NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-9| Transport and Communication

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-9| Transport and Communication. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-9| Transport and Communication

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EXERCISE

Chapter-9

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. India has one of the largest networks of which of the following modes of transport?

(a) Roadways

(b) Railways

(c) Waterways

(d) Pipelines

Ans: (a) Roadways

2. Which of the following modes of transport would you find in higher areas of mountainous regions like the Himalayas?

(a) Railways

(b) Roadways

(c) Inland waterways

(d) Airways

Ans: (b) Roadways

3.Which of the following are the primary road systems of our country?

(a) National Highways 

(b) State highways

(c) District roads

(d) Border roads

Ans: (a) National Highways

4. Which of the following types of roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana?

(a) National Highways

(b) State highways

(c) Rural roads

(d) District roads

Ans: (c) Rural roads

5.Which of the following modes of transport is fuel efficient and environment friendly?

(a) Roadways

(b) Railways 

(c) Pipelines 

(d) Waterways

Ans: (a) Roadways

6. Which of the following was the first port to be developed soon after independence?

(a) Bombay

(b) Calcutta

(c) Paradip

(d) Kandla

Ans: (d) Kandla

7. Which of the following airlines is the national carrier of India?

(a) Air India

(b) Jet Airways 

(c) Spice Jet

(d) Air Asia

Ans: (a) Air India

II.Very Short Answer Questions

1. What are State Highways?

Ans: State highways join state capitals with towns and the district headquarters and provide the link with the national highways. These are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in the state or the Union Territories as the case may be.

2.What is the total length of India’s road network?

Ans: The total length of India’s road network is 5,846 km

3. What is the name of the highway that connects the four large metro cities?

Ans: The name of the highway that connects the four large metro cities is Golden quadrilateral.

4.Which department constructs and maintains State Highways?

Ans: State Government

5. Give the full form of BRO.

Ans: The full form of BRO is Border Roads Organisation.

6. Name the types of inland waterways.

Ans: The types of inland waterways are Rivers, Lakes and canals.

7. Write two advantages of airways.

Ans: The two advantages of airways are

i)Airways provides the fastest means of transport. 

(ii)Air transport is free from physical barriers.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Name any four means of communication.

Ans: Four means of communication are Radio, Telephone, TV, and Newspaper.

2.What are National Highways? Who constructs and maintains them?

Ans: National Highways connect one state with another and are of national importance. These highways link extreme parts of the country. They constitute 2 % of the total road networks but carry 40% of the total road traffic. These roads connect long distances and some even pass through congested cities. These road systems are also known as primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).

3. Into how many zones is the Indian Railways divided?

Ans: The Indian Railways is divided into 17 zones.

4.Write any two problems of pipeline transportation.

Ans: The two problems of pipeline transportation are- 

(i) Cost of laying the pipelines is very high. 

(ii) Danger of leakage.

5.Give two advantages of waterways.

Ans: The two advantages of waterways are – 

(i) Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. 

(ii) It is the best means of transport to carry bulky and heavy goods at lower cost.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Mention four merits and four demerits of road transportation with reference to India.

Ans: Four merits are as follows:-

1. Less Capital Outlay:

Road transport required much less capital Investment as compared to other modes of transport such as railways and air transport.

2.Door to Door Service:

The outstanding advantage of road transport is that it provides door to door or warehouse to warehouse service. This reduces cartage, loading and unloading expenses.

3.Service in Rural Areas:

Road transport is most suited for carrying goods and people t and from rural areas which are not served by rail, water or air

transport. Exchange of goods, between large towns and small villages is made possible only through road transport.

4. Suitable for Short Distance:

It is more economic and quicker for carrying goods and people

er short distances. Delays in transit of goods on account of over s intermediate loading and handling are avoided. Goods can be loaded direct into a road vehicle and transported straight to their place of destination.

Disadvantages:

In spite of various merits, road/motor has some serious limitations:

1. Seasonal Nature:

Motor transport is not as reliable as rail transport. During rainy or flood season, roads become unfit and unsafe for use.

 2. Accidents and Breakdowns:

There are more chances of accidents and breakdowns in case of motor transport. Thus, motor transport is not as safe as rail transport.

3. Unsuitable for Long Distance and Bulky Traffic: 

This mode of transport is unsuitable and costly for transporting cheap and bulky goods over long distances.

4. Slow Speed:

The speed of motor transport is comparatively slow and limited.

2. What are the advantages of waterways as a means of transport?

Ans: The advantages of waterways as a means of transport are:

(a) Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. 

(b) It is the best means of transport to carry bulky and heavy goods at lower cost.

(c) It is fuel efficient as well as used environment friendly. 

(d) All perennial rivers can be used almost throughout the year.

3. Give four reasons why the means of transport and communication are called the lifeline of a nation and its economy.

Ans: The world has become one big village and distances have become immaterial. This has been made possible by the development of a fast and efficient communication system. Thus trade, transport and communication complement each other.

Today life has become very complex. We are all dependant on each other. Even trade has expanded from local to international levels. The India of today is well linked to the rest of the globe despite its huge area, diversities and pluralities in the linguistic and socio-cultural fields. Transport and communication have enriched them, both socially and economically. Our lives have become easier and more amenities and comforts are readily available to us.

Thus it is evident that modern means of transport and communication are the lifelines of our nation and its economy. Trade, be it local, national or world, depends largely a dense and efficient network of transport and communication..

4.How do means of mass communication play a vital role in creating awareness among the people?

Ans: Mass communication includes television, radio, newspapers.magazines, books and even films. It is so named as it can communicate ideas, policies and national issues directly to the masses. This helps in creating awareness among the people. In India, only the government owned Doordarshan is allowed to broadcast terrestrial television signals.

Doordarshan broadcasts many programmes which range from educational to entertainment to sports. These programmes are designed for different age groups. Today a large number of private channels have started operating. These have become very popular Regional channels are also in great demand in regions of their operation.

The All India Radio, which is khown as Akashwani, is a very for mass medium. It broadcasts programmes national, regional and local languages people of all regions and all age groups. All India Radio has 200 radio stations some 327 transmitters.

India is the hub of commercial films in Asia. It produces short films, vide feature films and video short films. The Central Board of Film Certification the authority which certifies both Indian and foreign films. 

5.Why is road transport more useful than rail transport in India? Give four reasons. 

Ans: There are many reasons for it – .Road transport provides a link between railway stations, air and sea ports. They are used as feeders to other modes of transport. 

.Roads can traverse regions of dissected and undulating relief and negotiate steep slopes. Hence such a system can connect mountains and deserts with other parts of the country.

.Roads can be constructed at a much lower cost than railways. They are cheap and easy both in construction and maintenance. 

.They directly connect fields with markets, factories with farms and provide door to door service. Thus the cost of loading and unloading is lesser.

.If a short or medium distance has to be covered, roads are the ideal means of transport. They are best for transporting few passengers and smaller amount of goods over short distances.

.They are best for transporting perishable goods over short or medium distanes.

6. What is mass communication? What are the different means of mass communication?

Ans: Mass communication includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, books and even films. It is named so as it can communicate ideas, policies and national issues directly to the masses. This helps in creating awareness among the people.

In India, only the government owned Doordarshan is allowed to broadcast terrestrial television signals. The Doordarshan broadcasts many programmes which range from educational to entertainment to sports. These programmes are designed for different age groups. Today a large number of private channels have started operating. These have become very popular. Regional channels are also in great demand in regions of their operation.

The All India Radio, which is also known as Akashwani, is a very forceful mass medium. It broadcasts programmes in national, regional and local languages for people of all regions and all age groups. The All India Radio has 200 radio stations and some 327 transmitters.

India also publishes a large number of dailies and periodicals in different languages from various cities. Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects. India is the hub of commercial films in Asia. It produces short films, video feature films and video short films. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority which certifies both India and foreign films.

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

II. GROUP DISCUSSION

Hold a group discussion in the class regarding the various means of Mass Communication. Discuss about the latest means like e-mail, internet, blogs, twitter and facebook.

Ans:- Various Means of Mass Communication

Mass communication can be described as a system of building contact which is capable of reaching out to a large number of people. The various means of mass communication are: radio, television, newspapers, magazines, book publishing, internet, social networking sites, billboards and films.

Latest means of mass communication

(i)E-mail:

Email or electronic mail is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices, invented by Ray Tomlinson. Today’s email systems are based on a store-and- forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages.

(ii) Internet:

The internet is the global system of inter-connected computer networks that use the internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic business and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies.

(iii)Blogs:

A regularly updated website or web page, typically one run by an individual or small group that is written in an informal or conversational style.

(iv) Twitter:

Twitter is a free social networking micro blogging in service that allows registered members to broadcast short posts called tweets. Tweets may include hyperlinks and are limited to 140 characters, due to the constraints of twitters short message services (SMS) delivery system.

(v) Facebook:

Face book is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues.

Additional Questions

I.Multiple Choice Questions:

1.Which of the following National Highways is the longest in the country?

(a) National Highways No.8.

(b) National Highways No.7

(c) National Highways No.4

(d) National Highways No.2

Ans:- (b) National Highways No.7

2. When and between which two stations did the first train of India steam off?

(a) Kolkata to Raniganj, 1874 

(b) Mumbai to Thane, 1853

(c) Mumbai to Ahmedbad, 1854

(d) Chennai to Arkonam, 1856

Ans:- (b) Mumbai to Thane, 1853

11.Very Short Answer Questions

1. What are border roads?

Ans:- These are vital road links along the frontiers of our country.

2. Name the deepest landlocked port?

Ans:- Vishakhapatnam is the deepest land locked and well protected port. It was conceived as an outlet for the exports.

3. When was the first Railway or train inaugurated in India? 

Ans:- The first train ran from Mumbai to Thane in 1853. It covered a distance of 34 km.

4. When was Railway Nationalised?

Ans:- In 1951 the system was nationalised as one unit, to become one of the largest networks in the world.

5. Indian Railways have been divided into how many Zones?

Ans:- For administrative convenience Indian Railways have been divided into 17 zones.

III. Short Answer Type Questions:

1. What do you know about North-South Corridoor and east- west Cooridoor?

Ans:- The North-South corridor linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and the East-West corridor linking Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) are integral parts of this project.

2.Name the first port developed in India after independence?

Ans:- Kandla: It is the first port developed after independence to ease dependence on Mumbai port. It is a tidal port and handles exports and imports of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat.

3.Give one example of an inland riverine port?

Ans:- Kolkata: It is an inland riverine port. Being a tidal port it requires, constant dredging of Hoogly. It serves the hinterland of Ganga and Brahmaputra.

4. Which two modes of transport are widely used within the north-eastern states of India? Why?

Ans:-(i)Roadways and (ii) Airways. Helicopters are utilized to access difficult areas and remote and far flung areas of Jamu and Kashmir and Northeast.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Write a short note on the Golden Quadrilateral.

Ans:- Golden Quadrilateral is a road development project undertaken by the Government of India and it links Delhi-ypKolkata-Chennai- Mumbai together. This link is the Six-Lane Super Highway. The total length of the road is 5,846 km. This project is managed by the National Highway Authority of India. This will interconnect many major cities and ports and help in industrial growth in all small towns along it. It will also provide vast opportunities for transport of agricultural produce from the hinterland to major cities and ports for export, as also provide job opportunities during its construction. In addition, it will also create a demand for cement, steel and other construction materials. These Super Highways will reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India.

2.What is the significance (importance) of: (a) National Highways and (b) Border Roads.

Ans:- (a) National Highways: These highways connect one state with another and are of national importance. These highways link extreme parts of the country. These road systems are also known as primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). A majority of these National Highways run in the North-South and East-West direction.

(b) Border Roads: These are roads which can be found along the border areas of our country. These roads are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) which functions directly under the Central Government. The BRO was established in 1960 for the development of the roads in the northern and northeastern border areas. These were roads of strategic importance. These roads connect to the state the National Highways and that pass through the concerned states.

3. How do physiographic and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian railway network? Explain with suitable examples.

Ans:- Railway network distribution in our country is dependent on many factors, viz., physiography, economy and administrative factor.

.The level and extensive northern plains with high density of population, high industrial activity and rich agriculture, favour development of railways. However, the wide rivers that flow here cannot be crossed without bridges which become an additional cost for railways.

The high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities in the Himalayan region create unfavourable conditions for laying the railway lines. Frequent landslides and rock fall are additional problems.

.The low flood plains of Assam and Bihar, where floods are common, have difficulty in maintaining railway lines.

.Other areas where laying railway tracks becomes difficult are, the sandy plains of western Rajasthan, forest areas of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand and the swamps of Gujarat.

4. Explain any four merits of pipeline transport in India. 

Ans:- The four merits of pipeline transport in India are:

1. Pipelines can be laid under water or over mountains and under varied terrain.

2 Pipelines require only the initial costs of laying pipes and have almost negligible running or repair and maintenance costs. New pipelines are made of materials which do not corrode.

3. Pipelines reduce wastage and oil spills.

4. It reduces trans-shipment losses and delays.

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