NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-5| Resources

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NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-5| Resources

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EXERCISE

1. Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of the following is a human-made resource?

(a) Petroleum

(b) Forests

(c) Machines

(d) Land

Ans: (c) Machines

2. What is land used for grazing cattle and livestock known as?

(a) Fallow

(b) Pasture

(c) Barren

(d) Sown

Ans: (b) Pasture

3. The organic part of the soil formed by decomposition of dead animals and plant matter is called:

(a) Topsoil

(b) Humus 

(c) Subsoil 

(d) Weathered soil

Ans: (b) Humus

4. Water becomes a renewable and rechargeable resource due to which of the following reasons?

(a) Water table

(b) Hydrological cycle

(c) Seas and oceans

(d) Surface run off

Ans: (b) Hydrological cycle

5. On which of the following rivers is the Hirakud dam constructed?

(a) Satluj 

(b) Beas

(c) Mahanadi

(d) Narmada

Ans: (c) Mahanadi

6. Which of the following rocks consists of a single mineral?

(a) Granite 

(b) Basalt

(c) Limestone

(d) Sandstone

Ans: (c) Limestone

7.  An example of ferrous mineral would be:

(a) Quartz

(b) Gypsum

(c) Iron

(d) Mica

Ans: (c) Iron

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1.What is a resource?

Ans: Resources means using resources efficiently that are needed now and without harming future prospects. Conservation does not prohibit the use of resources but emphasises judicious and planned use of natural resources.

2. Give one example each of biotic and abiotic resources.

Ans: Example of Biotic resource:- Human beings.

Example of Abiotic resource:- Rocks

3. Define soil.

Ans: The uppermost layer of the earth’s crust in which plants grow is called soil.

4. What is soil erosion?

Ans: Removal of top soil by running water and wind is known as soil erosion. 

5. What is soil conservation? 

Ans: Conservation of soil is important, as soil is a renewable natural resource, which supports life on earth.

6. What type of resource is water?

Ans: Natural source.

7. What is a spillway or weir?

Ans: Spillway is a passage for surplus water of a dam.

8. What are multipurpose projects?

Ans: Dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects as the uses of the impounded water are in integration with one another.

9. Define the term ‘mineral’. 

Ans: A mineral is a naturally occurring solid, having a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.

10. What are metallic minerals?

Ans: Metallic minerals are homogenous ore of one kind of metal such as iron, copper and gold. These usually originate from igneous rocks. They have a shine of their own.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What are renewable resources?

Ans: Renewable resources can be renewed or reproduced. This renewal or reproduction takes place through physical, chemical or mechanical processes, example solar and wind energy, water, forests.

2.What are potential resources?

Ans: Potential resources are resources found in a region but not utilized, example Rajasthan and Gujarat have great wind and solar energy potential but it has not been developed properly.

3. Briefly explain the classification of resources on the basis of ownership.

Ans: Biotic Resources: These are obtained from the biosphere and have life, e.g., human beings, livestock, fisheries, forests, flora and fauna etc.

Abiotic Resources: These are composed of non-living things, e.g., rocks, minerals, land, water.

4. Why is land a very important resource?

Ans: Land is a very important resource. Land all over the world supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, communication and transport system. Hence, land is of great significance for all nations.

IV. Long Answer Questions 

1. Briefly explain the causes of soil erosion.

Ans: The two common ways are sheet erosion and gully erosion. 

(i) Sheet erosion: Sometimes during heavy rainfall the volume of run-off is very high. If the topsoil is not protected by sufficient plant cover, it is washed away by the force of surface run-off This is known as sheet erosion.

(ii) Gully erosion: When rain falls heavily over an uneven terrain, the run-off’ scoops out narrow and deep grooves. With time, these grooves or gullies grow in size and spread over a large area. This is known as gully erosion, leading to the formation of ravines or badlands. The Chambal Valley in Madhya Pradesh is a good example of gully erosion.

Soil erosion is caused by both physical and human factors. The physical factors include slope of the land, intensity of rainfall and velocity of the wind. The human factors that contribute to sol erosion are deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical fertilizers, over-irrigation, mining and unscientific farming methods

2.  Why should we conserve and manage our water resources.

Ans: We should conserve and manage our water resources because:

(i) Water is a Precondition for life. Without it we cannot live.

(ii)  Water is essential for crops.

(iii) Water is an important component of ecosystem.

We should conserve water because its overuse and misuse has lead to water scarcity.

3.Why are dams referred to as multipurpose projects?

Ans: Dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects as the uses

of the impounded water are in integration with one another. 

4.What is rainwater harvesting? State the benefits of rainwater harvesting.

Ans: It is the technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rain water by constructing structures such as percolating pits, check dams etc.

Rainwater harvesting is done for two reasons:

1. Storing rainwater in containers above or below the ground.

2. Water is charged into soil for withdrawal later.

5. Differentiate between ferrous minerals and non-ferrous minerals.

Ans: Ferrous Minerals

These minerals are very important for the development of metallurgical industries as they contain iron. Out of the total value of production of metallic minerals, ferrous minerals cover three-fourths of the total production. India produces enough ferrous minerals to satisfy the domestic demands and also enough for export.

Non-Ferrous Minerals

These are minerals that contain metals other than iron. These minerals which include copper, bauxite, gold, zinc and lead have a very important role to play in metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.

The reserves of non-ferous minerals in India is not very satisfactory. Hence the production of non-ferrous minerals is insufficient.

6. Mention any three measures for conservation of minerals, 

Ans: Certain measures to be adopted for conservation of minerals are: 

(a) Use of minerals in planned and sustainable manner.

(b) Evolving of improved technology to use low grade ore at low cost.

(c) Recycling of metals.

7.What is resource planning? Why is it important?

Ans: Resource planning is required for proper use and utilisation of resources, as overuse and exploitation of resources have created many problems. Resource planning is the technique of a balanced utilisation of resources.

In India, especially resource development is a function of:

(a) Availability of resources

(b) Technology

(c) Quality of human resources, and

(d) Historical experiences of the people

8. Do you think conservation of resources is necessary? Why/ Why not?

Ans: Resources are essential for sustenance as well as for development. But over exploitation and unplanned consumption of resources are leading to their depletion. This has socio-economic and environmental consequences. These problems can be tackled by adopting resource conservation as a means to manage and save resources for a better future. Conservation of resources means using resources efficiently that are needed now without harming future prospects. Conservation does not prohibit the use of resources but emphasizes judicious and planned use of natural resources.

9. Discuss the causes of land degradation.

Ans: Land degradation has many causes :

(i) Overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation.

(ii)When overgrazing of natural pastures takes place the vegetation cover decreases. This leads to wind and water erosion.

(iii) Water-logging is also one of the main causes. The main cause of water logging is over-irrigation. Water-logging results in the increase of the salinity and alkalinity in the soil.

(iv) Mineral processing is also a major cause. 

(v) Effluents from industries also cause land degradation.

10. List the different types of soil in India. Discuss anyone type of soil.

Ans: The factors that influence soil formation differ from one place to another. Hence, different types of soils are found at different places and under different climatic conditions. 

Indian soils are classified into six main types:

  • Alluvial soils
  • Black soils
  • Red and yellow soils
  • Laterite soils 
  • Arid soils
  • Forest soils
  • Alluvial Soils

Alluvial soils form the bulk of soils of India. They are found mainly in the river valleys of the Northern Plains and are very fertile. These soils are also found in strips, in Gujarat and Rajasthan. They also cover the eastern coastal plains especially the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers. These soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are best for the cultivation of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Because

of their high fertility the areas of alluvial soils are used intensively for growing crops and are, therefore, densely populated. Alluvial soil can be classified as “Khadar’ and ‘Bangar’ soil. The new alluvial soil is known as “Khadar’ whereas the old alluvial soil is known as ‘Bangar The ‘Khadar’ soil is more fertile than ‘Bangar”.

11. Mention any five uses of multipurpose river projects.

Ans:

SOME MULTIPURPOSE PROJECTS OF INDIA

Name of ProjectRiverBeneficiary StatesUses of the Multipurpose Project
1. Damodar ValleyDamodarJharkhand, West BengalFlood control, irrigation, generation and distribution of electricity
2. Bhakra NangalSatlujPunjab, Haryana, RajasthanHydel power production, irrigation
3. HirakudMahanadiOdishaConservation of water, flood control
4. KosiKosiBiharSoil conservation, flood control
5. Chambal ValleyChambalMadhya Pradesh, RajasthanIrrigation, generation of hydro-electricity, soil conservation

12. Water is available in abundance in India even then scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country. Discuss why rainwater harvesting should be adopted.

Ans: Water is available in abundance in India even then scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country because of the following reasons:-

(i) Growing population: Growing population is one of the basic factors which is responsible for the scarcity of water. Most of our cities are facing this problem due to overpopulation. A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food.

(ii) Commercialisation of agriculture: After the success of Green Revolution, our farmers are producing commercial crops. The commercial crops need more water and other inputs. Assured means of irrigation like tube wells and wells are responsible for the falling groundwater levels.

(iii) Industrialisation: The post independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation. Today, large industrial houses are common in the form of industrial units of many MNCs (Multinational Corporations). The ever increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on the existing freshwater resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from the hydroelectric power.

(iv) Urbanisation: Urbanisation has also aggravated the problem of water scarcity. Most of our cities are overpopulated. Overpopulation leads to over-utilisation of the water resources, and also pollutes the existing resources.

13. Why should we conserve our mineral resources? Suggest measures to conserve mineral resources.

Ans: Certain measures to be adopted for conservation of minerals are:

(a) Use of minerals in planned and sustainable manner. 

(b) Evolving of improved technology to use low grade ore at low cost.

(c) Recycling of metals.

(d) Using substitutes and scrap metals.

THINGS TO DO

I. ASSIGNMENT

Classify

Given below are examples of some resources. Classify them on the basis of ownership:

Plots of land, forest, grazing grounds, manganese nodules in the bed of Indian Ocean, village ponds, wells, orchards, public parks, canals, railways, coral reefs, playgrounds, houses, shopping malls, iron ore deposits in the country, rivers, pet dog, wildlife

Ans:

INDIVIDUALCOMMUNITYNATIONALINTERNATIONAL
Plot of landPet dogHousesWellOrchardGrazing ground Village ponds Play ground Shopping malls Public parksForestManganeseRailwaysWildlifeIron ore RiversCanalsCoral Reef

Additional Questions

I.Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of the following types of resource is iron-ore?

(a) Renewable 

(b) Biotic 

(c) Abiotic 

(d) Non-recyclable

Ans:-(c) Abiotic

2. Fossil fuels are examples of which of the following types of resources?

(a) Renewable 

(b) Flow

(c) Biological

(d) Non-renewable

Ans:-(d) Non-renewable

3. Under which of the following types of resources can solar energy be categorised?

(a) Flow resource

(b) Human-made resource

(c) Non-recyclable resource

(d) Exhaustible resource

Ans:-(a) Flow resource

4.Which of the following resource is non-recyclable?

(a) Coal 

(b) Iron-ore

(c) Copper

(d) Gold

Ans:-(a) Coal

5. Under which of the following types of resource can tidal energy be put? 

(a) Replenishable

(b) Human-made

(c) Abiotic

(d) Non-recyclable

Ans:-(b) Human-made

6.Which of the following areas would you immediately associate with water scarcity?

(a) Deserts of Rajasthan 

(b) The Ganga Plains

(c) Hills of North-Eastern India 

(d) Coastal areas of Odisha

Ans:-(a) Deserts of Rajasthan

7. Which of the following minerals is an important raw material in the iron and steel industry apart from iron?

(a) Mica 

(b) Aluminium 

(c) Gypsum 

(d) Manganese

Ans:-(d) Manganese

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Which soil is ideal for growing cotton?

Ans:-Black soil is ideal for growing cotton.

2. Name the river on which Sardar Sarovar dam has been built.

Ans:-Narmada river

3. Which are the two sources of fresh water in India? 

Ans:-The two sources of fresh water in India are:

(i) Ground water, (ii) Water obtained from surface run off.

4. What are multi-purpose projects?

Ans:-Dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects as the uses of the impounded water are in integration with one another.

5.Define the term ‘mineral ore’.

Ans:- A mineral is a naturally occurring solid having a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. Minerals are distributed all over the earth’s crust and are excavated for a variety of uses, including construction, manufacture of various products and as a fuel source.

6.Name the two main ferrous minerals.

Ans:- The two main ferrous minerals are:

(i) Iron ore (ii) Nickel

7. What does Conservation of resources mean?

Ans:-Conservation of resources means using resources efficiently that are needed now and without harming future prospects. Conservation does not prohibit the use of resources but emphasises judicious and planned use of natural resources.

8.According to National Forest Policy 1952, what is the desired forest area for a country like India?

Ans:- The National Forest Policy (1952) has outlaid that the desired forest area of a country must be 33% of the geographical area.

9.What is the present forest cover of India?

Ans:-The present forest cover is only 23 per cent, much lower than the desired percentage.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Distinguish between potential resource and stock with the help of examples.

Ans:-Potential resource are resources found in a region but not utilised e.g., Rajasthan and Gujarat have great wind and solar energy potential but it has not been developed properly.

Whereas stock resources are reserves which can be utilised to satisfy human needs. But humans do not have the technological knowhow to access and utilise such resources. These resources are considered as stock, e.g., – water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, but the technical procedure to use these to produce water for consumption is still not available.

2. List the problems caused due to indiscriminate use of resources by human beings.

Ans:-Major problems caused due to indiscriminate use of resources by human beings are:

(i)Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals 

(ii)Accumulation of resources in few hands which in turn divides the society into two segments i.e. haves and have nots 

3.Analyse the four main factors which help in the formation of soil.

Ans:-Topography or relief, time, climate, parent rock or bed rock, Ho vegetation and other forms of life are potent factors which play an important role in soil formation. Added to these are the agents of erosion like running water, glaciers, wind and temperature change. Chemical and organic changes also contribute towards soil formation.

4.Mention a negative effect of irrigation? How can irrigation transform the social land-scape?

Ans:-Its negative effects are that it changes the quantity and quality of soil and water. Due to irrigation facilities many farmers have shifted to water intensive and commercial crops. For example Punjab has become major producer of rice inspite of low rainfall. 

Impact on social landscape: this transformation has widened the gap between the rich and the poor. The rich and mighty who can afford higher inputs has become more rich whereas the poor have failed to get benefit due to lack of capital.

5.What are International Resources?

Ans:- International Resources: Some resources are owned by international institutions. No individual country can utilise oceanic resources beyond 200 km of exclusive economic zone, as it belongs to open ocean, without the permission of international institutions. For example, India can mine manganese, nodules from the bed of the Indian Ocean if they are found in the area beyond the exclusive economic zone because it has acquired the right to mine it from international institution.

6.What are the causes of Land degradation?

Ans:- Land degradation is caused due to deforestation, shortage of land due to increased population, poor land use, insecure land tenure, inappropriate land management practices and poverty.

7.What are the two types of Alluvial soil?

Ans:- Alluvial soil can be classified as ‘Khadar’ and ‘Bangar’ soil. The new alluvial soil is known as ‘Khadar’ whereas the old alluvial soil is known as ‘Bangar’. The ‘Khadar’ soil is more fertile than ‘Bangar’.

8.What factors affect the economic viability of a mineral? 

Ans:-There are three factors that affect the economic viability of a mineral. They are:

(a) Easy of extraction

(b) Closeness to the market 

(c) Concentration of mineral in the ore.

9. Mention some measures to conserve minerals?

Ans:- Certain measures to be adopted for conservation of minerals are:

(a) Use of minerals in planned and sustainable manner.

(b) Evolving of improved technology to use low grade ore at low cost.

(c) Recycling of metals.

(d) Using substitutes and scrap metals.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. What are ‘resources’? Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources. Give examples.

Ans:-Everything on the earth that is useful and necessary for man’s existence on this planet is referred to as a resource.

Renewable Resources: These can be renewed or reproduced. This renewal or reproduction takes place through physical, chemical or mechanical processes, e.g., solar and wind energy, water, forests.

Non-renewable Resources: These take millions of years to form, i.e. they occur over a long geological time, e.g., minerals and fuels. Some are recyclable (e.g., metals) while some are non-recyclable (eg, fossil fuels) and get exhausted with use.

2. Explain the landuse pattern of India. What is the impact of the decrease of land under permanent pastures?

Ans:-Both physical and human factors determine the landuse pattern of any area. Physical factors include topography, climate, soil types and human factors include population density, technological capability and cultural traditions, to name a few. India has a total geographical area of 3.28 million sq. km. We get to know about the land utilisation of this area on the basis of landuse data. Recent studies and statistics clearly point out that land under permanent pastures and land under tree crops have decreased. The decrease in land under permanent pastures has serious consequences because it becomes difficult to feed the huge cattle population if grazing lands are less. Even land under forests has increased marginally.

The current fallow lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years because such lands are of poor quality or the cultivation cost involved is very high. If these lands and curre fallows are included in the net sown area, 54 per cent of the total surveyed area is under Net Sown Area. SpThere is a wide variation in the pattern of net sown area from one state to another If we compare Haryana and Punjab with Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Islands there is great disparity. In Punjab and Haryana the net sown area is 80% of the total area but in the other mentioned states it is less than 10% of the total area.

Main reasons for this difference are many, e.g., climate, soil, relief, irrigation facilities. The success of Green Revolution in Punjab and Haryana has also accounted for larger areas under Net Sown Area in these states.

The National Forest Policy (1952) has outlaid that the desired forest area of a country must be 33% of the geographical area. This was necessary for maintaining the ecological balance. But the present forest cover is only 23 per cent, much lower than the desired percentage. This creates difficulties for millions of people who live in the fringe areas of the forests and depend upon the forests for their livelihood. Some land is termed as wasteland, this includes rocky, arid and desert areas. Some land is termed as land put to other non-agricultural uses; this includes settlements, roads, railways, industries etc.

3. Explain the causes of land degradation? 

Ans:-Land degradation has many causes:

(i) Overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation.

(ii)When overgrazing of natural pastures takes place the vegetation cover decreases. This leads to wind and water erosion. 

(iii) Water-logging is also one of the main causes. The main cause of

water logging is over-irrigation. Water-logging results in the increase of the salinity and alkalinity in the soil.

(iv) Mineral processing is also a major cause.

(v) Effluents from industries also cause land degradation.

4. What are the benefits of Rainwater harvesting?

Ans:- Some benefits of rainwater harvesting are:

(i) Increases water availability

(ii) Checks the declining water table

(iii) Is environmentally friendly

(iv) Improves the quality of groundwater through the dilution of fluoride, nitrate and salinity.

(v) Prevents soil erosion and flooding especially in urban areas.

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