NBSE Class-10| Alternative English| Chapter-2 Man Against Virus

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In This chapter NBSE Class-10| Alternative English| Chapter-2 Man Against Virus. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of Alternative English for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Alternative English| Chapter-2 Man Against Virus

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: Louis Pasteur

I.Choose the correct option.

1. What is the meaning of the phrase ‘confound it’?

a. To be confused or perplexed

b. To not be able to find something.

c. An expression of shame

d. An expression of anger or frustration

Ans. d. An expression of anger or frustration

2. vaccine protect ::_________

a. medicine: inject

b. disease: spread

c. oil: lubricate

d. president: nation

Ans. a. medicine: inject

3. Pasteur’s discovery that the rabies microbe lives in the nervous system was

a. Inductive

b. Deductive

c. Both

d. Neither

Ans. b. Deductive

4.Why did Pasteur release the crazed dog’s saliva into a sterile test-tube

a. He did not want to mix the rabies microbes with other germs.

b. He did not want the rabies microbes to escape. 

c. He did not want the poisonous saliva to touch his skin.

d. He did not want the rabies microbes to reproduce. 

Ans. a. He did not want to mix the rabies microbes with other germs.

5.How did Pasteur weaken the rabies microbe?

a. By using microbes which were less virulent from dogs. 

b. By injecting it into a region of the brain called the medulla.

c. By grinding the rabies microbes and injecting them into healthy animals.

d. By letting the infected medulla sit in a sterile solution for several days.

Ans. d. By letting the infected medulla sit in a sterile solution for several days. 

II.Read the lines and answer the questions that follow:

1. Pasteur had never been able to forget the horror of that moment.

a. What had horrified Pasteur?

Ans. The moans of the villager and the hiss of the blacksmith’s red-hot iron burning the villager’s skin had horrified Pasteur.

b. Why had the person suffering the horror done. so willingly?

Ans. The person suffering the horror had done it so willingly because the only way to stop the infection from a bite was to cauterise the wound by pressing at  red-hot iron on it.

c. What did witnessing this moment make Pesteur resolve in the future?

 Ans. Witnessing this moment made Pasteur resolve in the future that he would find a better treatment for rabbies.

2. ‘The sooner it gets there, the sooner it has an effect.’ 

a. What do ‘it’ and ‘there’ refer to?

Ans. ‘It’ refers to the rabbies germ and ‘there’ refers to the brain.

b. How did Pasteur and Roux help ‘it’ get ‘there’sooner?

Ans. Pasteur and Roux helped ‘it’ get ‘there’ sooner by injecting the germ into the brain. 

c. Why is it the sooner, the more effective?

Ans. It is the sooner, the more effective because the rabies germ does live in the brain.

III. Answer these questions briefly.

1. Why were Pasteur’s assistants shocked to see him sucking saliva of a mad dog into a tube?

Ans. Pasteur’s assistants were shocked to see him sucking saliva of a mad dog into a lube because they thought that if he sucked too hard and got some saliva in his mouth, he would suffer from rabies.

2. Why was Pasteur studying samples of saliva from rabid animals?

Ans. Pasteur was studying samples of saliva from rabid animals because he wanted to make a vaccine against rabies.

3.How did Pasteur make the vaccine against rabies?

Ans. Pasteur took the samples from the medualla of an infected animal, put them into a sterile solution and closed it. After a few days the pieces of medulla shrivelled. He ground up the pieces of medulla and injected them into healthy animals. The animals seemed to get rabies but they soon recovered. Then Pasteur learnt that the weakened rabies germs could safely stimulate an animal’s defences. He worked on this theory and made the vaccine against rabies.

Additional Questions & Answers

Q1. Why were the people afraid of being bitten by a mad dog? What was the ancient method of treating a person bitten by a mad dog?

Ans. People were afraid of being bitten by a mad dog because those who were bitten by a mad dog had died as a result.

The ancient method of treating a person bitten by a mad dog was that they tried to stop the infection from a bite by cauterising the wound by pressing a red hot iron on it. This was said to purify the flesh and the wound of the person was healed.

* Choose the correct answer from the alternatives given: 

(a) Where did Louis Pasteur find the rabies microbe?

(i) Blood

(ii) Medulla [✓]

(iii) Saliva

(iv) Skin

2. ‘By the time a piece of medulla was fourteen days old, it was harmless.”

a. List out very bri3efly the steps taken to test whether the germs had been weakened or not.

Ans. Pasteur and Roux took the samples from the medulla of an infected animal. Roux put these samples into a sterile solution which he then closed. After a few days the pieces of medulla shrivelled. Then they ground up the pieces and injected them into healthy animals. The animals got rabbies but they rapidly recovered. Thus, they learnt the way of weakening rabies germs.

b. Why were they using medullas to test the microbes?

Ans. They were using medullas to test the microbes because the microbes preferred to live in the medul- las of the infected animals.

c. Briefly explain the principle on which a vaccine works.

Ans. The principle on which a vaccine works is that weaken rabies microbes are injected in an animal and they safely stimulate an animal’s defences against rabies.

3. Why did Pasteur test the blood of mad animals? 

Ans. Pasteur tested the blood of mad animals because he wanted to know whether the rabies germs lived in blood of the infected animals.

4. What made Pasteur check out the brain and spinal cord of mad animals for germs?

Ans. Pasteur studied the symptoms of the infected animals and found that the infected animals were ter- ribly excited and they were paralysed. After that, he concluded that rabies germs might be found in the nervous system of the animals. So, he decided to check out the brain and spinal cord of mad animals for rabies germs.

5.The dangers Pasteur faced while conducting experiments.

Ans. Pesteur put one end of the tube between his lips and lowered the other end towards the foam covered jaws of the bulldog suffering from rabies. He sucked some of the saliva up the tube. His assistants were afraid to think that he might suffer from rabies if he sucked too hard and got some saliva in his mouth.

6.The process of experimentation that led to locating the rabies bacteria in the nervous system of animals.

Ans. Pasteur with his assistant Roux, injected the Saliva and blood of the infected animals into healthy animals and found that Saliva sometimes caused rabies but the blood had no effect at all. Then he studied the symptoms of rabies and found that the infected animal was terribly excited and then paraly sed. It meant rabies germs must affect the nervous system. Then he injected the healthy animals into the brain with the samples from the brain of an infected animal. He found that only after seven days the injected animal suffered from rabies. Thus, he located that the rabies bacteria lived in the nervous system of an animal.

7. Pasteur’s contribution to preventive medicine.

Ans. Louis Pesteur was a pioneering French microbiologist. His thinking made it possible for us to lead longer and healthier lives. His innovative research on microorganism became the basis of preventive medicine. He went through a series of experiments and discovered that heating milk and wine at a high temperature killed diseases-causing bacteria. It made the beverages safer to consume. This process was named Pasteurisation in his honour. It has saved many lives till date. He took personal risks and discovered the vaccines for rabies chicken cholera and anthrax.

8. The plight of healthy animals used in the experiments?

Ans. The word ‘plight’ means miseable state. Scientists use animals like monkey, dog, rabit etc for their research work in the laboratory. These healthy animals lead caged and miseable lives there. When a scientist has to go through the process of his research work for life saving drugs, he tests his vaccine or medicine on these animals. During this process many animals die or become paralysed. They suffer the agony of pain many times. It is inhuman. But if life saving drugs are made, they must be tested on animals before using it on human beings. There is no alternative. 

9.How do you feel about experimenting with animals to fid cures for illness. 

              Or

How can we justify the use of animals in the lab?

Ans. If life saving drug is prepared, it needs a series of experiments to prove the hypothesis of the scientist true. For his experients, the scientist needs a lot of animals like monkeys, rabbits, dogs etc. Sometimes he succeeds and sometimes he fails. When he prepares a vaccine or injection, where will he test it? He can’t test it on human beings until he is 100% sure of it. So, he applies a series of tests on animals. During this process many animals die. But if the scientist succeeds, the vaccine or injection saves countless human beings. Since there is no other way, we will have to justify the use of animals in the lab.

Class-10 Alternative English Notes/Solutions

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
PROSE
Chapter 1The Fragrance of The Gods
Chapter 2Man Against Virus
Chapter 3Speech by Severn Suzuki
Chapter 4In Celebration of Being Alive
Chapter 5The Ambitious Guest
POETRY
Chapter 1To Sleep
Chapter 2Prayer of the Meek
Chapter 3Closed Path
Chapter 4Old Folks Laugh
GRAMMAR
1.Degree of Comparison
2.Conjunctions
3.Prepositions
4.Active and Passive Voice
5.Clauses
Reading
WRITING SKILLS
1.Newspaper Report
2.Article
3.Story-Writing
4.Dialogue
AUTOBIOGRAPHY
The Diary of a Young Girl

10. What were the two men struggling to hold?

a) A crazed bulldog

b) A crazed rabbit

c) A crazed buffalo

d) A stray dog

Ans. a) A crazed bulldog

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