NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-4| Indian National Movement

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NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-4| Indian National Movement

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EXERCISE

1. Choose the correct answer.

1. The first session of the Congress was held in:

(a) Calcutta, 1886

(b) Bombay, 1885

(c) Surat, 1887

(d) Bombay, 1889

Ans:-(b) Bombay, 1885

2. “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it” was a slogan given by:

(a) Gandhiji

(b) Bipin Chandra Pal

(c) Subhash Chandra Bose 

(d) Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Ans:-(d) Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak 

3. When was Bengal partitioned?

(a) 1905 

(b) 1907 

(c) 1906

(d) 1911

Ans:-(a) 1905

4. The famous ‘Dandi March’ of Gandhiji began on:

(a) 12 April, 1930

(b) 22 April, 1930

(c) 1 April, 1930

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(d) None of the above

5. The slogan “Do or Die” was given to the nation by:

(a) Bhagat Singh

(b) V.D. Savarkar

(c) Mahatma Gandhi

(d) Rash Behari Bose

Ans:-(c) Mahatma Gandhi

6.Which national leader revived Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharashtra?

(a) GK. Gokhale

(b) B.G. Tilak

(c) B.C. Pal

(d) Annie Besant

Ans:-(b) B.G Tilak

7. When was the Civil Disobedience Movement finally called off?

(a) 1930 

(b) 1931

(c) 1933

(d) 1934

Ans:-(d) 1934

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. Who was the first President of Indian National Congress? 

Ans:-W.C. Bannerjee was the first President of Indian National Congress.

2. What was the attitude of the British Government towards the Indian National Congress In the beginning? Why did it change later?

Ans:- The attitude of the British Government towards the Indian National Congress in the beginning was friendly as the Indian demanded only representation in the government not independence.

3. Why did the leaders of the Indian National Congress want association with Britain in the beginning and not separation?

Ans:- The leaders of the Indian National Congress had faith in British and they thought that the British would understand the grievances of the Indians. Therefore, the Indian leaders wanted association with them and not separation.

4. Name the Viceroy who divided Bengal into two provinces. What was his real motive?

Ans:- Lord Curzon divided Bengal into two provinces. The real motive was to create division between the Hindus and Muslims.

5. Mention two acts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak to inculcate self-confidence and national pride among the Indian people. 

Ans:- Two acts of Bal Gangadhar Tilak to inculcate self-confidence and national pride among the Indians are (a) He raised the slogan,Freedom is birth right and I will have it”. (b) He revived Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharastra, which arosed the national feelings of the people.

6. What happened at the Calcutta Session of the Congress in 1906? Who was the main leader?

Ans:- At the Calcutta Session of the Congress in 1906, a new programme was started by the Extremist that is ‘Swaraj’ became the aim of the Congress. Dadabhai Nairoji was the main leader.

7. When was the Muslim League founded? Who were its leaders?

Ans:- The Muslim League was founded in 30th December 1906. Its main leaders were Agha Khan, and Nawab Slimullah of Dacca. 

8. When did Gandhiji enter Indian politics and what were the two new weapons he used in the struggle for independence?

Ans:-Gandhiji entered in Indian Politics in 1920 after a successful political career in South Africa. His new two weapons were non-violence and non-co-operation.

9. Mention two aims of the Non-Cooperation Movement. [HOTS]

Ans:- Two aims of the non-cooperation movement were (a) To redress the wrongs done to Punjab and Turkey. (b) To achieve the aim of Swaraj

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Why is the first phase of National Movement called the ‘Moderate Phase?”

Ans:-The first phase of National Movement is called the Moderate phase because they did not demand independence but representation in the government. They used constitutional and peaceful means to achieve it.

2. Describe the main contributions of the following leaders:

(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Ans:- He laid great stress on the sufferings and sacrifices of the people. He raised the slogan, “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it.” He was active in the Congress from 1890. In 1897 he was imprisoned for 18 months for his writings in his Marathi paper Kesari. He revived Ganapati and Shivaji festivals in Maharashtra

to arouse national feelings.

(b) Lala Lajpat Rai

Ans:-He inspired the Punjabis with a new national spirit and made them bold and patriotic. He was a great social reformer and educationalist. He opened orphanages and hospitals; he set up Servants of the people Society’ for the welfare of the downtrodden. He was an active worker of the Arya Samaj. He opposed the policy of the Early Nationalists.

(c) Bipin Chandra Pal

Ans:-Bipin Chandra Pal was a prominent leads of Indian Nationalist Movement. He preached and encouraged the use of Swadeshi and the Boycott of foreign goods to eradicate poverty and unemployment.

3. How did the people of Bengal react to the Partition of Bengal?

Ans:- When Bengal was partitioned in 1905 by Lord Curzon, the people were not happy at all. They agitated fiercely against the partition. They saw the move as a devise to divide the people and started Anti-partition Movement till it was repealed in 1911.

4. How did the National Movement become mass movement after 1919? [HOTS]

Ans:- After the First World War Gandhiji made the National Movement a Mass Movement. There were certain factors which helped him to do so. The people were aware of the causalities that took place in the war. Three greats powers i.e Hohenzollern in Germany, Habsburg in Austria, and Romonovs in Russia were overthrown. The Russian Revolution also deeply affected the Indians. More over the expenditure in the war forced on India, had made its masses even more poor. Therefore, people realized their participation and took an active part in the freedom struggle

5. What were the main aims of the Muslim League?

Ans:-The main aims of the Muslim League were the following: 

(a) To promote among the Muslims of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government.

(b) To protect and advance the political rights of the Muslims in India and represent their needs and aspiration to the government. 

(c) To prevent the rise among the Muslims of India of any feeling of hostility towards other communities.

(d) To keep the Muslim away from joining the Indian National Congress.

6. ‘Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.’ Explain. [HOTS]

Ans:- The Civil Disobedience began with Gandhiji breaking the Salt Law. He started with a band of 78 followers from Sabarmati Ashram on foot, on March 13, 1930 for Dandi, a small village along the seashore of Gujarat. This historic march was taken by Gandhiji to defy the salt tax. He asked people to manufacture contraband salt. He had started with only a few followers but thousands of men and women joined him as he marched forward. The distance from Ahmedabad to Dandi was covered in 24 days. His ‘Dandi March’ aroused the whole nation. He symbolically made some salt at Dandi on April 6, 1930 as the start of the Civil Disobedience Movement. People all over India broke the Salt Law. They boycotted foreign goods and lit bonfires, picketed liquor shops and made public servants give up their jobs.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. Discuss the impact and significance of the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement.

Ans:- The Partition of Bengal created widespread dissatisfaction and discontent all over the country which led to the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement. Swadeshi means “goods of one’s own country and boycott means to avoid or reject the goods of other countries.

The congress session at Calcutta in 1906 gave a new program by the extremist and Swaraj became the aim of the Congress. Soon the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement spread to almost all part of the country. Certain steps have started in regard to Boycott and Swadeshi Movements are the following:- 

(a) Shops selling foreign goods were picketed.

(b) People from all walks of life refused to use foreign goods.

(c) Indigenous industries and crafts were developed.

(d) The movement also influenced on Indian Music, Science and Art.

2. Which factors contributed to the awakening of national consciousness among the Indian people? [HOTS]

Ans:- The following factors contributed to the awakening of national consciousness among the Indians.

(a) India was unified politically for the first time under the British. There was a strong central government, uniform legal system, uniform currency and uniform system administration which made the Indians to think India as one nation.

(b) The spread of western thought and education created a national consciousness.

(c) Rediscovery of India’s Past, modern means of communication, the role of press and literature etc. contributed to national consciousness.

(d) The destruction of old Indian Social and economic system was another important factor.

(e) The British followed a policy of discrimination. 

(f) After the revolt of 1857, the British followed a policy of repression and passed vernacular press Act of 1878 and Arms Act 1879 which made many restrictions on the Indians.

3. What did the National Movement try to achieve in its Moderate phase (1885-1905)? 

Ans:- The National Movement led by the moderates tried to achieve the following reforms in its early phase.

(a) Indians should have a larger share in government of their country.

(b) There should be elected representatives in provincial and central legislative council.

(c) The Indian Civil Service Exam should be held in India and the age to be raised from 18 to 21.

(d) The judiciary should be separated from the executive. 

(e) The Arms Act should be repealed and amended.

(f) Indians should be appointed in high posts.

(g) Indian industries should be developed.

(h) The government should promote spread of education, agriculture, irrigation, health and medical facilities. 

4. Give an estimate of Gandhiji’s role in India’s struggle for freedom.

Ans:-Gandhiji played an important role in India’s struggle for freedom. He started his political career in India after he returned from South Africa. In 1915 he established Sabarmati Asharam at Ahmadabad. The inmates of the Ashram observed the strict code of morality – Truth, non-violence, fearless and use of Swadeshi goods. Gandhiji evolved his new methods of non- violence and non-cooperation as the Indians were no match with the British in physical force.

Gandhji started a number of movements to fight against the British such as non-cooperation movement, Dandi March, Quit India Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement etc. His activities were mainly based on truth and non-violence. Under the leadership of Gandhiji the freedom movement had become a mass movement involving all the people in the country. His greatest achievement was his campaign against untouchability. He also worked hard for the Hindu-Muslim Unity. Thus, we see that he dedicated his life for the cause of India’s freedom.

5. Why did the Indian National Congress change its goal from Swaraj to “Poorna Swaraj”?

Ans:-At the initial stage, the leaders of the Indian National Congress demanded representation in the government and not independence. But the British failed to understand the demands of the Indians. Therefore, they started with more and more demands. In December 1921, the congress met at Ahmedabad. At these session Maulana Hasrat Mohani, a leading urdu poet and nationalist leader, suggested that swaraj should be defined as complete independence or Poorna Swaraj. Accordingly, when the congress session held at Lahore in 1929, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, they passed a resolution declaring “pooma swaraj” or complete independence as its goal and decided to achieve Poorna Swaraj.

6. Describe the main features of the Quit India Movement. 

Ans:- The Quit India Movement started in 1942. The reasons for starting the same were the following.

(i) The Cripps Mission (March, 1942) failed to solve the constitutional problem of India. It led to discontent, dissatisfaction and anger. The Indian people were filled with distrust and hostility towards the British. The failure of the Mission had deprived the leaders of the opportunity to cooperate fully in war efforts.

(ii) The war situation worsened in the summer of 1942. Japan was rapidly advancing towards India and there was a growing threat of Japanese invasion on India. The Congress leaders were of the view that to save India from the Japanese attack, it is necessary that the British withdrew from India. The responsibility of the Japanese attack on India lay on the British because the English were the rulers of India.

(iii) Gandhiji firmly believed that an orderly and peaceful withdrawal of the British can save India from internal anarchy and foreign aggression. The news of the arrest of Gandhiji and other. Congress leaders spread like a wildfire. The people started the Quit India Movement over the whole of the country. The movement became a popular upsurge aria the whole country rose to overthrow the British Rule. It was the last mass-uprising against the British Rule in India.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT

Given below is an extract from the speech made by our first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in the Constituent Assembly at midnight on 14th August 1947 The Eve of India’s Independence. It is considered to be one of the finest speeches of all times.

Tryst With Destiny

Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, then an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance.

It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and ‘to the still larger cause of humanity.

At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest and trackless centuries which are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures. Through good and ill fortunes alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortunes and India discovers herself again.

The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await us. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp opportunity and accept the challenge of the future?

Freedom and power bring responsibility. The responsibility rests upon this assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom we have endured all the pains of labour and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now.

That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we might fulfill the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today. The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity.

The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye. That may be beyond us, but as long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over.

The appointed day has come – the day appointed by destiny. and India stands forth again, after long slumber and struggle, awake vital, free and independent. The past clings on to us still in some measure and we have to do much before we redeem the pledges we have so often taken. Yet the turning point is past, and history begins anew for us, the history which we shall live and act and others will write about.

On this day our first thoughts go to the architect of this freedom, the father of our nation, who, embodying old spirit of India held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that surrounded us.

We have often been unworthy followers of his and have strayed from his message, but not only we but succeeding generations will remember this message and bear the imprint in their hearts of this great son of India, magnificent in his faith and courage and humility. We shall never allow that torch of freedom to be blown out, however high the wind or stormy the tempest.

Our next thoughts must be of the unknown volunteers and soldiers of freedom who, without praise or reward, have served India even unto death.

We think also of our brothers and sisters who have been cut off from us by political boundaries and who unhappily cannot share at present in the freedom that has come. They are of us and will remain of us whatever may happen, and we shall be shared in their good and ill fortune alike.

The future beckons to us. Whither do we go and what shall be our endeavor? To bring freedom and opportunity to the common man, to the peasants and workers of India, to fight and end poverty and ignorance and disease; to build up a prosperous, democratic and progressive nation, and to create social, economic and political institutions which will ensure justice and fullness of life to every man and woman

We have hard work ahead. There is no resting for anyone of us till we redeem our pledge in full, till we make all.

Tick the right option.

1. “Long Years ago, we made a tryst with destiny.” What is Pt. Nehru referring to?

(a) The big struggle of the nationalists to win freedom for India.

(b) To the 1929 session of the Indian National Congress at Lahore, which declared “Poorna Swaraj” as its goal?

(c) To the promises the Congress had made to the people of India.

Ans:-(a) The big struggle of the nationalists to win freedom for India. 

2. “Greater triumphs and achievements that await us” means:

(a) Nehru refers to the heights India can and will reach in the future.

(b) People are waiting for India to do great things. 

(c) India has to do better in future.

Ans:-(a) Nehru refers to the heights India can and will reach in the future.

3. The Appointed Day” means:

(a) The day the whole of India was waiting for.

(b) The date already fixed and chosen by destiny or unknown power for India to become independent.

(c) The day Indian National Congress had chosen for India’s independence.

Ans:-(b) The date already fixed and chosen by destiny or unknown power for India to become independent.

4. Why does Nehru say that “We have been unworthy followers of the Father of Nation.”?

(a) India did not always follow his message and fought wars with other nations 

(b) Indians did not believe in satyagraha and non-violence.

(c) Many times, Indians took to violence and path of hatred against which Gandhiji spoke all his life. 

Ans:-(c) Many times, Indians took to violence and path of hatred against which Gandhiji spoke all his life.

5. Who are the people unable to share at present in the freedom that has come to India?

(a) Indians living abroad 

(b) Indians left in Pakistan

(c) Indians who are too old and handicapped to come to India.

Ans:-(a) Indians living abroad

6. Which of the following statements is not scientifically true? 

(a) Nehru’s thoughts are with the millions of unknown people who fought and sacrificed their lives for India’s freedom.

(b) India will awake to life and freedom, at the stroke of midnight hour when the world sleeps.

(c) Freedom and power bring responsibility and sovereignty rests upon this assembly.

Ans:-(a) Nehru’s thoughts are with the millions of unknown people who fought and sacrificed their lives for India’s freedom.

Additional Questions:

1. Name the two Acts which clearly supported the British Policy of repression after 1857 A.D.

Ans:- The two Acts which clearly supported the British Policy of repression after 1857 were

a) Vernacular Press Act 1878

b) Arms Act of 1879.

2. What were the aims of the Home Rule Movement?

Ans:-The main aim of the Home Rule movement was to attain self government. It was started by Mrs. Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak

3. What was the Rowlatt Act? When was it passed?

Ans:- It was an act passed by the British government, according to which the Magistrate was givens the power to imprison any Indian citizen without any trial. It was passed in 1919.

4. What was the immediate effect of the massacre at the Jalliawala Bagh?

Ans:- The immediate effect of the massacre at the Jalliawala Bagh was that military rule was ordered and a reign of terror was started in Punjab. Thousands of people were killed and thousand were wounded and people came forward with more enthusiasm to fight against the British.

5. Mention two of Gandhiji’s greatest achievements.

Ans:- The two greatest achievements of Gandhiji were the following:

a) Campaign against untouchablility.

b) Introduction of charkha and spinning wheel to promote cottage industries 

6. Which two movements among the Hindus and the Muslims resulted in the growth of communalism in India? 

Ans:-(a) The Muslims leaders demanded for separate electorate even in the local bodies

(b) Hindus also started with reviving their religious spirit by practicing Ganapati Puja, observing Shivaji Divas etc.

7. Which factors led to the rise of extremism in India? 

Ans:-The following factors are responsible to the rise of extremism in India.

(a) Partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon. 

(b) The British govemment did not accept the moderate demands of the Congress

(c) The moderates failed to achieve their goal through peaceful means

(d) Lord Curzon imposed an extremely unpopular measure which increased Indian hostility to the British rule.

(e) Extremism in India was led by prominent leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal who praised India’s past to instil self-confidence and national pride in Indian people.

8. What were the main events of the National Movement in India in the 20th century?

Ans:- The main events of the National Movement in India in the 20th century are the following-

(a) Rise of Extremism

(b) Boycott and Swadeshi movement 

(c) Revolutionary movements

(d) Formation of Muslim League

(e) Khilafat movement

(f) Non-Cooperation movement

(g) Civil disobedience movement 

(h) The Round Table Conference

(i) The Quit India movement

9. In what ways was the British Rule detrimental to the interests of almost all sections of people in India?

Ans:- The British Rule in India was detrimental to the interests of almost all sections of people in India due to the following reason:

a) The British exploited the Indian resources so much, that India became the supplier of resources to the British.

b) Indians were deprived of their basic rights.

c) The Zamindar and the Land Lords exploited the poor farmers in India.

d) Indian traders could not improve their business due to competition with the British traders.

e) The educated Indians were deprived of higher posts.

f) Indians were over taxed by the British.

g) Indians Soldiers were exploited, humiliated and were not given any promotion or higher posts.

h) Due to the annexation policy of the British, many Indians rulers lost their state and power.

10. How did the policy of non-violence adopted by Gandhiji help in achieving Indian Independence? 

Ans:-Gandhiji realized that the Indians were no match for the British in physical force. So he evolved his new method of Non-violence and non-cooperation.

It served to bring millions of Indians into the movement for Swaraj or Independence. He insisted on truth and non-violence which encouraged the people to come forward. Finally the British had to accept Gandhiji’s ideology and give Purna Swaraj or Independence to India.

11. Define Nationalism

Ans:- Nationalism can be defined as feeling and concern of One’s own Nation.

12. When did the Indian National Congress form? And by whom? 

Ans. Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 by Mr. Allan Octavian Hume 

13. Name some of the earlier political association formed in India.

Ans. The major political association formed in Indian were: 

a) British India Association in 1851. 

b) Madras Native Association in 1852 

c) The Bombay Association 1852. 

d) Indian Association in Bengal in 1876.

e) Bombay Residency Association in 1885.

14. Name the most important political Association formed in India and by whom?

Ans:- The most important political Association formed in India was Indian association in Bengal in 1876 by Surendranth Banerjee. 

15. What was the demand of the moderates at the initial stage?

Ans:-At the initial stage the Moderates wanted to have representation in the government and not independence.

16. Name the Extremist leader.

Ans:-The Extremist leaders were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai

17. Write two differences between the methods of the Moderates and the Extremists.

Ans:-(a) The moderates had full faith in the good intentions of the British Government the Extremists had no faith in them.

(b) Moderates used constitutional means, the extremists wanted to achieve their aims by force of their own strength.

18. Which movement gave a stimulus to the growth of indigenous industries and crafts in India?

Ans: The boycott and Swadeshi Movement. 

19. What is Abhinawa Bharata?

Ans:- Abhinawa Bharata is a secret society of revolutionaries founded by V.D. Savarkar

20. What is Ghadar party?

Ans:- It is a revolutionary group formed outside India to help the Indian revolutionaries to fight against the British.

21. What does Satyagraha mean? 

Ans:-Satyagraha means insistence on truth.

22. What was the greatest contribution of Gandhiji in the field of cottage industry in India?

Ans:- Introduction of charkha and spinning wheel was his greatest contribution to the field of cottage industry.

23. Who started Khilafat movement?

Ans:- It was started by Ali brothers called Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali.

24. What is the importance of the congress session at Lahore? 

Ans:- At Lahore Session the congress passed a resolution declaring ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or complete independence as its goal.

25. What is Gandhi-Irwin pact?

Ans:- It is an agreement made between Gandhi and then Viceroy Lord Irwin. Under this agreement the govt promised to release all political prisoners and withdraw all pending cases against political workers.

Multiple Choice Questions:

26. “It strikes at the prestige at the government. We want to turn away the people’s face away from the government house rto the hutus of people”. Who said this statement?

(a) Gandhiji

(b) Lala lajpat Rai

(c) Jawaharlal Nehru 

(d) Bipin Chandra pal

Ans:- (b) Lala lajpat Rai

27. Bande Mataram was composed by

(a) Bankim Chandra

(b) Rabindranath Tagore

(c) Gandhiji

(d) None of the above.

Ans:-(a) Bankim Chandra

28. The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy took place in the year

(a) April 13 1919

(b) April 10 1919

(c) April 15 1919

(d) April 14 1919

Ans:-(a) April 13 1919

29. In 1930, the government had decided to hold First Round Table Conference in

(a) Russia

(b) Britain

(c) London

(d) India

Ans:-(c) London

30. Quit India resolution who passed on

(a) 8th August 1942

(b) 15th August 1945

(c) 10th August 1947

(d) 9th August 1948

Ans. (a) 8th August 1942

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