NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-6| Power Resources

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-6| Power Resources. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-6| Power Resources

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EXERCISE

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is a conventional source of energy? 

(a) Coal 

(b) Petroleum 

(c) Natural Gas 

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these

2. Which of the following is a conventional source of energy widely used in rural areas?

(a) Coal 

(b) Firewood 

(c) Natural Gas 

(d) Electricity

Ans: (b) Firewood

3. The gas supplied for use in households is called-

(a) LPG 

(b) CNG

(c) GNP

(d) GDP

Ans: (a) LPG

4.Which of the following is a clean energy resource?

(a) Mineral oil

(b) Natural gas

(c) Coal

(d) Nuclear energy

Ans: (c) Coal

5. Which of the following is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? [HOTS]

(a) Petroleum

(b) Coal 

(c) Firewood

(d) Biogas

Ans: (b) Coal

6.Which of the following is an environment friendly fuel?

(a) Peat coal

(b) Petroleum

(c) Natural gas

(d) Firewood

Ans: (c) Natural gas

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Where is the largest solar power plant located in India? 

Ans: In India the largest solar power plant located in Bhuj.

2. What is tidal energy?

Ans: The energy obtained from tides converted into useful form of power is called tidal energy.

3. What is biogas?

Ans: A mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter is called biogas.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Why are thermal power plants located near coalfields?

Ans: Thermal power plants are located near coalfields because the transmission of electricity is more efficient than transporting coal or oil over the same distance.

2.Why is petroleum refineries termed as ‘nodal industries’?

Ans: On occasion of the various by products obtained during refining, petroleum refineries serve as ‘nodal industry’ for chemical, fertiliser and synthetic textile industries. It provides fuel for heating, lighting, running machineries and vehicles, lubricants for machineries and raw materials for manufacturing different products such as plastics, chemicals.

3.What factors make the production of solar energy convenient in India?

Ans: The following factors make the production of solar energy convenient in India:-

(i)India is a tropical country and has abundant availability of sunshine throughout the year.

(ii)Photovoltaic technology is available, which converts the sunlight energy directly into electricity.

(iii) It is becoming more popular in rural areas as it will minimize the dependency of rural households on firewood and cow dung.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. What is crude oil? Where in India is petroleum drilled?

Ans: Crude oil is transported to refineries where it is changed into petrol and petrochemicals. On account of the various by-products obtained during the refining process, petroleum refineries serve as ‘nodal industry’ for chemical, fertilizer and synthetic textile industries. It provides fuel for heating, lighting, running machineries and vehicles, lubricants for machineries and raw materials for manufacturing different products such as plastics, chemicals, etc.

This field is obtained from sedimentary rocks. It emits very little smoke, leaves no ash and can be used to the last drop. The demand for petroleum and petroleum products has increased in recent years.

In percentage, Mumbai High produces 63 percent, Assam 16 percent and Gujarat 18 percent of the total petroleum production in India. Some oil is also found in Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. India produced 36.01 MTs of crude petroleum in 2016-17.

2. What is natural gas? Where is it extracted in India?

Ans: Natural gas is a clean energy resource found associated with or without petroleum. Natural gas can be extracted easily by drilling wells. One advantage of natural gas is that it does not require processing, as do coal and oil. After being cleared of impurities, natural gas is ready for the consumer. While burning it does produce carbon dioxide and it burns hotter and clearer than other fossil fuels. It is also cheaper. Natural gas is also used to generate electricity. While natural gas has many advantages it does have a big problem-it is limited.

This fuel is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry. 

India produced about 31.90 billion cubic metres of natural gas in 2016-17. More than 3/4 of the production comes from Mumbai High,10 percent from Gujarat, 7 percent from Assam and the remaining from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Rajasthan.

3.Distinguish between hydro-electricity and thermal electricity.

Ans: Electricity can be generated in  two ways:

Hydro-electricityThermal electricity
(i)Generated by fast flowing water.
(ii)(Renewable resource is used to produce this electricity.
(iii)Multipurpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley Corporation, Kopili Hydel Project etc. produce this kind of electricity

(i) Generated by using coal, petroleum, natural gas to drive turbines and produce thermal power.
(ii) Non-renewable fossil fuel is used to produce this electricity.
(iii) There are over 310 thermal power plants in India e.g. Loktak, Santaldih,Talcher, Neyvel, Ukai, Dhuvaram, etc.

4. Biogas is considered as an ideal domestic fuel.’ Give four reasons in support of the statement.

 Ans: Four reasons why Biogas is considered as an ideal domestic fuel are as follows:

1. Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste is utilized to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas.

2.A gas is produced when organic matter decomposes. This gas is higher in thermal efficiency when compared to charcoal, kerosene and cow dung.

3. Gobar gas plants use cow dung and give twin benefits to the farmers–energy and manure.

4. Such plants are set up at individual, cooperative and municipal levels.

5. Differentiate between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. 

Ans: The differences between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy are as follows:

Conventional source of energyNon-conventional source of energy
(a) These are non-renewable sources of energy i.e., Coal and Petroleum
(b) These are going to last just for 100-200 years.
(c) These cause air and water pollution.
(a) These are renewable sources of energy i.e. Solar energy, wind energy.
(b) These are going to last forever.
(c) These do not cause any pollution.

6. Describe the importance of coal as a source of energy.

Ans: Coal is created from decaying plant materials compressed over millions of years to form a solid mass of almost pure carbon. It is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel. This fossil fuel is found in a variety of forms depending on the degree of compression and the depth of burial.

The formation of peat was the first step in the coal making process Over time, the peat was compacted beneath other deposits. Water was squeezed out of the peat and methane was expelled into the atmosphere. Over thousands of years continued burial and compression caused the peat to change into different grades of coal- lignite, bituminous and anthracite.

One-third of the energy used throughout the world comes from coal. In addition to supplying fuel, coal is used in the production of many chemical products, including medicines and pesticides. India is highly dependent upon coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements, eg-power generation and supplying energy to industries as well as for domestic needs. The all India coal production target for 2016-17 was fixed at 724.71 MT.

7.How is petroleum an important source of both energy and raw material? 

Ans: This is liquid fossil fuel. Wells are dug or drilled on land or offshore to bring oil to the surface. This crude oil is transported to refineries where it is changed into gasoline and petrochemicals. On account of the various by products obtained during the refining, petroleum refineries serve as ‘nodal industry’ for chemical, fertiliser and synthetic textile industries. It provides fuel for heating, lighting, running machineries and vehicles, lubricants for machineries and raw materials for manufacturing different products such as plastics, chemicals, etc. This fuel is obtained from sedimentary rocks. It emits very little smoke, leaves no ash and can be used to the last drop. The demand for petroleum and petroleum products has increased in recent years.

8. ‘Natural gas is a clean gas.’ Write a note on the significance of natural gas.

Ans: Natural gas is a clean energy resource found associated with or without petroleum. Natural gas can be extracted easily by drilling wells. One advantage of natural gas is that it does not require processing, as do coal and oil. After being cleared of impurities, natural gas is ready for the consumer. While burning it, it does produce carbon dioxide and it burns hotter and clearer than other fossil fuels. It is also cheaper. Natural gas is also used to generate electricity. While natural gas has many advantages it does have a big problem-it is limited.

This fuel is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry.

India produced about 31.90 billion cubic metres of natural gas in 2016-17. More than 3/4th of the production comes from Mumbai High, 10 percent from Gujarat, 7 percent from Assam and the remaining from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Rajasthan.

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Additional Questions

I. Very Short Answer Questions

1.Name the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India.

Ans:- Coal.

2.Which is the main source of energy in India?

Ans:-Coal.

II. Short Answer Questions

1. What are Conventional sources of energy?

Ans:- Conventional sources: These energy sources have been in use since a long time, e.g, coal, petroleum. Such sources are non- renewable, limited, create pollution and are not eco-friendly.

2. Where is the largest Wind farm located in India?

Ans:- It is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.

3. Name two sources of Energy with examples?

Ans:- The two sources of Energy are:

(i)Conventional Source of energy, e.g, Coal, Petrol

(ii)Non Conventional Source of energy, e.g, Solar energy, tidal energy.

4.Name the best quality of Coal?

Ans:-Anthracite.

III. Long Answer Question

1. Distinguish between Hydro Electricity and Thermal Electricity

Ans:-Electricity cab ne generated in two ways:

Hydro-electricityThermal electricity
(i) Generated by fast flowing water.
(ii) Renewable resource is used to produce this electricity.
(iii) Multipurpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley Corporation, Kopili Hydel Project etc. produce this kind of electricity.
(i) Generated by using coal, petroleum, natural gas to drive turbines and produce thermal power.
(ii) Non-renewable fossil fuel is used to produce this electricity.
(iii) There are over 310 thermal power plants in India e.g. Loktak, Santaldih, Talcher, Neyvel, Ukai, Dhuvaram, etc.

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