NBSE Class-9| Alternative English Grammar Reading

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In This chapter NBSE Class-9| Alternative English Grammar Reading. which is a part of the class 9 syllabus of Alternative English for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-9| Alternative English Grammar Reading

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Exercises

1. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

The fact that everybody enjoys a good mystery explains why magicians are such popular entertainers. We all know that a magician does not really depend on ‘magic’ to perform his tricks, but on his ability to act at great speed. However, this does not prevent us from enjoying watching a magician produce rabbits from a hat or swallow countless eggs. 

The greatest magician of all time is probably Harry Houdini, who died in 1926. His real name was Ehrich Weiss, but he adopted the name Houdini after reading a book which greatly influenced him. This had been written by a famous magician called Robert-Houdin. Houdini mastered the art of escaping. He could free himself from the tightest knots or the most complicated locks in seconds. Although no one really knows how he did this, there is no doubt that he had made a close study of every type of lock invented. He would carry a small needle-like tool strapped to his leg and he used this in place of a key. 

Houdini once asked the Chicago police to lock him in prison. They bound him in chains and locked him up, but he freed himself in an instant. The police accused him of having used a tool and locked him up again. This time, there were chains around his neck, waist, wrists, and legs-but again, he escaped in a few minutes. Houdini had probably hidden his ‘needle in a wax-like substance and dropped it on the floor in the passage. As he went past, he stepped on it so that it stuck to the sole of his foot. His most famous escape, however, was altogether astonishing. He was heavily chained up and enclosed in a wooden chest, the lid of which was nailed down. The chest was dropped into the sea in the New York harbour. In one minute, Houdini had swum to the surface. When the chest was brought up and opened, the chains were found inside.. 

1.According to the writer, what makes magicians popular even today? 

Ans:- According to the writer magicians are made popular by his ability to act at great speed to perform his tricks. 

2. How did Robert-Houdin influence Ehrich Weiss? 

Ans:- Ehrich Weiss was greatly influenced by a book written by Robert-Houdini’s book. 

3. ‘Houdini mastered the art of escaping.’ Explain. 

Ans:- Robert Houdini could free himself from the tightest knot or the most complicated locks on seconds. There is no doubt that he made a close study of every type of locks invented. He would carry a small needle-like tool strapped to his leg and used it in place of a key. 

4. Why was ‘his most famous escape’ regarded as an astonishing’ one? 

Ans:- ‘His most famous escape’ is regarded as an ‘astonishing’ one because he could escape from a wooden chest in which he was heavily chained up and, the lid of which was nailed down and the chest was dropped into the sea in the New York harbour. But in one minute, Houdini had swum to the surface and the chest had the chains in it when opened.

5. Find a word in the passage that means the same as 

a. assumed 

b. intricate 

Ans: (a) assumed: adopted 

(b) intricate: complicated 

6. Write if the statements are True (T) or False (F). 

a. People know magicians use trickery not magic. (T) 

b. Harry Houdini knew all about manufacturing locks. (T) 

c. Houdini used speed to his advantage. (T) 

d. A special key helped Houdini open locks of any kind. (F) 

e. Houdini’s most famous escape was from a prison. (F) 

2. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

Tourism has emerged as the world’s largest industry. Growing rapidly in the last two decades, today it accounts for six per cent of world output and employs some 100 million people around the globe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has developed immense revenue and development potential and stands today as a unique natural renewable resource industry. 

Tourism-the travel-based recreation-provides people with a change of place and a break from the monotony of daily life. It brings peoples of different nations together, allowing them to come into close contact with each other’s customs and other aspects of life. It reveals the scenic beauty and past heritage of a country to people belonging to other nations. The knowledge and experience gained in the process can lead to greater understanding and tolerance, and can even foster world peace.

The contribution of tourism can be nowhere seen more clearly than on the economic front. Tourism generates employment, and adds to the entrepreneurial wealth of a nation. Developing countries, in particular, can reap handsome benefits out of tourism which greatly boosts national income. While tourism’s advantages are many, its undesirable side-effects have raised fresh problems. 

Tourism can cause social, cultural or environmental disruption. Of greatest concern is its damage to the environment. In order to attract more tourists, sprawling resorts are built which take neither the local architectural styles nor the ecology into consideration. Natural systems come to be destroyed as a result of indiscriminate construction to provide water and waste disposal facilities and recreational arrangements to tourists. This disturbs the ecological balance. 

To promote safe tourism while ensuring that it remains a profitable industry, it is imperative to understand the factors that hamper the growth of tourism and check them effectively. The general instability of a nation is damaging to tourism prospects. Political disturbances, in particular, pose a serious problem. The growing violence in the international scene affects the flow of tourists. Whatever the problems, India must work hard to reap the benefits from this industry, for the country has everything to attract visitors from far and near. 

1. Why is tourism regarded as the world’s largest industry? 

Ans:- Tourism is regarded as the world’s largest industry as it accounts for six percent of world output and employs 100 million people around the globe.

2. List at least three advantages of ‘travel-based recreation’. 

Ans:- Three advantages of ‘travel-based recreation’ are 

(i) It provides people with a change of place and a break from the monotony of life 

(ii) It brings people of different nations together, allowing them to come into close contact with each other’s customs and other aspects of life 

(iii) The knowledge and experience gained in the process can lead to greater understanding and tolerance and can even foster world peace. 

3. How does tourism disturb the ecology? 

Ans:- In order to attract more tourists, sprawling resorts are built without taking the ecology into consideration. Natural systems come to be destroyed as a result of indiscriminate construction to provide water and waste disposal facilities and recreational arrangements to tourists. This disturbs the ecological balance. 

4. What factors can affect tourism prospects in a country? 

Ans:- The general instability of a nation especially political disturbances and the growing violence in the international The scene affects prospects in a country. 

5. Find a word in the passage that means the same as 

a. inheritance 

b. haphazard 

Ans: a. inheritance: heritage 

b. haphazard: indiscriminate

6. Match the sentence parts from column A to column B.

AB
a. The largest economy of tourism as the world’s largest industryi. the dullness of routine.
b. The monotony of daily life meansii. are too large for comfort
c. An entrepreneur is someone whoiii. are very promising
d. ‘Sprawling resorts’ indicates resorts thativ. is a recent phenomenon
e. According to writer, India’s tourism prospectsv. starts a new business for monetary benefits

Ans:

AB
a. The largest economy of tourism as the world’s largest industryiv. is a recent phenomenon
b. The monotony of daily life meansi. the dullness of routine.
c. An entrepreneur is someone whov. starts a new business for monetary benefits
d. ‘Sprawling resorts’ indicates resorts thatii. are too large for comfort
e. According to writer, India’s tourism prospectsiii. are very promising

7. Write if the statements are True (T) or False (F). 

a. Jobs in the tourism industry are hard to come by. (F) 

b. The writer feels travel and tourism broadens one’s mind. (T) 

c. The best contribution by tourism is to the environment. (F) 

d. The writer does not mind the construction boom that is associated with tourism. (F) 

e. Tourism can flourish in trouble-free countries. (T) 

3. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

April Fool’s day, sometimes called All Fool’s day, falls on the first of April every year. People play practical jokes on each other on this day. If you’ve been fooled on April Fool’s day, you may wonder how this tradition started. Well, you’re not, alone. No one knows for sure how April Fool’s day began,

but the most likely explanation has to do with the calendar. People used to celebrate New Year’s Day on April 1″. 

In the 1500s, the calendar changed and so did the date for the New Year. But some people resisted this and continued to celebrate New Year on April 1″. They were called the ‘April Fools’. People following the new calendar played tricks on the ‘April Fools.’ In France, ‘April Fools’ were referred to as ‘Poisson d’Avril’ which is French for “April Fish’. This was because people thought fish were easy to catch using bait on a hook. Children would tag a paper fish on a person’s back to mark them as ‘April Fools’. When the person discovers the tag, the prankster would yell. “Poisson d’Avril”! 

Some of the most successful pranks or practical jokes were by the media. For instance, a BBC television program ran a famous hoax in 1957, showing Italians harvesting spaghetti from trees. A large number of people contacted the BBC wanting to know how to cultivate spaghetti trees. 

Not everyone is convinced that this is actually how the tradition of April Fool’s day began. Many people attribute different stories to the tradition. Maybe it is just a day to celebrate the joker in all of us. 

1. In the 1500s, who were the people who were given the nick name ‘April Fools’? 

Ans: In the 1500sThe people who continued to celebrate New Year on April 1″ after the calendar changed were the people who were given the nick name ‘April Fools’.

2. In France, what did children do on April 1″? 

Ans:- In France, children tagged a paper fish on people’s back to mark them as April Fools. 

3. How did the BBC’s ‘Spaghetti documentary’, affect people? 

Ans:- A large number of people contacted the BBC wanting to know how to cultivate spaghetti trees after a BBC television programme showed Italians harvesting spaghetti from trees. 

4. What is the author’s purpose for writing this article? 

a. to let the readers know about the history of April Fool’s day 

b. to remind readers that April Fool’s day is coming up 

c. to persuade readers to celebrate April Fool’s day 

d. to teach readers how to celebrate April Fool’s day at home 

Ans:-(a) to let the readers know about the history of April Fool’s day 

5. Match the word to its meaning.

AB
a. calendar 
b. tradition 
c. bait 
d. resisted
i. item used to tempt or trap      
ii. a table for keeping track of days
iii. refused to change
iv. custom or practice 
AB
Ans:- a. calendar 
b. tradition 
c. bait 
d. resisted
ii. a table for keeping track of days 
iv. custom or practice 
i. items used to tempt or trap 
iii. refused to change

6. Complete the sentences. 

a. ‘Practical jokes’ means successful pranks. 

b. Two changes that happened in the 1500s are calendar was changed and April Fool’s day was started to be observed. 

c. “April fish’ refers to people who were marked as April fools by being tagged paper fish on their back. 

d. The word ‘prankster’ has positive connotations. (positive/ negative) 

e. ‘Successful pranks by the media’ indicates jokes that were able to fool all viewers. 

4. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

‘All animals are born free and have the same rights to life’. But do we honour their natural rights? Do we allow them a life free from suffering and exploitation? The fact of the matter is that they all experience pleasure, fear, pain, loneliness, love or loyalty much like we do too. It is our prejudice that makes us deny them the rights that we expect to have for ourselves. I have always asked others this if we have rights obtained from Nature, don’t animals have similar ‘rights”? 

I agree that all animals are not created equal. Within animal species, there are leaders of the pack, or forms of domination and submission that are common, natural, and perhaps necessary for their survival. 

This dominance hierarchy allows them several benefits. The higher the rank the animal holds within its family/group, the

more success it has in finding a superior mate, the more access it is given to food resources, etc. For example, in a wolf pack, the alpha male is the only male in the pack that reproduces with his female. In a pride of lions, the lionesses hunt, but the food is offered first to the male lion, as he gives them protection against other males in the area. Domination and submission among animals is essential to aid them in living their lives with as little conflict as possible. As the outsiders, we do not have the right to subjugate them and decide their future. 

In the words of natural rights activists, “Man, by his natural talent, rules the earth. Animals are under his will and domination. This does not mean that man is free under natural law to do anything that he pleases to animals. The whole idea of natural rights demands that man must show reason and understanding in his administration of the earth; that he owes to the animal kingdom a certain respect for their existence that allows them to fulfill their destiny, just like he expects his society to be so ordered that he has respect for his existence and the opportunity to fulfill his own destiny…” 

1.What is the basic point that is being argued in this passage? 

Ans:- The basic point that is being argued in this passage is the natural rights which all animals have on equal basis with humans. 

2. ‘Animals are not created equal.’ Elaborate. 

Ans:-Like humans, animal kingdom also has forms of domination and submission among the same animal species. There is rank and superiority even among animals which is natural and necessary for their survival.

3. Mention examples of animal species that follow a social structure among themselves. 

Ans:- (1) In a pack of wolves, the alpha male is the only male in the pack that reproduces with his female. 

(ii) In a pride of lions, the lionesses hunt, but the food is offered first to the male lion, as he gives protection against other males in the area. 

4. What do natural rights demand of man? 

Ans:- Natural rights demand that man must show reason and understanding in his administration of the earth; that he owes to the animal kingdom a certain respect for their existence that allows them to fulfill their destiny. 

5.Tick a word with the opposite meaning of ‘honour’. 

a. rot 

b. disgrace 

c. decay 

d. reverence 

Ans:- b. disgrace 

6. Tick a word that means the opposite of ‘fair treatment’. 

a. loneliness 

b. suffering 

c. exploitation 

d. submission 

Ans:- c. exploitation 

7. Write if the statements are True (T) or False (F). 

a. The writer supports the cause of animals. (T) 

b. Animals do not experience emotions like people do. (F) 

c. Some animals are not as strong as the others. (T) 

d. Lions need lionesses as much as the latter need lions. (T) 

e. Natural rights activists fight for domination over the natural world. (F)

8. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

The Gond tribe is one of the largest tribal communities of Central India, present in the states of Madhya Pradesh, castern Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, northern Andhra Pradesh and western Odisha. 

The Pardhans are Gond priests and storytellers whose traditional role was to preserve the traditions, rituals and history of the Gond kings through music and songs. Their importance died out with time and they were forced to take to manual work for a living. Gond tribal art is noted for its distinct patterns of circles, dots and dashes that fill traditional shapes. Gond art is visible in two forms-earth colours and black-white. The circle represents the world and the dot, the human being. The themes range from myths and folklore to images of daily life. Each artist brings something unique and individual to this creative style. 

Jangarh Singh Shyam was a seventeen-year-old Pardhan boy from a village in Madhya Pradesh. He loved music, but could not carryon his ancestral tradition due to poor support from the community. He would play his flute at night, as if to comfort his restless Pardhan soul. He then began painting to express himself. He used the walls of his home as his canvas. 

It was at this time in the early 1980s that Jagdish Swaminathan, a well-known modem painter and thinker, spotted the raw talent of the young tribal. Fascinated by the sheer simplicity and beauty of his art, he persuaded Jangarh to move to Bhopal and encouraged him to experiment with paints on paper and

canvas. For the first time, the Gond pantheon appeared in images. Jagdish soon held painting exhibitions where Jangarhs paintings were showcased and created a stir. 

Soon, Jangarh gained international recognition and his paintings were exhibited in Japan, UK and USA. He played an important role in the formation of the Bharat Bhawan, a multi arts complex and museum established in Bhopal in 1982 

1. Match the parts from column A to column B.

AB
a. Gond tribei. painter and thinker
b. Pardhansii. from Madhya Pradesh
c. Gond artiii. Central India
d. Jangarh Singh Shyamiv. Gond priests and storytellers
e. Jagdish Swaminathanv. distinct patterns of circles, dots and dashes

Ans:

AB
a. Gond tribeiii. Central India
b. Pardhansii. from Madhya Pradesh
c. Gond artv. distinct patterns of circles, dots and
d. Jangarh Singh Shyamiv. Gond priests and storytellers
e. Jagdish Swaminathani. painter and thinker

2. The Pardhans were forced to do manual work. What did it reflect of the times? 

Ans:- This shows the loss in the importance of the role that the Pardhans play in their society and the change in the living standard of the people. 

3. What distinguishes Gond art from other art forms?

Ans:-Gond art is noted for its distinct patterns of circles, dots and dashes that fill traditional shapes. It is found in two forms earth colours and black-white. 

4. What does the writer mean when he says Jangarh had ‘to comfort his restless Pardhan soul”? 

Ans:- By this the writer means to say that Jangarh who was a Pardhan by birth was deprived of his traditional role and rituals of being the priest and storyteller due to poor support of the community. His only way of expressing himself and be part of the old tradition was getting engaged in playing flute and painting on the walls of his house. 

5. ‘For the first time, the Gond pantheon appeared in images’. Explain. 

Ans:- With the help of Jagdish Swaminathan, Jangarh was able to exhibit his talent of their traditional art in painting which made appearance of the pantheon images a reality. 

6. Find a word in the passage that means the same as 

a. subjects 

b. to catch people’s attention 

Ans:- a. subjects                   :Themes

b. to catch people’s attention: fascinate : 

7. Fill in the blanks with the correct words. 

a. No other tribe is as large as the Gond tribe. 

b. Music and songs are the best way of preserving ancient traditions, rituals and history. 

c. In Gond art, circles and dots are symbols of the world and human beings.

d. ‘Ancestral tradition’ refers to the practices followed by one’s ancestors

e. An exhibition of Jangarh’s paintings in Japan, UK and USA, won him much acclaim. 

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

In 1997, nomadic reindeer herders in Siberia, called Dolgans, spotted the tusks of a woolly mammoth peeping out of the ice. The herders removed the ivory tusks for their high market value. A Dolgan named Simion Jarkov met Bernard Buigues, a well-known French explorer with a passionate interest in mammoths, and told him of the rare find. 

In 1998, the tribesman led Buigues to the almost perfectly preserved mammoth. The following year, Buigues organised an expedition with a team of international scientists to excavate the mammoth. They adopted several unusual tactics during the effort. Scientists melted a part of the ice with hairdryers and were able to touch and smell the mammoth’s flesh and fur. 

“My heart was pounding as the ice melted and we got closer and closer to the skin,” explains Dick Mol, a member of the team. “I have been working with mammoth remains for more than 25 years and I will never forget the sensation as I reached out and actually laid my fingers on the mammoth. It was overwhelming.” 

It took six weeks to dig around the creature and cut out a 20- tonne block of ice. The next challenge was to move the

mammoth in its case of ice to the laboratory. At the end of October, a helicopter arrived and carried the block over 320 kilometres to a special ice cave for study. The specimen was nicknamed the ‘Jarkov Mammoth”. It was only in October 2000 that the actual defrosting operations began in this place with another careful round of hairdryers to keep the hair and other soft tissues intact. 

“We wanted to collect as much data as possible from the ice block,” says Mol. “It will include plant remains, insects, the mammoth and its internal organs to enable us to reconstruct the mammoth and its environment accurately.” So far, bone marrow and plant samples have been removed and sent to various laboratories for analysis. 

“Raising the Mammoth’ by Discovery Channel captured the excavation and study of the Jarkov Mammoth and became its highest-rated programme and most-watched documentary ever. The next chapter of the 47 year-old male mammoth was unveiled in a new special, ‘The Mammoth Revealed’ in 2001. 

1. Why did the Dolgans remove the tusks of the mammoth? 

Ans:- The Dolgans removed the tusks of the mammoth because they were very valuable and could be sold at high price. 

2. How did the team of scientists go about the excavation of the mammoth? 

Ans:- Buigues organized an expedition with a team of international scientist to excavate the mammoth. They adopted several unusual tactics during the effort. Scientists melted a part of the ice with hairdryers and were able to touch and smell the mammoth’s flesh and fur

3. Why was Dick Mol overwhelmed by his experience? 

Ans:- Dick Mol was overwhelmed by his experience because in more than 25 years of working with mammoth remains it was the first time he was able to touch and feel a mammoth. 

4. Was it easy to transport the mammoth to a laboratory? How do you know? 

Ans:- It was not an easy task to transport the mammoth to a laboratory. The block of ice was buried was a massive block. Besides, it had to be moved by helicopter over 320 kilometers 

5. Find a word in the passage that means the same as 

a. discovery 

b. dig out 

Ans:- a. discovery : spot 

b. dig out : excavate 

6. Complete the sentences. 

a. ‘Nomadic’ means wandering

b. Finding a mammoth is ‘a rare find’ because it is an already extinct animal

c. The excavation efforts are called ‘unusual’ because it requires several tactics which are usually not adopted in other excavations. 

d. An ice cave’ was used for the study of the mammoth as defrosting the mammoth was to be done very carefully

e. The ‘data’ collected from the ice block included plant remains, insects, the mammoth and its internal organs.

7. Write if the statements are True (T) or False (F). 

a. Raising the Mammoth’ was a television documentary about mammoths. (F) 

b. People enjoyed learning about the Jarkov Mammoth. (T) 

c. The Mammoth Revealed’ was the second part of a programme on the Jarkov Mammoth. (T) 

d. Scientists discovered that the Jarkov Mammoth was over fifty years old. (F) 

e. The data obtained from the Jarkov Mammoth will greatly benefit the scientific community. (T) 

7.Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

It is said that in the seventeenth century, John Montagu, the fourth Earl of Sandwich, was probably responsible for making the sandwich one of the most popular food items of the world. He was so fond of gambling, that he asked for meat to be served between slices of bread, to avoid interrupting his game. People soon started ordering “the same as Sandwich’: and the finger food grew in popularity in the Western World, before finding its way to numerous other countries worldwide. 

How do you make a sandwich? Trim the brown crusts of the bread with a sharp knife. Thinly slice a few vegetables like cucumber, carrot, tomato and onion. Mince green chillies and coriander leaves. Prepare a little mint chutney and keep ready. Apply butter on one side of the slices of bread. Take one slice of buttered bread. Spread a little mint chutney on top of it. Arrange the sliced cucumber and carrot on the mint chutney. Now on this second layer, arrange onions and tomato slices with minced chillies and coriander leaves. Sprinkle salt and pepper with a squeeze of lime on the onions and tomato slices. Place the buttered slice on top of the vegetables. The side with butter should be face down. Dot with tomato ketchup. Serve immediately. 

The Wall Street Journal has described the sandwich Britain’s “biggest contribution to gastronomy”. However, research shows that the use of some kind of bread to scoop up or wrap other food, existed before the eighteenth century in several older cultures worldwide. Ancient Jews are believed to have wrapped meat and herbs between two slices of flat, unleavened bread during the festival of Passover, much like the modern sandwich. In the Middle Ages in Europe, ‘trenchers’ or coarse, stale bread, was used as plates. After a meal, the wealthy used to give the food-soaked bread to a dog or to beggars while those of more modest means, used to eat the bread too. 

The sandwich was first seen as a food that men shared while gaming at night. Slowly, it became a fashionable late-night meal among the aristocracy. The spread of industrialisation in the nineteenth century caused the sandwich to develop an identity of its own among the working classes. It was the perfect solution for a quick, convenient, and inexpensive meal. 

The European-style sandwich slowly spread outside of Europe simultaneously. In the United States, it was part of an elaborate supper. By the early 20th century, bread became a staple of the American diet and the sandwich became as popular as in the Mediterranean.

1. Why is John Montagu a popular name in the history of food? 

Ans:- John Montagu is a popular name in the history of food because he is believed to be responsible for making the sandwich, one of the most popular food items of the world. 

2. Would you say the process of making a sandwich is elaborate or easy? Why do you think so? Justify. 

Ans:- The process of making sandwich is quite easy. It is unlike the preparation of dishes which require numerous ingredients and time. 

3. Does the author agree that Britain has made the ‘biggest contribution to gastronomy”? How do you know? 

Ans:- The author agrees with the statement that Britain has made the ‘biggest’ contribution to gastronomy. It is because of the popularity of modern sandwich which probably had its first making in Britain. Today, it has become a globally preferred food. 

4. How did people’s perception of the sandwich change over the years? Mention at least three changes. 

Ans:-Earlier, sandwich was taken as a food that was shared while gaming at night. But it became a fashionable late-night meal. among the aristocracy. The spread of industrialization caused the sandwich to develop an identity of its own among the working classes. It also became a part of an elaborate supper in the United States. 

5. Find a word/phrase in the passage that means the same ast 

a. limited income 

b. grand 

Ans:- (a) Limited income-modest means (b) Grand- aristocracy

6. What do you understand by the words ‘finger food’? Name two other finger foods that you know of. 

Ans:- ‘Finger food’ refers to those foods which can be eaten with hand and are conveniently arranged to prevent mess. Two other finger foods are French fries and dumpling. 

7. How did the ‘identity’ of the sandwich change over time? How was it first perceived and how did it evolve? 

Ans:- At first, sandwich was made for convenience of having food without much mess. Over the years it became one of the most popular food worldwide finding its way among people from different sections. 

Class-9 Alternative English Notes/Solutions

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
PROSE
Chapter 1On The Rule Of the Road
Chapter 2The Ogress and the two Orphans
Chapter 3The Indomitable spirit of Youth
Chapter 4The tunguska Event: Siberia 1908
Chapter 5The Devoted friends
POETRY
Chapter 6Sonnet – To Science
Chapter 7The character of a Happy Life
Chapter 8Mother’s Tears
Chapter 9The Soul’s Prayer
DRAMA
1.The Tale of Ivan the Fool
GRAMMAR
1.Auxiliaries
2.Articles
3.Tenses
4.Reported speech
5.Punctuation
Reading
WRITING
1.Story Writing
2.Dialogue
3.Article
4.Newspaper Report
SPEAKING
1.Listening Transcripts

8. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

Millions of years ago, all land on earth was joined together into one super-continent. This super-continent broke up over a period of millions of years and the various smaller continents drifted into their present positions. As a result, the earth’s solid outer crust is now broken up into twelve major pieces called plates and a few smaller ones. It is the movement of one or more of these plates in relation to the others that creates earthquakes. The region where one plate joins another is the area most likely to experience an earthquake. The study of these plates and their movements is called tectonics. 

Until 1996, tectonic experts believed that the earth’s crust was broken into twelve plates. But recent studies by a team of geo-physicists say that there might not just be twelve, but thirteen such plates.

Millions of years ago, the plate carrying India and Australia along with the sea-bed that separates both, slammed into Asia. The tremendous force exerted by this collision pushed up the Himalayan mountain ranges and the Tibetan plateau. As the mountains got higher and higher, stress began to build into the plate. This stress soon grew to a point where the plates could no longer support the mountains. And so, about seven and a half million years ago, the stress built up to a breaking point and the Indo-Australian plate began to break up. Explorers have now located the point of break-up at a distance of six hundred miles south of India’s southern tip, in the Indian Ocean. 

At this point, the Australian half of the plate is slowly turning anticlockwise. The eastern half of the Australian plate is pushing against the Indian plate, while the western half is pulling away from it. The boundary between these two halves is a zone hundreds of miles wide. Researchers estimate that this zone (called a fault) might eventually narrow down in a few million years. 

1.When do earthquakes occur? 

Ans:- Earthquakes occur when plates of the earth move in relation to the other plates. 

2. Why did the Indo-Australian plate begin to break up? 

Ans:- The Indo-Australian plate began to break up because it could not support the Himalayan mountains which grew higher and higher.

3. What was the earlier belief about the plates? What is the new belief? 

Ans:- Earlier, it was believed that there were only 12 plates on earth. 

4. What is a fault? 

Ans:-Fault is the boundary between the two halves of the Australian plate. 

5. Explain the sequence of breakup of the Indo-Australian plate in the form of points, using words like first, secondly, then, finally, etc. 

Ans:- Firstly, the plate carrying India and Australia along with the sea bed that separate both, slammed into Asia. The tremendous force exerted by the collision pushed up the Himalayan mountain ranges and the Tibetan plateau. 

Secondly, as the Himalayan Mountains got higher and higher, stress began to build into the plate. The stress grew to a point where the plates could no longer support the mountain. Finally, Indo-Australian plate began to break up. 

6. Find words from the passage that match these words.

a. floated 
b. latest 
c. crash 
d. pressure 
e. guess
Drifted 
: recent 
collision 
:force 
: estimate

9. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

I wouldn’t buy my children any of the gaming products that flood today’s markets. The level of violence in some games and the mindless addiction they promote certainly do not find favour with me. I would rather they read books, do chores at home or be outdoors. 

I understand the appeal of video games and the power of virtual worlds. Whether it is driving a race car, mastering a guitar or leading a raid against the enemy, you set the pace and plan of action. Then there is the thrill of a good game. With the controller in your hand and time components at work, your pulse races at incredible speed to beat the odds. Pitting your skills from ‘simple’ to ‘difficult’ levels, you cannot stop until you have mastered the game and accomplished the mission. 

A researcher on the dangers of group gaming says, “The most addictive games are the ones that have no end. Players often have multiple types of characters, have to perform certain tasks in order to get better gear or even gold, and work together in groups. Raiding parties are scheduled days in advance, and players are downgraded or insulted by their fellow players if they don’t show up and play for the entire sequence, which can sometimes take hours.” 

Many parents view gaming as the lesser of the two evils when compared to the dangers of the real world. They think keeping children occupied at home is a better alternative than sending them outside. “Wouldn’t you rather,” these parents say to me, “that children drive race cars here in your living room than out there where they could get hurt?” 

However, video game addiction can affect children more deeply than has been realised. Experts say that long hours staring at a screen can definitely damage eyesight, cause dizziness and headaches. More worrying, computer gaming can distort children’s sense of reality and affect studies, health, emotional growth and social skills. 

The only way forward is to avoid buying the games in the first place. Don’t be nervous of the words, ‘I’m bored’. The truth is, if children get bored enough, they’ll find something to do. 

1. What is the author’s view of video games? 

Ans:- The author does not like the concept of video games. The level of violence and addiction they promote do not find favour with him. 

2. According to science, which games are proven to be the most addictive? 

Ans:- Games which have no end with multiple types of character and involvement of multiple players are the most addictive ones. 

3. What are some of the negative effects video games have on children? 

Ans:- Video games damage eyesight, cause dizziness and headache. They also distort children’s sense of reality and affect studies, health, emotional growth and social skills.

4. What does the author suggest as a solution to the video game evil? 

Ans:- The author suggests that video games should be replaced by other things like reading books, doing chores at home or being outdoors. 

5. Tick a word that means the same as ‘deform’. 

a. damage 

b. affect 

c. hurt 

d. distort 

Ans: (d) distort 

6. Complete the sentences. 

a. The phrase ‘does not find favour with means does not appeal to him and dislikes it. 

b. Chores that children can do at home include 

(i) Fetching things that elders need while working 

(ii) Cleaning dishes 

(iii) Washing vegetables and other food items for cooking 

c. The ‘thrill of a good game’ means the excitement involved in playing games with the increase in its obstacles and levels

d. ‘Time components at work’ indicates the time limit during which the assigned mission in a game has to be completed. 

e. Some parents consider video games better than the dangers of the real world. 

7. Find words from the passage that mean the opposite of these words. 

a. captivating : boring 

b. few : multiple 

c. complimented: insulted

d.cure : distort 

e. confident : nervous

10. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

Scientists say that in just a few decades, natural and man- made monuments may suffer partial or total destruction. The threat comes from volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, floods, etc. Climate change too, can have dramatic consequences, either by directly altering the structures themselves, or by affecting the chemistry and the stability of their foundations. 

Theatres, museums and libraries in the Czech Republic were greatly affected by the 2002 floods. Floods swept away fourteenth-century ruins of ancient cities in north-eastern Thailand. Coastal erosion and flooding in the Nile Delta pose a risk to several Egyptian monuments as well as other unique archaeological sites and medieval monuments. Many natural ecosystems, like the coral reef of Belize, which Darwin referred to in 1842 as “the most marvellous reef in the West Indies”, has already started to lose its colour due to the rising temperature of the surface water-a process which is expected to intensify. 

Heritage sites are irreplaceable sources of inspiration, highlighting the genius of ancient civilizations. They can and must be preserved for future generations. International efforts have been stepped up, through warning systems and disaster preparedness, to reduce natural threats. But manmade threats like industrial accidents, civil strife and wars also contribute to the perils.

The Taj Mahal, India’s famous white marble monument, is resistant to most natural threats like wind and rain; however, it has no defence against the sulphur dioxide in the smog that usually surrounds it. Mixing with the atmospheric moisture, the sulphur dioxide becomes sulphuric acid and rests on the surface of the tomb, making the smooth white marble yellow and flaky. 

Science may not be able to address all the dangers. That is where responsible government policies, caring citizens and international treaties for the protection of cultural heritage sites must work together to preserve and protect them for the people of the world. 

1. Does climate change affect the deterioration of monuments? How? 

Ans:- Climate change affects the deterioration of monuments by directly altering the structures themselves or by affecting the chemistry and the stability of their foundations. 

2. What did Darwin call ‘the most marvellous reef’ in the West Indies? What is happening to it? 

Ans:-Darwin called the Coral Reef of Blize as ‘the most marvelous reef in the West Indies. 

It has already started to lose its color due to the rising temperature of the surface water. 

3. Mention some international efforts that have been taken to help reduce natural threats. 

Ans:- Policies and international treaties for the protection of cultural heritage site are some international efforts that have been taken to help reduce natural threats.

4. White marble is resistant to most natural threats. What is causing the deterioration of the Taj Mahal? 

Ans:- The deterioration of Taj Mahal is caused by the sulphur dioxide in the smog that usually surrounds it. Mixing with the atmospheric moisture the sulphur dioxide becomes sulphuric acid and rests on the surface, making the smooth white marble yellow. 

5. Scientists cannot address the problem alone. others do to help preserve monuments? 

Ans:- Apart from the efforts put by scientists, responsible government policies, caring citizens and international treaties should come together to help in preserving monuments. 

6. Write if the statements are True (T) or False (F). 

a. Climate change is the main cause for the destruction of natural and man-made monuments. (F) 

b. Regular and severe floods can affect the foundation of buildings. (T) 

c. Changes in the temperature of surface water can increase in the years ahead. (T) 

d. Monuments are an important part of human civilizations. (T) 

e. Weather changes threaten the Taj Mahal the most.( F)

7. Match the words to their meanings.

AB
a. consequencei. intensify
b. erosionii. peeling off
c. step upiii. wearing away
d. periliv. outcome
e. flakyv. danger

Ans:

AB
a. consequenceiv. outcome
b. erosioniii. wearing away
c. step upi. intensify
d. perilv. danger
e. flakyii. peeling off

11. Read the poem and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

The Peace of Wild Things 

When despair for the world grows in me and I wake in the night at the least sound ypin fear of what my life and my children’s lives may be, I go and lie down where the wood drake rests in his beauty on the water, and the great heron feeds. I come into the peace of wild things who do not tax their lives with forethought of grief. I come into the presence of still water. And I feel above me the day-blind stars waiting with their light. For a time I rest in the grace of the world, and am free. 

1. Why does the poet sometimes wake up during the night? 

Ans:- The poet sometimes wakes up during the night because he is in despair of what his life and his children’s lives will turn into.

2. What is the poet’s fear for his children? 

Ans:- The poet fears that his children would have lives of imprisonment in the despair of the world. 

3. Where does he go to ease his fears? 

Ans:- He goes into the wild and close to nature in order to ease his fears. 

4. How do the ‘wild things’ remain peaceful? 

Ans:- The wild things remain peaceful as they do not become burden on anyone for their existence. 

5. Which words or phrases tell us of a change in the poet’s mood towards the end of the poem? 

Ans:- “For a time/ I rest in the grace of the world, and am free” tells us a change in the poet’s mood toward the end of the poem. 

6. Explain the line ‘who do not tax their lives with forethought’. 

Ans:- Who do not tax their lives with forethought’ means the independence of nature not to be a burden on anyone for their existence and future. 

12. Read the poem and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

A Tiger in the Zoo 

He stalks in his vivid stripes 

The few steps of his cage, 

On pads of velvet quiet, 

In his quiet rage. 

He should be lurking in shadow, 

Sliding through long grass

Near the water hole 

Where plump deer pass. 

He should be snarling around houses 

At the jungles edge, 

Baring his white fangs, his claws, Terrorising the village! 

But he’s locked in a concrete cell, 

His strength behind bars, 

Stalking the length of his cage, 

Ignoring visitors. 

He hears the last voice at night, 

The patrolling cars, 

And stares with his brilliant eyes 

At the brilliant stars. 

Leslie Norris

1. How does the tiger move about in his cage? 

Ans:- The tiger stalks in his vivid strips in the few slips of his cage. 

2. Find a word in the first four lines that tells us about the tiger’s mood. 

Ans:- ‘quiet’ in line 4 tells us about the tiger’s mood. 

3. Why does the poet think a tiger would go to a ‘water hole”? 

Ans:- The poet thinks that a tiger would go to a ‘water hole’ in order to hunt deer that passes the water hole. 

4. Is the tiger happy to see visitors at the zoo? How do you know? 

Ans:- The tiger is not happy to see visitor at the zoo. He ignores them and their excitement to see him in a cage.

5. Does the poet approve of the ‘concrete cell’ as a home for the tiger? Find lines in the poem to support your answer. 

Ans:-The lines ‘He should be snarling around hours/At the jungle’s edge,/ Baring his white fangs, his claws, / terrorizing the village!’ show that the poet does not approve of the ‘concrete cell’ as a home for the tiger. 

6. What is the tone and mood of the poet when he says the tiger should be ‘terrorising villages’? Does he really encourage conflict? 

Ans:- The poet is thrilled at the thoughts of the tiger terrorizing villages. He does not encourage conflict but expresses his concern for the freedom of the caged tiger. 

7. Explain the last two lines of the poem. 

Ans:- The last two lines of the poem show the brilliance of the tigers’ eyes which glow like the stars shining in the sky. 

13. Read the poem and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

Geography Lesson 

Our teacher told us one day he would leave And sail across a warm blue sea To places he had only known from maps, And all his life he longed to be. 

The house he lived in was narrow and grey But in his mind’s eye he could see Sweet-scented jasmine clinging to the walls, And green leaves burning on an orange tree.

He spoke of the lands he longed to visit, Where it was never drab or cold. 

I couldn’t understand why he never left, And shook off the school’s stranglehold. 

Then halfway through his final term He took ill and never returned. He never got to that place on the map Where the green leaves of the orange trees burned. 

The maps were redrawn on the classroom wall; His name forgotten, he faded away. But a lesson he never knew he taught Is with me to this day. 

I travel to where the green leaves burn, To where the ocean’s glass-clear and blue, To places our teacher taught me to love- And which he never knew. Brian Patten 

1.What did the Geography teacher keep telling his students. he would do? 

Ans:- The geography teacher kept telling his students that he would sail across blue sea to places he had only known from maps. 

2. Name a few things that existed in the lands the teacher longed to visit. 

Ans:- The author longed to visit places where sweet scented jasmine clung on the walls, and green leaves burned on orange trees. He also longed to visit places where it was never drab or cold.

3. Why does the poet remember his Geography teacher years after he has left his school? 

Ans:-The poet remembers his geography teacher for the lesson that he learnt from his teacher to love the places he always mentioned. 

4. Was the teacher’s life exciting! What do the words ‘narrow’ and ‘grey’ suggest? 

Ans:- The teacher’s life was not exciting. He was at stranglehold of the school and was not able to do anything he wished for. 

The word ‘narrow’ and ‘grey’ suggest the reality in the livelihood of the teacher which was in contrary to the imagination of the teacher. 

5. The maps were redrawn on the classroom wall’. Explain how this relates to life. 

Ans:- ‘The maps were redrawn on the classroom wall’ suggests the inevitability of defeat at the hand of ever demanding obstacles of life. 

6.What sort of life does the speaker in the poem lead? How do you know? 

Ans: The speaker leads a very exciting life. He lives, the life of his teacher by visiting all the places his teacher mentioned in their class. The line ‘I travel to where the green leaves burn. to where the ocean’s glass-clear and blue/ to places our teacher taught me to love- shows the exciting life the speaker leads. 

7. How does the poem salute a great teacher? 

Ans:-The poem shows the sacrifice that a great teacher makes in fulfilling all the dreams of his students in return of his dreams.

14. Read the poem and answer the questions that follow. (10 marks) 

The Microscope 

Anton Leeuwenhoek was Dutch. 

He sold pincushions, cloth, and such. 

The waiting townsfolk fumed and fussed As Anton’s dry goods gathered dust. 

He worked, instead of tending store, 

At grinding special lenses for 

A microscope. Some of the things 

He looked at were: mosquitoes’ wings, 

the hairs of sheep, the legs of lice, 

the skin of people, dogs, and mice; 

ox eyes, spiders’ spinning gear, 

fishes’ scales, a little smear 

of his own blood, and best of all, 

the unknown, busy, very small 

bugs that swim and bump and hop 

inside a simple water drop. 

Impossible! Most Dutchmen said. 

This Anton’s crazy in the head! 

We ought to ship him off to Spain! 

He says he’s seen a housefly’s brain! 

He says the water that we drink 

Is full of bugs! He’s mad, we think! 

They called him dumkopf, which means dope. That’s how we got the microscope. 

Maxine Kumin

1. Who was Anton Leeuwenhoek and what was his profession? 

Ans:- Anton Leuwenhoeck was a Dutch who was the owner of a store in which he sold pincushions, clothes and so on. 

2. What did Anton Leeuwenhock do instead of looking after the store? 

Ans:- Anton Leuwenhoeck spent all his time at grinding lenses for a microscope instead of looking after his store. 

3. Why did the other Dutch people think Anton was crazy? 

Ans:- The other Dutch people thought Anton was crazy because he told them that he had seen a housefly’s head and the water they drank was full of bugs. 

4.In the third part of the poem, the poet stops speaking in the first person. We hear the Dutch people speaking directly-narrating what they thought of Anton and his work. What effect does it lend to the poem? 

Ans:- The change of the narration of the poet to the Dutch people speaking directly shows the intensity of the fuss of the people over what Anton told them. It also put emphasis on the expression of this anger. 

5. What do you think the poet is trying to convey through the last two lines? Why does she wait until the end of the poem to tell us about the microscope? 

Ans:- The poet is trying to convey the obstacles on the way of people who made new inventions and discoveries in the past which people thought were too good to be true.

6. Comment on the character of Anton Leeuwenhoek. 

Ans:- Anton Leuwenhoeck was a genius who was determined and brave. He was not affected by the criticisms that people passed on his idea of inventing microscope. 

7. How are inventors and scientists treated by society before they become famous? Why do you think this happens? 

Ans:- Inventors and scientists are treated with contempt for what invention and discovery they make before the masses approve them. This inventions and ideas are thought weird and unacceptable.

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