NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-8| Manufacturing Industries

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-8| Manufacturing Industries. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-8| Manufacturing Industries

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EXERCISE

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1.Manufacturing is the process of 

(a) Producing goods in large quantity

(b) Producing goods by hands 

(c) Producing goods without adding value 

(d) None of the above

Ans: (a) Producing goods in large quantity

2. Which of the following developments usually follows industrial activity?

(a) Agriculture

(b) Urbanisation

(c) Electrification

(d) Mining

Ans: (d) Mining

3.Which of the following is not a factor of production? 

(a) Land 

(b) Raw material 

(c) Capital

(d) Infrastructure

Ans: (a) Land

4. Which of the following industries is in the private sector?

(a) Dabur 

(b) BHEL 

(c) SAIL 

(d) NTPC

Ans: (c) SAIL

5. Oil India Limited (OIL) belongs to which of the following types of industries.

(a) Public sector

(b) Private sector

(c) Joint sector

(d) Cooperative sector

Ans: (c) Joint sector

6.Which of the following industries belongs to the category of heavy industries?

(a) Watches

(b) Shipbuilding

(c) Electric bulbs

(d) Knitting needles

Ans: (b) Shipbuilding

II. Very Short Answer Questions 

1. What is manufacturing?

Ans: Manufacturing is the process of producing goods in large quantities by using machines. Manufacturing involves processing of raw materials to produce more valuable products in large quantities.

2. What are tertiary activities?

Ans: All those activities that link the producers and consumers are called tertiary activities such as banks, transport, etc.

3.What do you understand by agro-based industries?

Ans: Industries based on agricultural raw materials is called agro- based industries.

4. Which city is called the ‘Silicon Valley of India’?

Ans: Bengaluru.

5.Where are cement plants located in India?

Ans: The various cement plants located in India are at Bokajan in Assam, Rajban in Himachal Pradesh, Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh, Bhatinda in Punjab, Khrew in Jammu and Kashmir, Pali in Rajasthan and Palghat in Kerala. Indian cement is exported to East Asia, Africa, South Asia and Middle East.

III. Short Answer Questions

1.’Agriculture and industry move hand-in-hand.’ Elucidate

.Ans: Since India has an agrarian economy, agro-based industries have played an important role in India’s development. India is one of the largest producers of milk, sugarcane and tea, as well as rice, wheat, fruits and vegetables. These provide raw materials for growth of agro-based industries. Agriculture and industry go hand in hand and complement each other. Both are dependent on each other for progress and survival.

2. Why is South India and western India more favourable for setting up sugarcane mills?

Ans: Sugar mills have migrated to the southern and western states of India, especially Maharashtra. The reasons for the shift are – the cooler climate in those states which lengthens the crushing season and even increases the sucrose content of the cane. Another important factor is the success of cooperat

3.What are the prime factors in location of aluminium smelting industries?

Ans: Bauxite is the raw material used in smelters for extracting alumina and later aluminium. Location of the industry is influenced by the availability of bauxite at minimum cost and inexpensive and assured supply of electricity.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Differentiate between agro-based industries and mineral- based industries. Give examples.

Ans: Agro-based industries: Industries based on agricultural raw materials.

The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self -reliant and complete in value chain. This means that it is complete from raw materials to the highest value added products. Eg: Garments. Main contribution of this industry are:

(i)It contributes almost 14% to industrial production.

(ⅱ) It generates employment for almost 35 million people directly.

(iii) It contributes to almost 24.6% of the foreign exchange earnings.

(iv) Its contribution towards GDP is 4%. 

Examples of Agri-based industries are cotton textiles and jute textiles.

Mineral based industries: Those industries which use minerals and metals as raw materials. Some mineral-based industries are iron and steel, aluminium smelting, copper smelting, cement, fertilizer, etc.

Iron and Steel Industry:- The iron and steel industry is known as the basic industry as all other industries are dependent on it for their machinery. This industry falls into the category of heavy industry as the raw material used is heavy and bulky and requires huge investment on transportation.

2.When was the National Jute Policy introduced? What are its main objectives?

Ans: The National Jute Policy was framed 2005. Its main objectives were to increase productivity, improve quality, enhance yield/ production and also ensure supportive prices to the jute farmers. Today, the Indian jute industry is facing stiff competition from synthetic substitutes which are easily available at cheaper rates. It also faces tough competition from jute products from Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.

The government policy of mandatory use of jute packing has given an impetus to the demand for jute, at least in India. Another means by which demand is being increased is by introducing many other jute based products. Another factor that has increased the importance of jute is the concern for preservation of the environment.

3.What are software technology parks and where in India are they located?

Ans: Software technology parks had come up across 46 locations at different cities in India. These provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts. The IT industry employed more than one million people out of which 30 percent are women. Bengaluru has emerged as the electronic capital of India and is also known as the ‘Silicon Valley’ of India.

Other upcoming centres are Hyderabad, Delhi, Pune, Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Coimbatore. These provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts.

4. Why is the development of manufacturing industries considered a measure for assessing the economic strength of a country? 

Ans: Manufacturing sector is considered the central dynamic force of development in general, and economic development in particular, mainly because of the following reasons.

(i) Prosperity through manufacturing is a long-term strategy of our government. Manufacturing not only aids in modernising agriculture, which is crucial for creating new economic opportunities, but also provides employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors and reduces dependence on agriculture.

(ii) Industrialisation is a powerful method of conquering poverty and providing employment. The public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India focus on bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries even in remote and far flung areas especially the tribal and backward areas.

(iii) Manufacturing enables India to utilize its resources optimally, diversify economic base, raise the living standard of people, expand trade and commerce and bring in the much needed foreign exchange.

(iv) All industries require raw materials for production. The prosperity of a country lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries at a fast and steady pace and transforming its raw materials into a diverse variety of finished goods of higher value.

5. Classify industries on the basis of:

(i) Capital investment

(ii) Ownership

Ans: (i) Capital investment

Large ScaleSmall Scale
Investment in such an industry is more than one crore.
Labour employed is large.
Investment in such an industry is less than one crore.
Labour employed is less.

(ii) Ownership

Public SectorPrivate SectorJoint SectorCooperative Sector
Owned and operated government agencies, e.g., BHEL, SAILOwned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, e.g., Bajaj Auto Ltd.,Dabur Industries, TiscoRun jointly by thestate and or of e.g.individual group individuals, Oil India Ltd. (OIL)Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Resources are pooled and profits and losses are shared, e.g. coir industry in Kerala, Sugar industry in Maharashtra.

6.How do industries pollute the environment?

Ans: Industries pollute the environment through the different ways:

(a) Air Pollution: The smoke created by the industries pollute air and water very badly. Air pollution is caused by poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Air bome particular materials consist of both solid and liquid particles. Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke contain both types of particles. Human made sources of-pollutants are normally industrial and solid wastes. Air pollution affects human health, animals, plants, materials and the atmosphere.

(b)Water pollution: The industrial pollution also pollutes water.

The industrial effluents that are discharged into rivers spoil the water. They are both organic and inorganic. Coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilizers, plastics and rubber are some common pollutants of water. The industries which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, refining, tannery, electroplanting etc. Besides, industrial wastes containing toxic metals pollute land and soil. Thus the above factors degrade the environment which affects both men and animals.

Some important methods to prevent pollution caused by industries: They have been explained below.

(a) Use of Recycle water: Polluted water is the most serious cause of pollution. But water pollution can be checked by minimizing use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.

(b) Rain water Harvesting: It is very essential to harvest rainwater so that we can meet water requirement. 

(c) Proper water Treatment: Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds

7. Explain the factors that determine the location of industries.

Ans: Locating an industry is a complex issues. Many factors play an important role in location of industries, such as availability of raw material, labour, capital, power, market, etc. It is very difficult to find all the factors at one place. Hence, an industry is set up or located at a place where most of the factors are present naturally or can be made available easily and at a reasonable cost.

It has been noticed that industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand. This happens under two circumstances-when ani industry is set up people who get employed settle around it. Township with services such as market, banking, transport, labour, etc. get established. In such a case, urbanisation follows industrial activity The other circumstance is when industries are set up near cities Here industrial activity follows urbanisation. Urban centres offer many opportunities to the industries like banking, insurance, transport, etc. Hence, many industries come together to form an industrial agglomeration and avail of the many advantages offered by these urban centres, known as agglomeration economies.

8. Why is the iron and steel industry considered as basic industry? Explain 

Ans: The iron and steel industry is known as the basic industry as all other industries are dependent on it for their machinery. This industry falls into the category of heavy industry as the raw material used is heavy and bulky and requires huge investment on transportation.

9.Describe the role of Information Technology in modern India.

Ans: Information Technology and Electronics Industry: The information technology and electronics industry have global foundations. Products are designed in one country, produced in another, then sold around the world. The industry covers a wide range of products – transistors, television sets, computers, radars, cellular telecoms pagers, telephones and various other equipments, like those used in post and telegraph offices. These have ushered in a revolution that has changed man’s quality of life and even changed the country’s economy. Another significant effect that this industry has had is the employment opportunities it has generated. This growth is corroborated by the fact that upto 31st March 2005 the IT industry employed more than one million people, but it is expected that in the next 3 to 4 years there will be an eight-fold increase. Because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector this industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years. This spells the success of the IT industry in India which has recorded a phenomenal growth in a short time span.

Software Technology Parks provides single window service and high data communication facility to software experts. There are 18 software technology parks in our country located in different places like Kolkata, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Guwahati etc.

10. Briefly describe any four measures of controlling industrial pollution.

Ans: Industries pollute the environment through the different ways:

(a) Air Pollution: The smoke created by the industries pollute air and water very badly. Air pollution is caused by poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Air bome particular materials consist of both solid and liquid particles. Dust, fume, mist. spray and smoke contain both types of particles. Human made sources of – pollutants are normally industrial and solid wastes. Air pollution affects human health, animals, plants, materials and the atmosphere.

(b)Water pollution: The industrial pollution also pollutes water. The industrial effluents that are discharged into rivers spoil the water. They are both organic and inorganic. Coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilizers, plastics and rubber are some common pollutants of water. The industries which create water pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, refining, tannery, electroplanting etc. Besides, industrial wastes containing toxic metals pollute land and soil. Thus the above factors degrade the environment which affects both men and animals.

Some important methods to prevent pollution caused by industries: They have been explained below.

(a) Use of Recycle water: Polluted water is the most serious cause of pollution. But water pollution can be checked by minimizing use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.

(b) Rain water Harvesting: It is very essential to harvest rainwater so that we can meet water requirement.

(c) Proper water Treatment: Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Additional Questions

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following techniques of cotton textile production came into use after the 18th century?

(a) Powerlooms

(b) Hand spinning

(c) Handloom weaving

(d) Zari embroidery

Ans:-(b) Hand spinning

II. Short Answer Questions

2. What is the main objective of NMCC National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council?

Ans:- The NMCC-National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council – has been set up by the government to provide a continuing forum for policy dialogue to energise and sustain the growth of manufacturing industries in India.

3.Name the first Jute Mill established in India?

Ans:-The first jute mill in India was established at Rishra near Kolkata in 1859.

III. Long Answer Type Questions:

1. Classify industries on the basis of: 

(a) Capital investment, (b) Ownership (c) Bulk and weight of raw material and (d) Finished product.

Ans: (i) Capital investment

Large ScaleSmall Scale
Investment in such an industry is more than one crore. Labour employed is large.Investment in such an industry is less than one crore.
Labour employed is less.

(ii) Ownership

Public SectorPrivate SectorJoint SectorCooperative Sector
Owned and operated government agencies, e.g., BHEL, SAILOwned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, e.g., Bajaj Auto Ltd.,
Dabur Industries,
Tisco
Run jointly by thestate and or of e.g.individual group individuals, Oil India Ltd. (OIL)Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Resources are pooled and profits and losses are shared, e.g. coir industry in Kerala, Sugar industry in Maharashtra.

(c) Bulk and weight of raw material and (d) Finished product.

Heavy IndustriesLight Industries
e.g. Iron and steel, shipbuilding. Both the raw material and finished products are heavy.e.g. Light goods such as electrical industries, sewing machines etc. using light raw material and producing light goods.

2. Why is manufacturing sector considered as the central dynamic force of development in general and economic development in particular?

Ans:-Manufacturing sector is considered the central dynamic force of development in general, and economic development in particular, mainly because of the following reasons:

(1) Prosperity through manufacturing is a long term strategy of our government. Manufacturing not only aids in modernising agriculture, which is crucial for creating new economic opportunities but also provides employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors and reduces dependence on agriculture.

(ii) Industrialisation is a powerful method of conquering poverty and providing employment. The public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India focus on bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries even in remote and far flung areas especially the tribal and backward areas.

(iii) Manufacturing enables India to utilise its resources optimally, diversify the economic base, raise the living standard of people, expand trade and commerce and bring in the much needed foreign exchange.

(iv) All industries require raw materials for production. The prosperity of a country lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries at a fast and steady pace and transforming its raw materials into a diverse variety of finished goods of higher value.

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