NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-3| Nationalism in India

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NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-3| Nationalism in India

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Exercises

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which was the first Satyagraha launched by Gandhiji in India?

(a) Champaran Satyagraha 

(b) Kheda Satyagraha

(c) Ahmedabad Cotton Mill Workers Satyagraha

(d) None of these

Ans: (a) Champaran Satyagraha

2. Baba Ramchandra was:

(a) A sanyasi, who was earlier an indentured labourer

(b) Leader of the peasant revolt in Awadh 

(c) Founder of the Kishan Sabha of Awadh in October 1920 along with J.L. Nehru

(d) All the above

Ans: (b) Leader of the peasant revolt in Awadh

3. The Indian Independence League was formed by

(a) Subhash Chandra Bose 

(b) Captain Mohan Singh

(c) Ras Behari Bose

(d) Lala Lajpat Rai

Ans: (c) Ras Behari Bose

4. The leader of the peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh was

(a) Baba Ramchandra

(c) Alluri Sitaram Raju

(b) Venkata Raju

(d) Motilal Nehru

Ans: (c) Alluri Sitaram Raju

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. When did Gandhiji return from South Africa? 

Ans: Gandhiji returned from South Africa on 9 January 1915.

2. Name the leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh.

Ans: The leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh was Alluri Sitaram Raju.

3. Who formed the Swaraj party?

Ans: Swaraj party was formed by C.R Das and Motilal Nehru.

4. Why were the Indians against Simon Commission?

Ans: The Indians were against Simon Commission as it was considered an insult to India, as it has no Indian in it to decide India’s future.

5. What is Satyagraha?

Ans:Satyagraha was non-violent, non cooperation against a government which was high-handed, oppressive and unjust.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Name two Muslim leaders of the Khilafat Movement.

Ans: Two Muslim leaders of the Khilafat Movement were Mohammad Ali and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali.

2. What is the significance of the Lahore Session of the Congress held in December 1929?

Ans: At the Lahore Session of the Congress (29th-31″ December 1929) the congress adopted the resolution of complet independence for India as its goal. Jawaharlal Nehru, on the midnight of 31″ December, hoisted the Indian tricolor, flag of Indian independence.

3. Write any two principles of Satyagraha. 

Ans: Any two principles of Satyagraha are Truth and Non-Violence.

4. Name the two main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1917 and 1918.

Ans: Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha

5. When and why was the Inland Emigration Act passed by the British in India?

Ans: In 1859, the Inland Emigration Act was passed by the British in India.

Under the act, Plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. In reality, they were rarely given such permission.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Describe the activities of the workers in plantations during the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans: For the workers in British plantations, Swaraj meant freedom of a different kind for workers.

For plantation workers in tea gardens of Assam, Gandhiji’s Swaraj meant:

(i) Right to freedom of movement.

By the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the British did not allow the plantation workers to go back to their villages without their permission. This permission was very rarely given to them.

(ii) The Non-Cooperation movement made them leave the plantations in thousands. They thought they were free to go back to their villages where they would be given land; their dream was never realised. They were first stranded by railway and steamer strikes and then the police caught them and beat them up brutally.

The above examples of towns, countryside and plantations show how each group interpreted non-cooperation in their own way. But they had one thing in common. The tribals, the workers chanted Gandhiji’s name just as his followers did in towns and they all demanded “Swatantra Bharat”, a free India. This linked them with the movement and identified them with the national movement and the Congress. They all believed that “Swaraj” would end their sufferings and troubles.

2. Discuss the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh and its impact on nationalism.

Ans: The tribals of Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh gave their own interpretation to “Swaraj”. They started a militant guerrilla. movement against the colonial government.

  • Their leader was Alluri Sitaram Raju who claimed he had special powers. He could survive bullet shots, make correct astrological predictions and could heal people.

Causes: The reasons for their uprising were many-

  1. The British administration had ended their isolation and brought them fully under their colonialism.
  2. It made tribal chiefs into Zamindars and introduced a new system of land 34 revenue and taxation of whatever the tribals produced. 
  3. It tried to spread Christianity among the tribals and sent hundreds of Christian missionaries to their areas.
  4. Colonialism also introduced moneylenders, traders and middlemen in their society.
  5. These middlemen soon took possession of their land and forced many tribals into debt.
  6. In a very short time the tribals lost their land and were forced to become agricultural labourers, share-croppers and rack-rented tenants on their own land. They had earlier cultivated this land held on a communal basis.
  7. The tribals, since time immemorial, depended on the forest for their food, fuel and cattle-feed.

It had its impact on nationalism in as far the leader of the rebel Raju who was inspired by Gandhi persuaded to wear khadi and give up drinking, the rebels alsomcarried out guerilla warfare against the British for winning the swaraj.

3. Describe the main features of the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Ans: The main feature of the Cabinet Mission Plan are:

(a) There shall be a Federal Union of India, involving both the British Indian provinces and the princely states. But the centre shall have only three powers i.e., Defence, Foreign affairs communication.

(b) The Provinces would be free to form their groups with common legislative and executive.

(c) The constituent Assembly of the Union shall have members. Out of it 292 members from provinces shall be elected on communal basis, 4 from Chief Commissioner Territory and 93 from Princely States.

(d) It was proposed to set-up Interim Government at the centre with the support of the major political parties.

(e) It was proposed to make a treaty to negotiate between the constituent Assembly and the United Kingdom to provide for certain matters arising out of the transfer of power.

4. Discuss the contribution of Subhas Chandra Bose in the freedom struggle.

Ans: There were many great heroes born at the time of the freedom movement, each with his own method of attaining one goal. Independence for India. Some believed in non-violent means, whereas others did not. One such hero was Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as ‘Netaji’. Netaji was influenced more by Lokmanya Tilak and Sri Aurobindo. Subhash Chandra Bose He did not agree with Gandhiji’s methods of achieving Independence through non-violence. Rana Pratap and Shivaji were Netaji’s heroes and he believed that the only way to liberate his people was by direct action. At first, Netaji joined the Congress Party and was even elected President twice. But because he did not agree with Gandhiji’s views, he broke off to form the Forward Bloc. He was imprisoned for his revolutionary activities) on various occasions. At the time of World War II, the British were in a tight spot due to the pressure from Hitler. Netaji was under detention in Calcutta at that time, and decided to take advantage of the situation Dressed as a Pathan, he escaped to Peshawar and then moved on to Kabul and Moscow. Next was Germany. He then organised all the Indian prisoners of War to form the Liberation Army and free India. In 1941, Netaji went to Japan and formed the I.N.A. in 1943. The year 1945 witnessed the I.N.A. waging a war in the North-East of our country. He inspired his army with the battle cry ‘Delhi Chalo’. Even though he did not succeed in this battle, he had driven home his message The British realised that the Indians were serious about gaining independence, and would assume any means towards that end. On August 17, 1945, Bose died in a plane crash while flying from Bangko to Tokyo. He did not live to see the Indian Independence, but his spirit still lives through his words – JAI HIND.

THINGS TO DO

I. PROJECT

Topic: Was Mahatma Gandhi’s unique mode of struggle against colonialism a success? (with special reference to Non- Cooperation Movement)

Objectives: To create awareness of the new weapons chosen by Gandhiji to fight the British Raj.

To make learners think how successful he was or if he failed: why?

Ans:- With the Non-Cooperation Movement, nationalist sentiments reached every nook and corner of the country and politicised every strata of the population, the artisans, the peasants, students, urban poor, women, traders etc. It was this politicization and activisation of millions of men and women which imparted a revolutionary character to the national movement.

Colonial rule was based on two myths- one, that such a rule was in the interest of Indians and two, that it was invincible. The first myth had been exploded by the economic critique by moderate nationalist. The second myth has been challenged by Satyagraha through mass struggle. Now the masses lost the hitherto all pervasive fear of the colonial rule and its mighty repressive organs. Thus Gandhiji’s unique mode of struggle against with special reference to Non-Cooperation was successful.

II. MAKING A POSTER

1. Make a large poster showing Mahatma Gandhi’s career from 1915 till his participation in the Quit India Movement. 

Ans:-

January 9, 1915: Gandhi returns home to India, and receives a hero’s welcome.

May 25, 1915: Gandhi and his followers found Satyagraha ashram. the religiously-oriented communal farm where Gandhi, his family, and his followers will live.

April 6, 1919: Nationalists hold a hartal, or day of fasting and prayer. in protest of the Rowlatt Act, which drastically curtails civil liberties in India.

April 13, 1919: Amritsar Massacre; Under General Dyer, British troops slaughter Indian protesters.

August 1, 1920: Gandhi calls for a period of non-cooperation across India.

March 10, 1922: Gandhi is arrested for sedition.

March 1922-January 1924: Gandhi remains in prison. 1924-1928: Gandhi avoids politics, focusing his writings on the improvement of India.

1925: Despite his long absence from politics, Gandhi becomes President of the Indian National Congress.

February-August 1928: Residents in the district of Bardoli protest high rents using methods of non-cooperation inspired by Gandhi.

January 26, 1930: Gandhi publishes the Declaration of Independence of India.

March 2, 1931: Gandhi warns the Viceroy of his intention to break the Salt Laws. 

March 12-April 6, 1931: Gandhi leads his Salt March to the sea.

May 5, 1931: Gandhi is arrested for violating the Salt Laws; non- cooperation movements break out across India.

January 1931: British government yields to protests, releases all prisoners, invites a Congress representative to Britain for a Round Table Conference (the Congress asks Gandhi to be this representative). 

Autumn 1931: Gandhi participates in the Round Table Conference in Britain. 

December 28, 1931: Gandhi returns to India. January 4, 1932: Gandhi is arrested for sedition, and held without a trial.

September 20-25, 1932: Gandhi fasts in prison to protest the treatment of untouchables.

1934-38: Gandhi avoids politics, travels in rural India.

August 8, 1942: Gandhi launched Quit India Movement. August 1942: Congress leaders are arrested; Gandhi is imprisoned in the Aga Khan’s palace.

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Additional Questions

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is not a part of Gandhiji’s Satyagraha?

(a) Emphasis on the power of truth and search for truth

(b) Satyagraha, a pure soul-force

(c) A physical force which sought destruction of the enemy

(d) Not a weapon of the weak but a weapon which forced the adversary to accept the truth without violence 

Ans:-(c) A physical force which sought destruction of the enemy

2. The leader of the peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra was

(a) Baba Ramchandra 

(b) Venkata Raju

(c) Alluri Sitaram Raju

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(c) Alluri Sitaram Raju

3. Who presided over the December 1929 session of the Congress at Lahore and what was its demand?

(a) Jawaharlal Nehru, the demand was for Puma Swaraj or full independence

(b) Subhas Chandra Bose and “Puma Swaraj” was its demand 

(c) Mahatma Gandhi. He asked for peaceful transfer of power by the British

(d) Jawaharlal Nehru, the demand was for more representation of Indians in the Councils

Ans: (a) Jawaharlal Nehru, the demand was for Puma Swaraj or full independence

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Who formed the Swaraj Party? 

Ans:-C.R. Dus and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party.

2. Under whose leadership was the new constitution was drafted in 1928?

Ans:-A new constitution was drafted under the leadership of Motilal Nehru in 1928,

3. When was the Non Cooperation and Khilafat Movement launched?

Ans:- January 1921: Non-Cooperaton and Khilafat movement launched.

4. When did the congress adopted the resolution for Purna Swaraj?

Ans:- December 1929: Lahore Congress; Congress adopts the demand for Puma Swaraj”.

5. When did Gandhiji started Civil Disobedience movement?

Ans:-In March 1930, Gandhiji started Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking salt law at Dandi.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Why is the Chauri Chaura incident so important in the history of the national movement?

Ans:- Chauri Chaura incident so important in the history of the national movement because the Non-Cooperation Movement came to an abrupt end in February 1922. There was serious mob violence at Chauri Chaura (near Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh) where a police station was burnt and a number of police officials killed. Gandhiji at once suspended the movement and declared that Swaraj could not be attained through violence. On 12 February 1922, the Non-Cooperation Movement came to an end.

2. What do you know about the Champaran Satyagraha?

Ans:- Champaran, a district in north-western part of Bihar, suffered under the European indigo planters. The Europeans practised all kinds of oppression against the weak Bihar Peasants. Gandhiji, along with Dr. Rajendra Prasad, started a campaign. He taught the Peasants of Champaran the virtue of Satyagraha, which meant a non-violent, non-cooperation protest against the unjust planters. The shaken government of Bengal appointed an enquiry committee in 1917, with Gandhiji as one of its members. The Champaran Agarian Act freed the peasants form special taxes levied by the indigo planters.

3. Who set up Oudh Kissan Sabha in 1920?

Ans:- In June 1920, Pt. Nehru toured the villages of Awadh in an attempt to understand the grievances of the peasants. He set up an Oudh. Kisan Sabha in October 1920, and within a month, the Sabhahad 300 branches.

4. Who was the leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh who claimed to have special powers?

Ans:- Alluri Sitaram Raju was the leader of the tribal movement in Andhra Pradesh who claimed he had special powers. He could survive bullet shots, make correct astrological predictions and could heal people.

5. What is Inland Emigration Act?

Ans:- By the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the British did not allow the plantation workers to go back to their villages without their permission. This permission was very rarely given to them.

6. Write a note on Non Cooperation movement as a first attempt to mass struggle?

Ans:- The Non-Cooperation Movement was the first attempt at an all-India mass struggle against the British. It clearly demonstrated that the millions of “poor Indians” were capable of courage, sacrifice and ability to face repression and suffering. It was clear to the British that the desire for freedom was not only among the rich and the educated, it was common to all members of the nation. The Muslims participated with the same enthusiasm in the movement as the rest of the nation, making it a truly mass national movement.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. How were Gandhiji’s methods different from those of the leaders who came before him?

Ans:-Ever since Gandhiji’s entry into he transformed the national movement from the elitist to a mass based movement. He altered the character of the national movement through a new ideology was Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi. He was one of the greatest Indians of all times and was a remarkable personality of world history. He did not merely guide a political struggle; he imposed upon it a unique moral code and a new technique of action that of non-violence in the age of violence while every national movement for liberation involved violence, his struggle for freedom was purely non-violent. He brought idealism into the realm of practical politics and demonstrated its validity. In this approach he spanned East and West.

2. Write a note on the Peasant Movement in Awadh.

Ans:- The leader of this movement was Baba Ram Chandra, a Sanyasi who had been to Fiji as an indentured labour.

The campaign was against the ‘Zulm’ of the landlords and Talukdars. They imposed a variety of taxes on the peasants and extracted very high rents. They also forced the peasants to do ‘begar’ in their farms without making any payment. The peasants had no right to the land and could be thrown out if they did not pay the rent or do begar. Gandhiji urged the kissans to pay only 50% of the rent, refuse to do begar and start social boycott of the oppressive landlords. This could be done if the Nais (Barbers) and Dhobis (Washermen) refused to serve them.

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