mansarovar region is where the Indus, the Sutlej and the Tsnagpo (Brahmaputra) have their origins, The Sutlej

and the Indus flow westward while the Tsangpo takes a ‘U turn and is named as Dihang. The three rivers then flow towards the Northem plains crossing the Himalayas at various places.

19. What is known about Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra? 

Ans:-They are the important rivers of the alluvial plains. These rivers are originated form the great Himalayas. They are fed by the permanent glaciers of the Himalayas. These rivers along with other rivers of the Peninsular plateau deposit alluvium in the vast plain. The well-known river valley civilizations have also developed from these region.

20. Briefly discuss the Lakshadweep islands. Ans:- Lakshadweep islands, which means 100,000 islands, lie scattered off coast of Kerala in the Arabian Sea. It is the smallest Union Territory in India. The Lakshadweep Island were formed of coral deposits called atolls. These islands were formerly called Laccadives and have many untouched beaches, green coconut groves in a total land area of only 32 sq km.

21. How has Indian’s central location at the head of the Ocean proved helpful?

Ans:-Indian’s Central location at the head of the Indian Ocean had led to cultural and commercial relations with East Africa, West Asia, South and South-East Asian Countries.

22. How have land routes and sea routes added India’s cultural and trade ties?

Ans:-Land routes and sea routes helped India in exchanging trade goods and ideas to the rest of the world. It also helped India to have cultural, social relation with the neighboring countries.

23. Where are the escarpments formed?

Ans:- Escarpments are formed in the central part of the Highland regions between the river Son and Narmada valley. They are also formed by the Vindhya-Kaimur range.

24. What is the known about the Andaman and Nicobar Islands?

Ans:-The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of more than 3000 islands out of which 265 are uninhabited. The Andaman Islands grouped together, called the great Andamans, and to its south is the Island of Little Andamans. The Nicobar Islands south of the Andamans are a group of 19 islands out of which 7 are uninhabited. The Andaman and Nicobar Island are larger than Lakshadweep in the Arabian sea.

25. What is Coromandel Coast? 

Ans:- The coast of southern Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu is Popularly known as the Coromandal Coast.

26. What is an Island?

Ans:- An Island is a body of land surrounded by water.

27. Where is Malwa Plateau located?

Ans:-Malwa plateau is located between the Aravalli and Vindhya ranges.

28. Name the highest peak in the world.

Ans:-Mt. Everest (8848m)

29. Name the second highest peak of the Himalayas.

Ans:-Kanchanjunga (8598m)

30. Name the major physical division of India. Ans:- The major physical division of India is

  1. The great mountain on the north.
  2. The plains at the foot of the mountain.
  3. The plateau region in the south.

31. What is Spit?

Ans:-It is a thin projection of land into the sea, lake or river, shell or reef extending from the shore.

32. What is standard time?

Ans:-Standard time is the official time of a country or an area.

33. What is a delta?

Ans:-A delta is a vast alluvial plain formed in triangular shape by the rivers.

34. Name the Second highest peak in the world? Where is it located?

Ans:-Mount Godwin Austin (K2) is the second highest peak in the world. It is located in the Karakoram range in Kashmir (8611m)

Multiple Choice Questions:

35. The river which is known as Dakshina Ganga is _________

(a) River Ganga

(b) River Kaveri

(c) River Godavari

(d) River Krishna

Ans:-(b) River Kaveri

36. The coast South of Goa is known as________

(a) Konkan Coast

(b) Malabar Coast

(c) Estuaries

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(b) Malabar Coast

37. The Great Andaman consist of ________

(a) 5 large Islands 

(b) 19 large Islands

(c) 7 large Islands 

(d) 3000 large Islands

Ans:-(a) 5 large Islands

38. The Himalayas are.

(a) The Highest

(b) The youngest

(c) One of the most active 

(d) All the above

Ans:-(d) All the above

39. Indian Standard meridian passes through _________ 

(a) Bombay

(b) Delhi

(c) Madhya Pradesh

(d) Uttar Pradesh

Ans:-(d) Uttar Pradesh

40. Duns are common in __________

(a) Shivalik range

(b) Himachal range

(c) Himadri range

(d) All the above range

Ans:-(a) Shivalik range

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