NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-2| The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-2| The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China .Introduction to chapter 2| The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China  which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education: The nature of nationalism in Europe underwent many changes. Nationalism did not exist in Europe in the Middle Ages (in its present form). 

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-2| The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

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Exercises

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Indochina comprises

(a) India and China

(b) North and South Vietnam and China

(c) India, China and Vietnam

(d) The modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia

Ans: (d) The modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia

2. The French landed in Vietnam in the year:

(a) 1857 

(b) 1856

(c) 1858

(d) 1859

Ans: (c) 1858

3. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of: 

(a) Local practices, worship of the supernatural

(b) Buddhism and Confucianism

(c) Buddhism, Confucianism, and local practices with reverence shown to the supernatural

(d) All the above

Ans: (b) Buddhism and Confucianism

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. When did Cochin China become a French colony?

Ans: Cochin China become a French colony in 1887. 

2. Who was the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement?

Ans: Huynh Phu So was the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement.

3. What was the result of the Geneva Conference in 1954?

Ans: The Geneva Conference in 1954 divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel. Ho Chi Minh became the first President of the independent Republic of North Vietnam. South Vietnam was placed under the Bao Dai government.

4. When was the Socialist Republic of Vietnam proclaimed?

Ans: The Socialist Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 2nd July, 1976.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What does the term ‘Indochina’ stand for?

Ans: The term Indo-China is exclusively used to denote the region that comprises modern-day Laos Combodia and Vietnam.

2. Give two reasons why the French considered it necessary to colonise Indochina.

Ans: (i) The colonies provided raw materials, cheap labour and ended their search for a market.

(ii) They fulfilled their desire for glory, prestige and manpower. 

3. When was the Tonkin Free School started? What was its main objective?

Ans: Tonkin Free School was started in 1907. Its main objective was to turn students into “Modern” students. To be modern, the students had to follow French fashions in clothes, hair styles etc. Learning Western ideas was not enough.

4. Which school started a major protest against French medium school and when?

Ans: Saigon Native Girls School, in 1926.

5. What was the main difference in the ideas of Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh?

Ans: Phan Chu Trinh wanted to abolish the monarchy in order to create a base for a strong national sovereignty.

(i) He wanted to establish a democratic republic. 

(ii) Phan Hoi Chau, on the other hand favoured retaining monarchy as a popular ideological symbol.

6. When and where were the French defeated in Vietnam? 

Ans: In 1954, the French army was defeated at Dien Bien Phu.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. What actions did France take to consolidate her position in Indochina? 

Ans: (a) The French built canals and drained lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.

(b) The vast system of irrigation works increased rice production and export of rice to other countries began.

(c) By 1931, Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.

(d) To help the rice cultivation, infrastructure in transport was improved like construction of rail network. 

2. ‘Explain the policy which France followed in spreading education in Vietnam? What was their main aim?

Ans: The French policy makers emphasized the need to use French language as the medium of instruction. They felt that by learning French the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France. The school textbook glorified the French and justified colonial rule and represented the Vietnamese as primitive and backward. Their main aim was to consolidate or strengthen their hold on Vietnam by controlling education, they tried to change their values, norms and perception.

3. Give three reasons why the French education policy became unpopular in Indochina.

Ans: (i) Policy makers were divide on the issue of making French as the medium of instruction

(ii) The school textbook glorified the French and justified colonial rule and represented the Vietnamese as primitive and backward.

(iii) Deliberate policy of failing students, particularly in final year so that they could not qualify better qualified jobs.

4. “The schools became an important place for political and cultural battles in Vietnam against French colonialism.” Support the statement with examples.

Ans: Students protested against the colonial government not giving them higher paid jobs. They formed parties to fight for their rights. One such party was formed in 1920, called the Party of Young Annan. Journals supporting nationalism were published, for example Annanese Student.

The battle lines against French colonialism were drawn by schools and students. They fought for their identity and culture. They refused to let the French treat them as slaves and the fight turned into a fight for independence. The Vietnamese refused to accept themselves as inferior and believe in superiority of the French civilisation.

5. Explain the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

Ans: Religion also created conflict between the colonial rulers and the nationalists in Vietnam. The Vietnamese followed Buddhism and Confucianism. Confucius, a Chinese thinker, preached good conduct, proper social behaviour, respect for parents and obedience of elders.

His philosophy was that the rulers had to act like fathers towards their subjects, who should be treated as their children.

The French missionaries introduced Christianity and they preached against some of the practices followed by the Vietnamese, They wanted to correct the Vietnamese belief in the supernatural.

A Scholars’ Revolt broke out in 1868, against the spread of Christianity, initiated by officials of the Royal Court. The Catholic missionaries had, by the middle of the 18th century, converted 300,000 people. The French Government crushed the revolt ruthlessly but the uprising inspired nationalists even after it was suppressed. Some religious movements in Vietnam supported the French, but others preached against the colonial rule. So religion also played a major role in arousing anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.

6. Describe the events which led to the final exit of the French from Indochina.

Ans: After the Second World War, the French had to face the Viet Minh, under the French educated Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minh was supported by America against the Japanese during the war. Secondly, the Viet Minh were inspired by the success of the Japanese in the war. Their leader, Ho Chi Minh, started a national movement to liberate the areas held by France. In 1945 he toppled the French controlled puppet government in Annam, under Bao Dai. In September 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed an independent Republic of Vietnam. He later agreed that it would be an autonomous state under the French Union. However, soon differences with the French led to a long battle between the French and the forces of Viet Minh in 1946. The Viet Minh won a decisive victory at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, as the war proved too expensive for the French.

7. What were the differences of opinion between the two groups in Vietnam regarding the introduction of French education system? 

Ans: (i) Like the British in India, the French had to decide which language was to be used in schools.

(ii) The rich and the powerful Vietnamese were influenced by the Chinese culture, and the French had to destroy this influence. To achieve this, they totally and systematically destroyed the traditional education system and established their own schools. Two suggestions were offered to solve this problem.

Suggestion 1: Some people suggested that the medium of instruction should be French. This would make the Vietnamese familiar with French culture and French civilisation. They would understand how superior the French culture was. It would also create an ‘Asiatic France’ in Vietnam to support the ‘European France’. The educated Vietnamese would support and work for France.

Suggestion 2: A second group did not agree with the ideas given above. They wanted Vietnamese to continue in lower classes. French should be taught in higher classes and those who became proficient in the language and followed French culture would be rewarded. They would be given French citizenship.

(iii) The French claimed in the textbooks that colonial rule was good for Vietnam. The Vietnamese, according to the French, were backward, fit only for manual labour and not intellectual work. They were incapable of ruling themselves and could work only in the fields, the French text books boasted that they had brought peace and order in Vietnam. People could live in peace, especially peasants, under French rule. In short the French culture and role was essential to civilise the Vietnamese.

Problem Solving Assessment [PSA]

1. Read the given extract and answer the following questions.

Resistance in Schools

Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. Sometimes there was open opposition, at other times there was silent resistance. As the numbers of Vietnamese teachers increased in the lower classes, it became difficult to control what was actually taught. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was stated.

In 1926 a major protest erupted in the Saigon Native Girls School. A Vietnamese girl sitting in one of the front seats was asked to move to the back of the class and allow a local French student to occupy the front bench. She refused. The principal, also a colon (French people in the colonies), expelled her. When angry students protested, they too were expelled, leading to a further spread of open protests. Seeing the situation getting out of control, the government forced the school to take the students back. The principal reluctantly agreed but warned the students, I will crush all Vietnamese under my feet. Ah! You wish my deportation. Know well that I will leave only after I am assured Vietnamese no longer inhabit Cochinchina’.

Elsewhere, students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs. They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society. This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite, since both saw their positions threatened. By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan, and publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.

Schools thus became an important place for political and cultural battles. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. They tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese. Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity: its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master slave mentality. The battle against French colonial education became part of the larger battle against colonialism and for independence.

Tick (√) the right answer.

1. Choose the incorrect statement.

(a) Vietnamese teachers taught strictly as per curriculum. 

(b) They modified the text and criticised what was stated. 

(c) Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum. 

Ans:-(a) Vietnamese teachers taught strictly as per curriculum.

2. Who was called a ‘colon’?

(a) A Vietnamese teacher

(b) French people in the colonies

(c) A French teacher

Ans:- (b) French people in the colonies

3. What was the exact cause of protest in 1926 in Saigon Native Girls School?

(a) A Vietnamese girl occupying a front seat was asked to vacate her seat for a French student.

(b) A French student in the front row was asked to vacate his seat for a Vietnamese student.

(c) A French student misbehaved with a Vietnamese girl student. 

Ans:- (a) A Vietnamese girl occupying a front seat was asked to vacate her seat for a French student.

4. The values, norms and perceptions of students were influenced to make them believe in the

(a) Superiority of French Civilisation 

(b) Superiority of Vietnamese Civilisation

(c) Superiority of both the Civilisations 

Ans:-(a) Superiority of French Civilisation

5. Schools became an important place for

(a) Economic battles

(b) Intellectual discussion

(c) Political and cultural battles

Ans:-(c) Political and cultural battles

6. Who sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education?

(a) The French 

(b) The Chinese

(c) The Vietnamese

Ans:-(c) Both of them

7. Who were developing a master-slave mentality?

(a) The French

(b) The Vietnamese

(c) Both of them

Ans:-(a) The French

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Additional Questions

I. Multiple Choice Question

1. The French increased cultivation of rice in and its export from Vietnam by

(a) Building a vast system of irrigation works canals and earth works 

(b) Increasing the area under rice cultivation

(c) Using forced labour for construction

(d) All the above

Ans:-(d) All the above

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. What was the main religion of Indo China?

Ans:- The main religion of this region is Theravada, or Hinayana Buddhism.

2. What led to the end of French claim to any territory in the Indochinese peninsula?

Ans:-The Geneva Conference led to the end of French claim to any territory in the Indochinese peninsula.

3. Who offered to stop bombing to stop bombing in 1967? 

Ans:-In 1967, President Johnson offered to stop bombing if North Vietnam agreed to peace talks. 

4. What was the communist reply to the peace offers of the US?

Ans:- The Tet offensive of 1968(January) was the communist reply to the peace offers of the US.

5. When was Vietnam was reunified as the socialist Republic of Vietnam?

Ans:- On 2nd July, 1976 Vietnam was reunified as the socialist Republic of Vietnam. Saigon was renamed HO CHI MINH City.

6. Name the treaty that ended the war with US.

Ans:- In 1974, the Paris peace treaty ended the war with US.

7. What was the old name of Thailand?

Ans:-SIAM

8. Who founded Hoa Hao movement?

Ans:-Huynh Phu So

9. Who wrote the famous book, The History of the Loss of Vietnam?

Ans:-Phan Boi wrote his famous book, The History of the Loss of Vietnam under the advice and influence of Liang Qichao.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. How far was the Vietnamese culture and life influenced by the Chinese?

Ans:-The influence of Chinese culture over the Vietnamese culture was limited only to the rich and the powerful sections of the Vietnamese society. The poor Vietnamese people were not much affected by it.

2. What actions did France take to consolidate her position in Indochina?

Ans:- (a) The French built canals and drained lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.

(b) The vast system of irrigation works increased rice production and export of rice to other countries began.

(c) By 1931, Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.

(d) To help the rice cultivation, infrastructure in transport was improved like construction of rail network.

3. What was the Hoa Hao Movement? Why was it suppressed by the French?

Ans:-Hoa Hao movement began in 1939, in the Mekong delta region.

The French tried to suppress him, declared him mad and sent him to a mental prison. It is ironical that the doctor in the asylum became Phu So’s follower instead of declaring him insane! In 1941, the French had to release Huynh Phu So, but they exiled him to Laos. Many of his followers were sent to concentration camps.

4. How did the French help in developing the Economy of its colony in Indo-China?

Ans:-(a) The French built canals and drained lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. 

(b) The vast system of irrigation works increased rice production and export of rice to other countries began.

(c) By 1931, Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.

(d) To help the rice cultivation, infrastructure in transport was improved.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. What do you understand by Ho Chi Minh Trail? Why is it considered important in the Vietnamese struggle for independence?

Ans:-Through Ho Chi Minh Trail we understood how the Vietnamese used their resources, very limited compared to the USA. The trail was a network of footpaths and roads which transported men and materials from the North to the South. The trail improved every year and from 1950 till 1967, about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops came south every month.

The trail had hospitals and support bases all along the route. The supplies were carried by trucks and bicycles. The major supplies, however, were carried by porters ypwho were mainly women. The women could carry 25 kilos on their backs and 70 kilos on their bicycles.

The trail moved through Laos and Combodia. Its branches led to South Vietnam. The US bombing failed to destroy this trail because they were rebuilt very quickly by the Vietnamese.

2. Discuss the role of HO Chi Minh in the Vietnamese struggle for freedom.

Ans:-The final phase in the struggle against French colonialism took place under the leadership of Nguyen Ai Quoc or HO CHI MINH Vietnam was greatly affected by the Great Depression of the 1930s. As the price of rubber and rice fell, there was tremendous increase in unemployment and in many provinces, the rural people rose in revolt The French were ruthless in crushing these ÿbuprisings, specially in the provinces of Ngu An and Ha Tinh.

HO Chi Minh which means “He who Enlightens”. He soon became one of the most influential political leaders of the 20th century, after his travels to China and Moscow he founded the Communist Party of Indo-China in East Asia. He established a training institute where he taught Vietnamese students, a unique blend of Marxism- Leninism and Confucian virtues. In the 1930s he lived mostly in China and Moscow. After the outbreak of World War II he finally returned to Vietnam. He organised a Vietnamese Independence Movement (The Vietminh) and raised a guerrilla army to fight the Japanese.

In 1930, Ho Chi Minh established the Vietnamese Communist Party (Viet Hong San Dang). It was earlier called the Indochinese Communist Party.

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