NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-2| The Russian Revolution

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NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-2| The Russian Revolution

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EXERCISE

I. Choose the correct answer.

1. Which leader introduced the collectivisation programme?

(a) VI. Lenin

(b) Leon Trotsky

(c) Stalin

(d) None of these

Ans:-(c) Stalin

2. What was the duration of the first five year plan introduced in USSR?

(a) 1933-1938

(b) 1927-1932

(c) 1920-1925 

(d) 1925-1930

Ans:-(b) 1927-1932

3. Lenin became the leader of the Bolshevik Party in:

(a) 1900

(b) 1903

(c) 1907

(d) 1908

Ans:-(b) 1903

4. Serfdom had been abolished in the year in Russia.

(a) 1860 

(b) 1861

(c) 1862

(d) 1864

Ans:-(b) 1861

5. Who was the head of the first Provisional Government set up in Russia in March 1917?

(a) Lenin

(b) Kerensky

(c) Leon Trotsky

(d) Czar Nicholas II

Ans: (a) Lenin

6. Which of the following leaders started the Five Year Plans in Russia?

(a) Lenin 

(b) Stalin 

(c) Trotsky 

(d) Gorbachov

Ans:-(b) Stalin

7. The Berlin Wall collapsed in which year?

(a) 1989

(b) 1991

(c) 1992

(d) 1993

Ans:-(a) 1989

8. When was the USSR disbanded?

(a) 1990

(b) 1991

(c) 1993

(d) 1995

Ans:-(b) 1991

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. When did the Russian Revolution take place? 

Ans:- The Russian Revolution took place in 1917.

2. Why did the Bolsheviks consider the Russian Revolution as only the “first stage” of the revolution?

Ans:- The Bolshevik considered the Russian Revolution as only the “first stage” of the revolution because they only favoured for revolution and spread of Communism.

3. What made the Czar the “Autocrat of All the Russians?” 

Ans:- The backing or support given by the nobles and the church made the Czar the “Autocrat of all the Russians”.

4. When was Russian Social Democratic Labour Party formed?

Ans:- The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was formed in 1898.

5. What was a Soviet?

Ans:- It was a council of representatives of peasants or workers formed after the revolution of 1917.

6. Which three important demands were part of Lenin’s ‘April Theses’? 

Ans:- Peace, Land to the tillers, control of industry by workers and equal status for the non-Russian Nationalities were the three important demands which were part of Lenin’s ‘April These’.

7. Who took command after the fall of Kerensky’s government and what was the new government called? 

Ans:-Lenin took command after the fall of Kerensky’s government and the new government was called council of People’s

commissars. 

8. How were the common people affected when Russia entered the First World War? [HOTS]

Ans:- When Russia entered the First World War hoping to get Constantinople, it proved fatal and further increased the misery of the people, killing lakhs of people and lakhs were wounded.

9. What did the Bolsheviks promise the people?

Ans:- The Bolsheviks Promised the People Peace, Bread and Land. 

10. What led to the collapse of the Provisional Government?

Ans:- The collapse of the USSR has been a serious blow to the communist ideology. Critics even go to the extent of calling it the greatest hoax of the twentieth century. But that would be an unfair judgement.

The USSR gave the model of centralized economic planning which is still relevant in case of developing economies.

Communism came as a warning to exploitative capitalist societies. Capitalist countries all over the world took measures to ensure that workers got fair wages that enables them to live with dignity. Right to property was balance with social security measures on the part of the state. Many countries in the West that follow a capitalist system provide to their workers facilities that would be the envy of communist countries.

III. Short Answer Type Questions

1. Explain the difference between

(a) The Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks

(b) February 1917 and October 1917 revolutions.

Ans:-

(a) The Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks: The Bolsheviks favoured for a revolution in order to overthrow Czarist regime- Whereas, the Mensheviks believed in the party modeled on the lines of the parties that existed in countries like France, England etc.

(b) February 1917 and October 1917 revolutions: The February 1917 revolution established Menshevik government abolishing Czarist regime. On the other hand, in the October revolution Bolshevik government was established and the land was distributed to the farmers.

2. Discuss the role of the Czar in the Peasant Revolt of 1905.

Ans:- The revolt of 1905 was a failure as the Czar turned a deaf ear to the demands of the Russians. The Russians demands were met with a volley of shots and hundreds of unarmed workmen were slain in cold blood. However, this event turned out to be the dress rehearsal for the final onslaught on the Czar regime.

3. Discuss briefly the Collectivisation Programme.

Ans:-The period of the early Planned Economy was linked to the disasters of the collectivization of agriculture. By 1927-1928, the towns in Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. The government fixed prices at which grain must be sold, but the peasants refused to sell their grains to government buyers at these prices.

Stalin, who headed the party after the death of Lenin, introduced firm emergency measures. He believed that rich peasants and traders in the countryside were holding stocks in the hope of higher prices. Speculation had to be stopped and supplies confiscated.

4. Discuss the effects of the First World War on Russia.

Ans:- The First World War on the ‘eastern front’ differed from that on the “western front’. In the west, armies fought from trenches stretched along eastern France. In the east, armies moved a good deal and fought battles leaving large casualties. Defeats were shocking and demoralising. Russia’s armies lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were over 7 million casualties by 1917. As they retreated, the Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live off the land. The destruction of crops and buildings led to over 3 million refugees in Russia. The situation discredited the government and the Czar. Soldiers did not wish to fight such a war.

The war also had a severe impact on industry. Russia’s own industries were few in number and the country was cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic Sea. Industrial equipments disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than elsewhere in Europe. By 1916, railway lines began to break down. Able-bodied men were called up to the war. As a result, there were labour shortage and small workshops producing essentials were shut down. Large supplies of grain were sent to ‘feed army. For the people in the cities, bread, and flour became scarce.

5. Discuss any two features of New Economic Policy (NEP).

Ans:- Lenin’s NEP was the adoption of a mixed economy. The Soviet Government controlled major industries, trade and banking, while the individuals were allowed to sell their foodgrains in the open market. They were also given the permits to open stores and small factories. A stable currency was introduced.

The aim of NEP was to encourage economic contribution of workers, peasants in urban and rural areas to improve the country’s economy and to allow partial capitalism while keeping the main sources of economy in the hands of the government.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions

1. Discuss the causes that led to the Revolution of 1917.

Ans:-Some of the important causes that led to the revolution of 1917 are discussed below:-

(a) The autocratic rule of the Czar:- The Russian rulers (Czars) were autocratic and they enjoyed unlimited powers. They were supported by the nobles and the Church. The nobles enjoyed all the privileges and power and held all key Position in administration. This backing by the church and the nobles made the Czar the “Autocrat of all the Russian”

(b) Social condition of the people:- The vast majority of the population were serfs who lived in starvation. Their lives were very miserable. They didn’t have land, freedom and privileges. The peasants worked hard in the fields of nobles but were paid very low wages which made them poorer and poorer day-by- day. The removal of serfdom also failed to improve the condition of the poor.

(c) Poor Condition of the Factory workers:– The workers in the factories led very miserable life. Most of the factories were owned by foreigners. The Russian owned factories paid very little wages to the workers as they wanted to cut costs to be able to compete with the foreigners.

2. Comment on the role of Vladimir Lenin in the Revolution and his contribution to the economic policy.

Ans:- Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party. He established a Soviet Republic and made peace with Germany by signing the treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. He also tried to build up a new Socialist order in Russia.

Lenin followed a new economic policy, which consists of mixed economic. Accordingly the Soviet Government Controlled major industries, trade and banking, while the individuals were allowed to sell their food grains in the open market. They were also given permits to open stores and small factories. A stable currency was introduced and trade treaties were concluded with foreign countries.

3. Why did the Czarist autocracy collapse in 1917? [HOTS] 

Ans:- In the winter of 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd, were grim. The layout of the city seemed to emphasize the divisions among its people. The workers’ quarters and factories were looted on the right bank of the River Neva. On the left bank were the fashionable areas, the Winter Palace, and official buildings, including the palace where the Duma met. In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the worker’s quarters. The winter was very cold- there had been exceptional frost and heavy snow. Parliamentarians wishing to preserve elected government were opposed to the Czar’s desire to dissolve the Duma

On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory on the right bank. The next day, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories, women led the way to strikes. This came to be called the International Women’s Day.

On Sunday, 25 February, the government suspended the Duma. Politicians spoke out against the measure. Demonstrators returned in force to the streets of the left bank on the 26th. On the 27, the Police Headquarters were ransacked. The streets thronged with people raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy.

The very next day, a delegation went to see the Czar. Military commanders advised him to abdicate. He followed their advice and abdicated on 2nd March. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country. Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage. Petrograd had led the February Revolution that brought down the monarchy in February 1917.

4. What were the immediate consequences of the Russian Revolution?

Ans:- Following were the immediate consequences of the Russian Revolution: 

(a) The cruel and autocratic rule of the Czar came to an end.

(b) The first Socialist Society came into being.

(c) The land and property of the church and the nobles was seized and distributed to the farmers

(d) Russia was renamed as USSR. 

(e) People were given rights.

5. Describe the main features of the Revolution of 1905.

Ans:-Strikes took place all over the country and universities closed down. Students, lawyers, doctors, engineers and other middle-class wokers established their unions and demanded civil liberties and a Constituent Assembly.

The Czar allowed the creation of an elected parliament or Duma. The Czar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days and the re- elected second Duma within 90 days. He refused any questioning of his authority of any reduction in his autocratic power. He packed the third Duma with conservative politicans and kept out liberals and revolutionaries. All trade unions, committees and workers’ associations were declared illegal.

The army and navy were also involved in protects against the killing of innocent workers and their family members. The peasants also formed the Soviets. These organisations later became the instruments of political power in Russia.

6. Discuss the causes and the nature of the October Revolution. 

Ans:- Alexander Kerensky was a moderate among the socialists.

He tied to establish a liberal democratic form of government. However, he could not implement the main demands of the revolutionaries which were peace, land to the tillers, control of industry by workers and equal status of the non-Russian nationalities.

As the conflict between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks grew, Lenin feared the Provisional Government would set up a dictatorship. In September, he began discussions for an uprising against the government. Bloshevik supporters in the army Soviets and factors were brought together.

On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik party to agree to a socialist seizure of power A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet uner Leon Totsky to oganise the seizure.

The upising began on 25 October Sensing trouble on 25 October Sensing trouble, Prime Minister Kerensky had left the city to summon troops. At dawn, military men loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers. Pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace.

On 7 November 1917, an All-Russia Congress of Soviets assumed full political power. The date as per the old Russian calendar was October 25 and hence the name October Revolution.

7. Discuss the legacy of the Russian Revolution.

Ans:- The collapse of the USSR has been a serious blow to the Communist ideology. Critics even go the extent of calling it the greatest hoax of the twentieth century. But that would be an unfair judgement.

The USSR gave the model of centralized economic planning which is still relevant in case of developing economies.

Communism came as a warning to exploitative capitalist societies. Capitalist countries all over the world took measures to ensure that workers got fair wages that enables them to live with dignity. Right to property was balanced with social security measures on the part of the state. Many countries in the West that follow a capitalist system provide to their workers facilities that would be the envy of Communist countries.

The possibility of a workers’ state fired the imagination of people across the world. In many countries, including India and Great Britain communist parties were formed. The Bolsheviks encouraged colonial people to throw off the yokes of slavery.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT

Read the following short passage and answer the questions given. Economic and Social Changes (Responsible for Discontent in USSR)

An elementary theory of property, believed by many peasants, was that land should belong to those who work on it. At the same time, peasant life and culture were changing constantly. Change was facilitated by the physical movement of growing numbers of peasant villagers who migrated to and from industrial and urban environments, and also by the introduction of city culture into the village through material goods, the press, and the word of mouth.

Workers also had good reasons for discontent: overcrowded housing with often deplorable sanitary conditions, long hours at work. On the eve of the war a 10-hour workday, six days a week was the average and many were working 11-12 hours a day, constant risk of injury and death from very poor safety and sanitary conditions, harsh discipline not only rules and fines, but foreman’s fists and inadequate wages made worse by 1914) by steep war-time increases in the cost of living. At the same time, urban industrial life was full of benefits, though these could be just as dangerous as the hardships from the point of view of social and political stability. There were many encouragements to expect more from life. Acquiring new skills gave many workers a sense of self-respect and confidence, heightening expectations and desires. Living in cities, workers encountered material goods such as they had never seen while in the village. Most important, living in cities, they were exposed to new ideas about the social and political order.

Tick the right option.

1. The elementary theory of property, believed by many peasants, was:

(a) The landlords should share their profits with the peasants who work on it.

(b) The land should belong only to those who work on it.

(c) The land should belong to the ruler and profits shared by peasants and the ruler. 

Ans:-(b) The land should belong only to those who work on it.

2. “Physical movement of growing of peasant villagers” means.

(a) More and more peasant villagers were working on the land. 

(b) Peasant villagers now worked with many landlords. 

(c) More and more peasant villagers were migrating to cities and other towns.

Ans:-(c) More and more peasant villagers were migrating to cities and other towns.

3. Peasant life and culture was affected by: 

(a) Introduction to urban culture through material goods, and press.

(b) People returning from cities and talking about urban life.

(c) Both the above and the increase in migration both to and from cities.

Ans:-(c) Both the above and the increase in migration both to and from cities.

4. Workers were discontented because of:

(a) Overcrowded housing and deplorable sanitary conditions.

(b) Long hours of work, inadequate wages and constant risk of injury and death.

(c) All the above.

Ans:-(b) Long hours of work, inadequate wages and constant risk of injury and death.

5. The words deplorable and inadequate can be replaced by:

(a) Shameful and insufficient 

(b) Pleasant and efficient. 

(c) Disgraceful and ordinary.

Ans:-(a) Shameful and insufficient. 

6. Urban industrial life gave the peasants.

(a) A taste of luxury, self-respect and confidence. 

(b) A life of hardships and fear of political changes.

(c) A fear of risks involved in work.

Ans:-(a) A taste of luxury, self-respect and confidence.

7. The most important benefit for the workers living in cities was

(a) Heightening expectations and desires.

(b) Acquiring material goods such as they had never possessed in villages. 

(c) Exposure to new ideas about social and political order.

Ans:-(c) Exposure to new ideas about social and political order.

Additional Questions:

1. How did Czar Nicholas -II, in his October Manifesto,respond to the terms demanded by the people?

Ans:- The Czar Nicholas -II responded the demand with a volley of shots and hundreds of unarmed workmen were slain in cold blood.

2. Name the first country in the world to have a communist government?

Ans:- Russia

3. Name the country which was once a land-locked with no access to the sea.

Ans:-Russia.

4. Name the first ‘Workers Organisation’ was formed in Russia,

Ans:-The first ‘Workers Organisation’ was formed in Russia, called the Emancipation of labour group, in 1883.

5. Who was Rasputin?

Ans:- Rasputin was the most influential person over the functioning of the government of Russia. He was immoral but possessed a curious magnetism.

6. Why did the Soviet Union Collapse in 1991? 

Ans:- The Soviet Union Collapsed in 1991 due to the following reasons:-

(a) The USSR tried to complete with the USA and expand its political influence. As a result the arms race with the USA led to its decline in economic growth.

(b) There was shortage of goods of everyday use. 

(c) Resources were diverted away from the consumer sector leading to great dissatisfaction among the common people.

(d) Mikhail Gorbachev started far reaching reform programme along with huge reduction in military expenditure.

7. What is NEP?

Ans:- It is a New Economic Policy started by Lenin. 

8. Name the two major works of Karl Marx:

Ans:- Two major works of Karl Marx are Communist Manifesto and Das Capital.

9. Who was the leader of the Bolshevik Party?

Ans:-Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party.

10. Why did the Kerensky Government fail?

Ans:- Kerensky Government failed because he could not meet the demands of the people and thereby Kerensky lost the Support of the people.

11. When did the civil war end in Russia? 

Ans:- The civil war ended in 1920.

12. What was the most important result of the Russian Revolution?

Ans:- The most important result of the Russian Revolution was the destruction of the power of the church, the aristocracy and the autocracy of the Czarist regime.

13. When did Russian become the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)?

Ans:- Russian became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic in 1922. 

14. When did the First Five Years Plan launch in Russia?

Ans:- In 1928.

15. When did Lenin come to power?

Ans:- Lenin came to power in November 7, 1917.

16. What is ‘Bloody Sunday”?

Ans:-On January 9, 1905, the Russian Peasantry marched towards St. Petersburg to Summit their petition, were shot, down hundreds of people were slain in cold blood. This incident is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’.

Multiple Choice Questions:

1.Russian Revolution took place in. 

(a) 1914 

(b) 1915

(c) 1910

(d) 1917

Ans:-(d) 1917

2. Karl Marx was ____

(a) Great scholar

(b) Socialist thinker

(c) Writer

(d) All the above

Ans:-(d) All the above

3.The New Economic Policy (NEP) was started by______

(a) Kerensky

(b) Lenin

(c) Karl Marx

(d) Trotsky

Ans:-(b) Lenin

4. The Russian Parliament is called______

(a) Duma

(b) Senate

(c) Potemkim

(d) Capital city

Ans:-(a) Duma

5. The First Five year plan in Russia made a remarkable progress in

(a) Production in consumer goods

(b) Manufacture of Ornaments

(c) Production of heavy machinery and mining

(d) Agriculture

Ans:-(c) Production of heavy machinery and mining

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