NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-7| Agriculture

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-Agriculture. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-7| Agriculture

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EXERCISE

I.Multiple Choice Questions

1.The most important fibre crop of India is:

(a) Cotton

(b) Tea

(c) Rubber

(d) Coffee

Ans: (a) Cotton

2. The most important occupation of the people of India is:

(a) Food gathering 

(b) Agriculture

(c) Manufacturing 

(d) Services

Ans: (b) Agriculture

3. Which of the following types of economic activity is agriculture?

(a) Primary activity

(b) Secondary activity

(c) Tertiary activity

(d) All of the above

Ans: (a) Primary activity

4.Rice is a subsistence crop in Odisha; in which of the following states is rice a commercial crop? 

(a) West Bengal and Bihar 

(b) Jammu and Kashmir

(c) Punjab and Haryana

(d) Tamil Nadu and Kerala

Ans: (c) Punjab and Haryana

5.Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?

(a) Shifting agriculture

(c) Horticulture

(b) Plantation agriculture 

(d) Intensive agriculture

Ans: (b) Plantation agriculture

6. Which of the following is a Rabi crop?

(a) Rice 

(b) Gram

(c) Millets

(d) Cotton

Ans: (b) Gram

7.Which of the following crops are produced during Zaid cropping season?

(a) Sugarcane

(b) Muskmelon

(c) Groundnut

(d) Moong

Ans: (b) Muskmelon

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Name the two main fibre crops of India.

Ans: The two main fiber crops of India are Cotton and Jute

2. Which is the largest producer of sugarcane producing state of India?

Ans: The largest producer of sugarcane producing state of India is Uttar Pradesh.

3. State the growing and harvesting periods of Rabi crops. 

Ans: Rabi crops are sown from October to December and harvesting is from April to June.

4.Which crops are known as beverage crops?

Ans: Tea and coffee are known as beverage crops.

5.Why is tea processed within tea gardens?

Ans: Tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates. The soil requirement is deep fertile well-drained soil which is rich in humus and organic matter.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What is agriculture?

Ans: Agriculture is the process of producing food, seed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals.

2.What is primitive farming? Mention any two characteristics. 

Ans: Primitive subsistence is also known as slash and burn farming.

Any two characteristics of primitive farming are:-

(i) Farmers clear, slash and burn a small piece of land and grow on it cereals and other food crops to sustain themselves.

(ii) The entire family or community work on the land. Primitive tools such as hoe, digging sticks and dao are used. No fertilizers or manure is used and hence the land productivity is low. Primitive subsistence depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions.

3. Briefly describe the conditions required for the cultivation of jute.

Ans: The conditions required for the cultivation of jute are:- 

(i) Well-drained fertile soil in the flood plains.

(ii) Soil which is renewed every year.

(ii) High temperature during time of growth.

4. When are Rabi crops sown? Name two Rabi crops.

Ans: Rabi crops are sown from October to December. Two Rabi crops are Wheat and Barley.

5. What is Zaid?

Ans: This is a short season between the rabi and kharif seasons.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Which type of farming is ‘slash and burn’? Why is the land abandoned after a few years?

Ans: Primitive Subsistence or Jhum is also known as Slash and Burn. It is known by different names even in India. It is so called because in this type of farming farmers clear, slash and burn a small piece of land and on it grow cereals and other food crops to sustain themselves. The entire family or community utilised as labour force. Primitive tools such as hoe, digging sticks and dao are used. No fertilisers or manure is used and hence the land productivity is low. Primitive subsistence depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions. Examples are Cereals and other food crops, Tuber crops like yams and cassava and sweet potatoes.

Abandoned of land takes place in all sections such as: 

(i) loss of fertility

(ii)Change of economic condition rendering further cultivation umprofitable.

2. ‘Some pulses are known as leguminous crops.’ Why are they grown in rotation with other crops?

Ans: Major pulses are gram, urad, moong, masoor, tur or arhar and peas. Pulses are the major source of protein in a vegetarian dic.

These are grown all over the country except in areas of heavy rain. Major pulse producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. 

Pulses are grown in rotation with other crops as they help in restoring soil fertility by utilizing nitrogen from the air.

Major gram and tur producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Gram is also cultivated in Rajasthan and tur in Andhra Pradesh. 

Pulses need less moisture and can survive in dry conditions.

3.Describe the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of sugarcane.

Ans: It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27 and an annual rainfall between 75 cm and 100cm. irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall. This crop requires manual labour from sowing to harvesting. It can be grown on a variety of soils. It is an annual crop.

4. Explain any four factors responsible for the low productivity of agriculture in India.

Ans: Four factors responsible for the low productivity of agriculture in India are as follows:-

(i) Population pressure

(ii) Uneconomic holdings

(iii) Subsistence nature of farming

(iv) Decline in soil fertility

5.What is intensive subsistence farming? How is it practised?

Ans: It is a labour intensive farming method. It uses high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation to obtain higher production. It is characterised by very small farm holdings. There is enormous pressure on agricultural land. This is a consequence of the ‘Right of Inheritance’ which has led to the division of land among successors. In this type of agriculture every bit of cultivable land is used. Where there is inadequate water, irrigation is used and where the land is hilly, terraces are made. In many areas swamps have been drained for cultivation of paddy.

6. What are the main cropping seasons in India?

Ans: The main cropping seasons of India are as follows:-

(i)Rabi

  .Here crops are sown in winter from October to December, harvested in summer from April to June. Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard are some important Rabi crops

(ii) Kharif

   .Here the crops are sown with the onset of monsoon in June, harvested in September to October. Paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean are some of the important Kharif crops.

(iii) Zaid

This is a short season between the rabi and kharif seasons. Crops produced are watermelons, musk-melons, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane is almost an annual crop.

7. Discuss the importance of horticulture crops and production in India.

Ans: India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables. It produces tropical as well as temperate fruits.

Almost 13% of the world’s vegetables are produced in India. It leads the world in the production of peas and cauliflower, is second in onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and fourth in potato production.

Areas of Cultivation are

Mangoes-Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Covers 38% of the area under forests.

Oranges-Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya)

Bananas-Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu

Litchi and Guava – Bihar and Uttar Pradesh 

Pineapple-Meghalaya

Grapes-Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra

Apples, Pears, Apricots and Walnuts – Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh

Cashewnut-Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana

8. Mention any six institutional and technical reforms implemented by Indian government in agriculture.

Ans: Technological reforms and institutional reforms been able to improve the condition of Indian agriculture in many ways, some of which are mentioned below:-

(i)Increase in Agricultural Production: The introduction of Green Revolution in 1967-68 has resulted in phenomenal increase in the production of agricultural crops especially in food-grains.

(ii) Prosperity of Farmers: With the increase in farm production the earnings of the farmers also increased and they became prosperous. This has, especially, been the case with big farmers having more than 10 hectares of land.

(iii) Reduction in import of food-grains: The main benefit of Green Revolution was the increase in the production of foodgrains, as a result of which there was a drastic reduction in their imports. We are now self sufficient in food-grains and have sufficient stock in the central pool. Sometimes we are in a position to export food- grains also.

(iv) Capitalistic Farming: Big farmers having more than 10 hectares of land have tended to get the maximum benefit from Green Revolution technology by investing large amount of money in various inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers, machines, etc. This has encouraged capitalistic farming.

(v) Ploughing back of profit: It has helped the farmers in raising their level of income. Wiser farmers ploughed back their surplus income for improving agricultural productivity. This led to further improvement in agriculture. According to a study conducted by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana farmers plough back about 55 per cent of their income for agricultural progress.

(vi) Industrial Growth: Green Revolution brought about large scale farm mechanization which created demand for different types of machines like tractors, harvestors, threshers, combines, diesel engines, electric motors, pumping sets, etc. Besides, demand for chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, etc. also increased considerably. Consequently, industries producing these items progressed by leaps and bounds. Moreover, several agricultural products are used as raw materials in various industries. These industries are known as agro based industries. Textile, sugar, vanaspati, etc. are some outstanding examples of agro based industries.

9. What is Green Revolution? What programmes were launched in the 1980s and 1990s for improvement of agriculture?

Ans: The Green Revolution is a phrase generally used to describe the spectacular increase in the production of food grains in India.

The improvements too did not bring about the desired improvement. Development and improvement was restricted to a few areas only. By the 1980’s and 1990’s it became very clear that what was required was a comprehensive land development programme which would comprise both institutional and technical reforms. To start the government took the initiative by providing various facilities on its own. Hence, the following institutional and technical reforms were implemented-

  • Subsidy on electricity, purchasing seeds and fertilisers to ensure farmers continue to improve agriculture, consolidated and collectivised farms to make them economically viable.
  • Widespread use of radio and television for acquainting farmers in new and improved techniques of cultivation.
  • Crop insurance to protect the farmers against losses caused by crop failure.
  • Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on television and radio.
  • Well-knit network of rural banking for farmers to help them get loans to modemise agriculture.
  • Announcing minimum support price for the crops grown by farmers to check exploitation of fanners by middlemen and speculators.
  • Remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by the speculators and middlemen.
  • Kisan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are a few schemes introduced by the government.
Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Additional Questions

1. Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of the following is the principal crop grown in areas of Intensive Subsistence Farming?

(a) Yams and Sweet Potato

(b) Wheat

(c) Rice

(d) Cotton

Ans:-(b) Wheat

2. Which of the following is a kharif crop?

(a) Barley

(b) Peas

(c) Wheat

(d) Mustard

Ans:- None

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1.Name the two main beverage crops of India.

Ans:- Tea and coffee.

2. Name the two most important cereal crops of India.

Ans:- Wheat and Pulses.

3.What is Horticulture?

Ans:- Horticulture pertains to art of growing, fruit, flowers and vegetables.

4. Mention four natural Fibres found in India? 

Ans:- The four major natural fibres of India are cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What is plantation farming? Name some plantation crops.

Ans:- The type of farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area is called plantation farming. Some of the plantation crops are: Tea, Rubber, Coffee, Sugarcane etc.

2.What are millets? Why are millets very important food crop in India?

Ans:-Millets are a group of various types of grass or its grains used as food. Such as Jowar, Bajra and Ragi are the important millets grown in India. They are also known as coarse grains. They are very important because of their very high nutritional value.

3. What has led to decline in jute production in recent times?

Ans:- High cost of jute and cheap and easy availability of synthetic fibres and packing material, especially nylon as an alternative of jute has led to decline in jute production in recent times.

4. Mention four factors that leads to increase in Agriculture productivity?

Ans:- Developments that helped raise agricultural productivity are 

(i) Introduction of high yielding varieties of crops (mid-1960s)

(ii) Investments in agriculture

(iii) Expansion of credit

(iv) Marketing and processing facilities. 

5.What are the negative impacts of Green Revolution?

Ans:- The Green Revolution had raised hopes of high yields to great heights but today it is surrounded by controversies. It is said that it has triggered the vanishing of biodiversity, drying up of aquifers, and is resulting in land degradation due to overuse of chemicals and exploitation.

6. Write a note on Gene Revolution?

Ans:- Gene Revolution is an agricultural revolution based on recent developments in genetic engineering. It uses genetically managed seeds to create plants with the possibility of higher yield in areas of drought and extensive use of pesticides and fertilisers.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1.Distinguish between Intensive Subsistence Farming and Commercial Farming.

Ans:-Intensive Subsistence Farming: It is a labour intensive farming method. It uses high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation to obtain higher production. It is characterised by very small farm holdings. There is enormous pressure on agricultural land. This is a consequence of the ‘Right of Inheritance’ which has led to the division of land among successors. In this type of agriculture every bit of cultivable land is used. Where there is inadequate water, irrigation is used and where the land is hilly, terraces are made. In many areas swamps have been drained for cultivation of paddy.

Commercial Farming: This type of farming uses technology- high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity and production. In this kind of farming a single crop is grown on a large area. This kind of farming is a legacy of colonialism, adapted to local conditions. This type of agriculture is characterised by-

.Cultivation of cash crops for the export market.

.Crops grown on large estates.

.USES capital intensive inputs.

.Migrant labours employed for work.

.Most of the produce is used as raw material for industries and hence an efficient network system of communication and transport exists which connects the production areas to industries and markets. This is important for the development of plantations.

2. Which is the staple crop for majority of the people in India? What are the geographical conditions required for its growth?

Ans:- Rice (Kharif crop) It is the staple food crop of the majority of the population. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. ÿpIt is cultivated in the plains of north and northeastern India, delta regions and coastal areas. West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh etc are major producers of rice. The crop is also grown in the states of Punjab, Haryana western Uttar Pradesh and parts of  Rajasthan with the help of irrigation. 

It requires an annual rainfall above 100 cm and high temperature, i.e., above 25°C, coupled with high humidity. It requires heavyrainfall in of summer and irrigation in areas of less rainfall. Paddy is a tropical crop and grows very well in the wet monsoon lands,

3. Discuss on the role played by Agriculture towards National Economy?

Ans:-Contribution of agriculture towards national economy: Agriculture has been the backbone of Indian economy. Though the share of agriculture in GDP is declining; yet its share in providing employment and livelihoods to the population continues to be as high as 60 percent in 2013.

Agriculture provides raw material for industrial use, e.g. sugar, jute, cotton, tobacco, tea etc. Agro-based industries such as food- processing are gaining in importance, especially as products for export. India’s external trade also has a substantial agricultural component in the form, of rice, cotton textiles, tea, jute, cashew, tobacco, coffee. Of course heavy dependence on export of agricultural commodities reflect the underdeveloped nature of the economy. But of late the entry of processed food in the market is a step in the right direction of earning foreign exchange. Agricultural products are an important part of the consumption basket within the country. The largest part of the income is spent on foodgrains.

Industries are also dependent on agriculture for selling products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic, PVC pipes, machines, tools, etc. to farmers. A good harvest means higher, purchasing power for nearly 60% of population. Thus, agriculture indirectly contributes to the growth of secondary and tertiary sectors of our economy.

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