NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-1| French Revolution

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NBSE Class-9| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-1| French Revolution

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EXERCISE

I. Choose the correct answer.

1. Who comprised the First Estate and the Second Estate in France?

(a) Clergy and nobles 

(b) Peasants and artisans

(c) Merchants and traders 

(d) Lawyers and philosophers

Ans:-(a) Clergy and nobles.

2. Who was the king of France on eve of the Revolution? 

(a) Louis XIV

(b) Louis XV

(c) Louis XVI

(d) None of these

Ans:-(a) Louis XIV 

3. The law that gave a final blow to the authority of the clergy was called :

(a) Civil Constitution of the Clergy

(b) Declaration of the Rights of Man

(c) The New Constitution of 1791

(d) Tennis Court Oath

Ans:-(c) The New Constitution of 1791

4. Themajority of the French population belonged to the Estate.

(a) First 

(b) Second 

(c) Third

(d) None of these

Ans:-(c) Third

5. Which French philosopher propagated the theory of separation of powers into three branches of government- the Legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary?

(a) Voltaire

(b) Montesquieu

(c) J.J. Rousseau 

(d) None of these

Ans:- (b) Montesquieu

6. Which French philosopher wrote the famous book Social Contract?

(a) Voltaire

(b) Montesquieu

(c) J.J. Rousseau

(d) None of these

Ans:- (c) J.J. Rousseau

7. Which emperor of France was publicly guillotined in January 1793?

(a) Louis XIV 

(b) Louis XV

(c) Louis XVI

(d) Louis XVII

Ans:- (c) Louis XVI

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions:

1. When did the French Revolution begin?

Ans:- The French Revolution began in 1789.

2. Which dynasty ruled France at the time of the Revolution and what kind of monarchy was?

Ans:- The Bourbon dynasty an absolute monarchy ruled France at the time of the revolution.

3. Who were the people who comprised the First, Second and Third Estates?

Ans:- The people who comprised the First, Second and Third Estates were The Clergy, The Nobles and The Common People..

4. Name three famous writers and philosophers who influenced the French Revolution with their ideas.

Ans:- Voltaire, Montesquieu, Jean Jacques Rousseau are the three famous writers and philosophers who influenced the French Revolution.

5. On what date is Bastille Day celebrated?

Ans:- Bastille Day is celebrated on 14thJuly.

6. Which law turned the clergy into paid servants of the Church?

Ans:-The law called “civil constitution of the clergy turned the clergy” into paid servants of the church.

7. Who were able to control the Sans Culottes in the end ?

Ans:- Directory of Five in 1795 controlled the Sans- Culottes.

8. Into how many branches did Montesquieu suggest the separation of the powers of the Government? 

Ans:-Montesquieu suggested the separation of the powers of the government into three branches, Such as the legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary.

III. Short Answer Type Questions.

1. Describe the role of the Bourbon kings in the French Revolution.

Ans:- France was ruled by Bourbon dynasty since 1589 and the kings were absolute monarchs. The king believed in the Divine Right Theory. They thought that they were only responsible to god for the way they ruled and not to the people. They hardly consulted with the parliament. Louis XVI taxed the people heavily and the common people suffered a lot. The king nobles and the clergy enjoyed luxurious life at the sweat of the poor people. Therefore, the common people turned against the monarchy.

2. Explain the role of the middle class in the French Revolution.

Ans:-Peasants and workers had often taken part in revolts against taxes and food scarcity but they lacked means, programmes and the vision to carry out a full-scale revolution. The 18 century saw the emergence of the middle class who had earned wealth through inland and overseas trade and manufacture of goods. Apart from merchants and manufacturers, the Third Estate included professions such as lawyers, teachers, authors, and administrative officials. The middle class believed that no group in society should be privileged by birth; rather one’s social position must depend on merit. No doubt, the Revolution was spearheaded by the middle class.

3. In what way did the French Revolution mean different aims to different people?

Ans:- French Revolution had different aims for different people as follows-

  1. The Peasants wanted an end to feudalism and the cruel taxes.
  2. The liberals wanted a new constitutional which gave equality and freedom to all.
  3. The extremists wanted a republic in France and an end to the monarchy.

4. What was the importance of the Declaration of the Rights of Man? [HOTS]

Ans:- The Declaration of the Rights of Man was of great importance as it gave some fundamental principles to the people. Some of the principles of the Declaration of the rights of man are as follows-

  1. Man are born equal and remain free and equal in rights. 
  2. The rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
  3. Liberty is being able to do whatever does not harm others. 
  4. The law should express the will of the people.
  5. All citizens have a right to take part personally or through their representatives, in the making of laws.

5. Describe the Reign of Terror and role played by Robespierre in it.

Ans:- The term ‘Reign of Terror’ refers to a situation in which thousands of people were executed including the Queen Marie Antoinette, in France. During the Period between June 1793 to July 1794, France could witness the execution of large number lives which includes nobles, clergymen and innocent people. During the Reign of Terror thousands of people were charged with treason or merely insufficient patriotism and were sent to the ‘National Rozor’ as the guillotine was called: Maxmillien Robespierre played an important role in the Reign of Terror. He was the leader of the Committee of public safety.

IV. Long Answer Type Questions.

1. Discuss the political, economic and social causes of the French Revolution.

Ans:- The political, economic and social causes of the French Revolution are as follows:

Political Causes: The kings of France were autocratic and the political system was highly centralized. The French kings believed in the Divine Right Theory and they thought that they were only responsible to God for the way they ruled and not to the people. The ordinary people had no right or any participation in the government. Even the parliament had no power as such. In such situation, the people had only one choice that is to change the complete political scenario.

Economic Causes: The French system of taxation was both unjust and unfair and put a heavy burden on the common people, the only class who paid taxes. The common people were also had to pay taxes to the church. A tax on salt was also levied much to the distress of the common people. The king led a life of luxury and their administration was weak and inefficient. All the more they indulged in wars with other countries for their own glory

Social Causes: French Society was divided into three Estates, namely the First Estate, the Second Estate and the Third Estate. The clergy and the nobles who were belonged to the First and second Estates respectively, enjoyed a luxurious life and the common people suffered a lot. The common people were burdened with taxes while the clergy and nobles were to exempted from paying taxes. The poor farmers had to suffer at the hands at the nobles who destroyed their fields while hunting So there was a total resentment from the part of the common people towards the government which blazed the fire for revolution.

2. The French philosophers of the 18th century greatly influenced the people and it led to the French Revolution. Comment on this statement. [HOTS]

Ans:-The great philosophers like Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau criticized the wrong policies of the church and the government through their writings and paved the way for the revolution. They also emphasized freedom and equality to everyone. Voltaire through his plays and writing made fun of the nobles and the way they behaved and governed and was against absolute monarchy.

Montesquieu was in favour of separating the power into three branches of government the Legislative, the Executive and The Judiciary. According to Rousseau, true sovereignty means not simply the will of those in power but rather the general will. The sovereign must secure freedom and equality of citizen. Napoleon declared that if Rousseau had never lived, there would have been no Revolution in France. Hence, it is clear that the French Philosophers of the 18th century greatly influenced the people and it led to the French Revolution.

3. Explain the importance of the following events on the course of the French Revolution:

(a) Storming of the Bastille 

(b) March on Versailles by the women of Paris

(c) The passing of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Ans:-

(a) Storming of the Bastille: Storming of Bastille was the most important event for the outbreak of the Revolution in France The hungry, starving mob attacked the medieval fortress-the prison of Bastille on July 14, 1789. The Prison of Bastille, which was considered as a symbol of political prisoners. The revolution spread quickly throughout France. The peasants become important and took part in violent acts, burnt chateaux and palaces of their feudal lords and many aristocrats fled from the country

(b) March on the Versailles by the women of Paris : After the Storming of Bastille, the people and the revolutionaries in Paris founded a new city government called the commune. But the king tried to frightened the mob which worsened the situation. Therefore hungry women of Paris infuriated by the Price and the scarcity of bread, marched on the Versailles. The demonstrators killed the royal guards and the palace was ransacked: The king, the queen and their children were forced to leave Versailles and go with the mob in Paris where they lived rest of their live almost as prisoners.

(c) The passing of the civil constitution of the Clergy: The civil constitution of clergy was passed by the General Assembly in 1790. It gave a severe jolt to the French Catholic Church.

Accordingly, the National Assembly confiscated the immense wealth of the church. More over the clergy, the Bishops and others were paid a salary by the state like civil servants. The clerics were made to take an oath of allegiance to the government:

4. How far was the subsistence crisis responsible for the French Revolution? Examine.

Ans:- The French system of taxation was both unjust and unfair and put a heavy burden on the common people, the only class who paid taxes. The common people, in addition to the royal taxes, had to pay taxes to the church also. A tax on salt was also levied, much to the distress of the common people. The kings indulged in wars with other European countries for their own glory. This put a heavy burden on the common people.

The population of France rose form about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. This led to a rapid increase in the demand for foodgrains but the production of grains could not keep pace with the demand. So the price of foodgrains rose manifold. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops but their wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices. So the gap between the poor and the rich widened. Things became worse whenever a drought or hail reduced the harvest. This led to a subsistence crisis, which occurred often in France during the Old Regime.

5. “The French Revolution led to many “isms”. Explain.

Ans:- The French Revolution opened the eyes of the world to a profound social revolution. It marked the beginning for the first time in history of active and institutionalized mass participation in the government. The revolution led to many “isms” – nationalism, liberalism and socialism. These three have exerted the maximum influence on the course of world history.

(a) Nationalism: Nationalism led to many new nations emerging in Europe, Asia and Africa. A nation now no longer was the king’s territory or his subjects. Rather, it now comprised citizens “who inhabited a common territory, possessed a voice in their common government and were conscious of their common heritage and their common interests”.

(b) Liberalism: The main feature of this was emancipation of the individual from class, corporate or governmental restraint. It was the second great doctrine (a gift of the French Revolution) to impact the world. The Declaration of the Rights of Man asserted the liberty of the individuals in an arbitrary manner, was the message given. The Declaration stressed that all men are to be treated as equal before the law and that humanity implied fraternity among different peoples.

(c) Socialism: Liberalism emphasizes the individual and his or her rights; socialism, on the other hand, emphasizes the community and its collective welfare. This was also a result of the work of Sans Cullotes during the Revolution. It promoted a society designed to promote collective well being rather than individual profit. This was the main feature of the Russina Revolution which took place later.

6. Mention the legacy of the French Revolution. 

Ans:-The legacy left by the French Revolution has been given below:

(a) French Revolution had affected the social and political system of France,

(b) It also had a lasting effect on the people of Europe

(c) It inspired the German, Italians, and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes. 

(d) It spread the ideas of the liberty, equality and fraternity to the world.

(e) It also inspired the struggling nations of Asia and Africa who were groaning under the oppression of colonialism. 

(f) If opened the eyes of the world to a profound social revolution.

(h) Lastly, the French Revolution led to ideals of Nationalism,Liberalism and Socialism.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSIGNMENT

1. Read carefully the passage on the role of women in the French Revolution.

Historians since the late 20th century have debated how women participated in the French Revolution and what long term impact it had on French women. Women had no political rights in pre- Revolutionary France they were considered “passive-citizens” forced to rely on men to determine what was best for them. That changed dramatically in theory as there seemingly were great advances in feminism. Feminism emerged in Paris as part of a broad demand for social and political reform. The women demanded equality with men and then moved on to a demand for the end of male domination. Their chief vehicle for agitation was pamphlets and women’s clubs, but the clubs were abolished in October 1793 and their leaders were arrested. The movement was crushed. Devance explains the decision in terms of the emphasis on masculinity in a wartime situation, Marie Antoinette’s bad reputation for feminine interference in state affairs, and traditional male supremacy. A decade later the Napoleonic Code confirmed and perpetuated women’s second-class status.

When the Revolution opened, groups of women acted forcefully, making use of the volatile political climate. Women forced their way into the political sphere. They swore oaths of loyalty, “solemn declarations of patriotic allegiance, affirmations of the political responsibilities of citizenship.” De Corday D’Armont is a prime example of such a woman; engaged in the revolutionary political faction of the Girondists, she assassinated the Jacobin leader, Marat. Throughout the Revolution, other women such as Pauline Leon and her Society of Revolutionary Republican Women supported the radical Jacobins, staged demonstrations in the National Assembly and participated in the riots, often using armed forces.

On 20 June 1792 a number of armed women took part in a procession that “passed through the halls of the Legislative Assembly, into the Tuilleries Gardens, and then through the King’s residence.” Militant women also assumed a special role in the funeral of Marat, following his murder on 13 July 1793. As part of the funeral procession, they carried the bathtub in which Marat had been murdered (by a counter-revolutionary woman) as well as a shirt stained with Marat’s blood. On 20 May 1793, women were at the fore of a crowd that demanded “bread and the Constitution of 1793.” When their cries went unnoticed, the women went on a rampage, “sacking shops, seizing grain and kidnapping officials.”

Tick the right answer.

1. French women in pre-revolutionary France were:

(a) Very independent

(b) Considered second class citizens and forced to depend on men

(c) Had a bad reputation for interfering in men’s affairs. 

Ans:-(c) Had a bad reputation for interfering in men’s affairs.

2. During the revolution the “Revolutionary Republican women” demanded:

(a) Social and political reforms.

(b) Equality for men and end of male domination.

(c) Both the above.

Ans:-(b) Equality for men and end of male domination.

3. De Corday d’Armont, an active revolutionary, French woman, became famous for:

(a) The assassination of the Jacobin leader, Marat. 

(b) For leading women in demonstrations in the National Assembly.

(c) For supporting the Jacobins during the revolution.

Ans:- (a) The assassination of the Jacobin leader, Marat.

4. A decade in the passage can be replaced by:

(a) 100 years

(b) 25 years

(c) 10 years

Ans:- (c) 10 years

5. The chief vehicle used by women for agitation was:

(a) Assassinations

(b)Pamphlets and clubs

(e) Demonstrations and processions.

Ans:- (c) Demonstrations and processions. 

6. How did the women show their solidarity with the revolutionaries?

(a) Armed women passed through the halls of the Legislative Assembly and then through the king’s residence.

(b) Formed a part of the crowd that demanded bread and the constitution of 1793.

(c) Both the above and going on a rampage, “sacking shops, seizing grain and kidnapping officials.”

Ans:-(b) Formed a part of the crowd that demanded bread and the constitution of 1793.

7. ‘Feminism’ in the passage means.

(a) A belief that women can never equal men. 

(b) A belief that women who are feminist are not to be trusted and are violent. 

(c) A belief and aim that women should have the same right, power and opportunity as men.

Ans:- (c) A belief and aim that women should have the same right, power and opportunity as men. 

8. Under which law, passed later, the women’s status was confirmed as second class?

(a) Jacobin law

(b) Napoleonic Code

(c) Declaration of Rights of Man.

Ans:-(b) Napoleonic Code

Additional Questions:

1. What was the original aim of the People of France before the revolution?

Ans:- The original aim of the People of the France was to create a constitutional monarchy and reform the financial and political structure of the country.

2. Which principles or ideas supported the France Revolution?

Ans:- The principles of liberty. Equality and fraternity supported the French Revolution.

3. Name the different classes of the French Society?

Ans:- The different classes of the French Society were

(a) The First Estate (The clergy) 

(b) The Second Estate(The Nobles)

(c) The Third Estate (The Common People)

4. Who paid the taxes and to whom?

Ans:-The common people paid the taxes to the land-lords, the church and the state.

5. Which single event changed the nature of the revolution and turned it into a Reign of terror?

Ans:- The execution of Queen Marie Antoinne in October 1793.

6. Was the French System of taxation fair and just?

Ans:- No, the French System of taxation was not fair and just.

7. What was the French Parliament called?

Ans:- The French Parliament was called the Estates General.

8. What is meant by Absolute Monarchy?

Ans:- Absolute Monarchy means the Kings enjoyed the complete powers by themselves: They are the sole lawmaker and they can do whatever they like.

9. What did Voltaire defend through his writings?

Ans:- Voltaire defended freedom of speech and religious tolerance.

10. Name the philosopher who advocated the ‘Popular Sovereignty Theory’.

Ans:-Jean Jacques Rousseau.

11. What was Tennis Court Oath?

Ans:- When the King rejected the demands of the common people, they withdrew from the assembly and the representatives met in the royal tennis court at Versailles and took an oath on June 20, 1789. Accordingly they took a pledge that they would not return home or disband until a new constitution was drafted and written which would limit the powers of the King. This incident that took place during the first course of the revolution is called the Tennis Court Oath.

12. Which constitution changed the Absolute Monarchy into a Constitutional Monarchy in France?

Ans:-The New Constitution of 1791 (Civil Constitution of the clergy) changed the Absolute Monarchy in France.

13. Who was the leader of the ‘Committee of ‘Public Safety’?

Ans:- MaxiMillian Robespierre. 

14. Who started the Reign of Terror in France?

Ans:-MaxiMillian Robespierre started the reign of Terror in France

15. When did the French Revolution end?

Ans:- The French Revolution ended in 1799 with the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.

16. What is Nationalism?

Ans:- Nationalism refers to the feeling of one’s own nation with common territory, common heritage and common interests.

17. What is meant by Liberalism?

Ans:- It is meant by the emancipation of the individuals from class, corporate or governmental restraint. It also deals with the liberty of the individuals.

18. What is Socialism?

Ans:-It deals with the liberty of the community and its collective welfare:

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. The ideas to govern the world always came from ____________.

(a) Philosophers,

(b) Kings,

(c) Scientist

(d) Doctors

Ans:-(a) Philosophers

2. French Revolution took place between

(a) 1759-69

(b) 1769-79

(c) 1779-89

(d) 1789-99

Ans:- (d) 1789-99

3. Storming of the Bastille took place in

(a)14th July 1789

(b) 15th July 1789

(c) 14th July 1790

(d) 14th July 1799

Ans:-(a) 14th July 1789

4. Who propagated the theory of separating powers into three branches of government?

(a) Rousseau

(b) Montesquieu

(c) Voltaire

(d) Napoleon

Ans:-(b) Montesquieu

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