NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-16 Development

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-16 Development. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-16 Development

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EXERCISE

Chapter – 16

I.Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Per capita income is:

(a) Income per person

(b) Income per family

(c) Income per earning person 

(d) Income per month 

Ans:-(a) Income per person

2. Development of a country is generally determined by

(a) Per capita income

(b) Literacy level

(c) Health status

(d) All of these

Ans:-(d) All of these

3.In which of the following, life expectancy rate is highest?

(a) Sri Lanka 

(b) India 

(c) China 

(d) Afghanistan

Ans:- (c) China

4. Which of the following is the total value of Gross Domestic Product?

(a) All goods and services produced in a particular year. 

(b) All final goods and services produced in a particular year.

(c) All intermediate goods and services produced in a particular year.

(d) All intermediate goods and services produced in a month.

Ans:-(b) All final goods and services produced in a particular year.

5. Which state in India has lowest Infant Mortality Rate?

(a) Punjab

(b) Bihar

(c) Kerala

(d) Haryana

Ans:-(c) Kerala

6.The most important criterion while comparing the real development of a country is

(a) Human Development Index (HDI)

(b) Literacy rate

(c) Export earnings

(d) Income

Ans:-(a) Human Development Index (HDI)

II. Very Short Answer Questions 

1.What is meant by Per Capita Income?

Ans:- When the total national income is divided by the country’s total population, it is called per capita income. Every country tries to raise its national income as well as per capita income with the available resources.

Per capita income (National income)/(Total population)

2.State the meaning of Gross Domestic Product.

Ans:- Gross Domestic Product is the money value of all final goods and services produced by all the enterprises in the domestic territory (geographical and political boundaries) of a country in a year.

3. Mention any two importance of education.

Ans:- Two importance of education are:- 

(i) Education produces skilled and trained workers. 

(ii) It modifies/improves human behaviour.

4. Define Infant Mortality Rate.

Ans:- The term infant mortality rate (IMR) indicates the number of living children per thousand, who die before completing one year of age.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What is meant by Death Rate? What was the death rate in India in 2013?

Ans:- The death rate is the number of people dying per thousand of population during a particular year. The death rate in India in 2013 was 7.4.

2. State two ways in which good health contributes to economic development.

Ans:- Two ways in which good health contributes to economic development are:-

(i) It increases the efficiency of workers.

(ii) It reduces production loss caused by worker’s illness.

3. What is National Income? Mention any one feature of National Income. 

Ans:-National income is the money value of all final goods and services produced in a country plus income from abroad during a financial year.

 Any feature of National Income is that it can be measured both at current prices and at constant prices.

4. Mention any two conditions necessary for sustainable development.

Ans:-Any two conditions necessary for sustainable development are

(i)Limiting the human population to a level within the carrying capacity of the environment.

(ii) Technological progress must be input-efficient particularly about non-renewable resources.

5.What do you mean by Human Development Index?

Ans:- Human Development refers to the process of improvements in Human beings. People become human resource when investments in them are made in the form of health and education.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1.What do you mean by Per Capita Income of a country? How it can be used to compare two countries?

Ans:- When the total national income is divided by the country’s total population, it is called per capita income. Every country tries to raise its national income as well as per capita income with the available resources.

Per capita income(National income) / (Total population)

Per capita income can be computed both at current prices as well as constant prices. While estimating per capita income at current prices, we divide national income at current prices by total population. Similarly, for calculating real per capita income i.e., per capita income at constant prices, national income at constant prices is divided by the total population.

In World Development Reports, brought out by the World Bank, this criterion is used in classifying countries. Countries with per capita income of US $ 12736 per annum and above in 2013, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US $ 1045 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the category of low middle income countries because its per capita income in 2013 was just US$ 1570 per annum. The rich countries. excluding countries of Middle East and certain other small countries, are generally called developed countries

2.What is meant by sustainable development? Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

Ans:-Sustainable development refers to economic development that is conducted without depletion of natural resources.

In recent years, it has been strongly felt that rapid economic development and industrialization have led to the reckless exploitation of natural resources (such as fossil fuels, eg: coal, gas, petroleum) which are limited. The development of all the countries of the world in future is likely to be endangered, if these limited natural resources are completely exhausted.

Further, although these fossil fuels are essential for economic development, but their use pollutes environment. Greater the production of goods, the more will be the pollution. The global concern today, therefore, is to adopt an environment friendly strategy of economic development.

Thus, in this context there are two serious effects of economic development. First, if exhaustible resources deplete fast, future generations may not have enough stock for their use. Secondly, the increasing use of fossil-fuels and minerals damages the environment and ecology.

3.What does Human Development Index (HDI) indicate? By whom HDI is prepared?

Ans:- The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into different tiers of human development.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been presenting/constructing Human Development Index (HDI) since 1990. It is widely agreed that the concept of Human development is much wider and richer than any index or set of indicators. HDI does not replace National Income but adds considerably to an understanding of the real development of a country. Besides income, it also includes education and health.

4.What is sex ratio? Describe the reasons for steady decline in sex ratio in India. 

Ans:-Sex ratio (SR) is defined as the number of females per thousand

males.

The reasons for steady decline in sex ratio in India are:- 

(i) Less care of female children as compared to male children.

(ii) Women are subject to greater risks of life, especially at the time of delivery.

(ii) Indians prefer a male child to that of a female child. This leads to female foeticide and infanticide.

(iv) Females do not get good diet and medical care. Males as they are supposed to be bread-earners for the family get preference in this regard.

5.How is education important for development?

Ans:- Education is another key factor behind human development. The role of education in human development and thereby in economic development becomes evident from the following:-

(i) Education produces skilled and trained workers.

(ii) It increases labor productivity. It is estimated that primary education causes an increase of 40%, secondary education 100% and higher education 300% in labour productivity.

(iii) It modifies/improves human behavior.

(iv) It promotes science and technology.

(v) It develops personality and sense of national consciousness among the people which are important for economic development.

In fact, expenditure on education by individuals is similar to the expenditure incurred by producers on capital goods (i.e, physical capital). Producers acquire capital goods to increase their profits in future. Similarly, people spend on education to raise their future income. Education gives them additional skills to do useful things.

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Additional Questions

I.Multiple Choice Questions

1.Ground water is an example of

(a) Scarce resource

(b) Limited resource

(c) Renewable resource

(d) Non-renewable resource

Ans:- (c) Renewable resource

2. What is the Sex Ratio (SR) in India according to the census report of 2011?

(a) 933

(b) 940

(c) 955

(d) 950

Ans:- (b) 940

3.Which of the following resources is a non-renewable energy resource?

(a) Solar radiations

(b) Crude oil

(c) Windenergy

(d) All the above

Ans:- (b) Crude oil

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Give one reason for decline in sex ratio in India.

Ans:- Preference of male child over female child.

2. What are developmental goals of a girl child?

Ans:- Proper Education & Health Care.

3. What are the various social indicators of development?

Ans:- Sex ratio, Per capita income & Infant Mortality Rate.

4.What is Nominal National Income?

Ans:-National income at current prices is called Nominal National Income.

5. What is Real National Income?

Ans:-National income computed at constant prices is called Real National Income.

6.Which state in India has highest life expectancy at birth?

Ans:- Kerala.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What do you mean by decent standard of living? 

Ans:- The fulfillment of basic minimum human needs such as food, water, shelter, education etc can be termed as decent standard of living. It can be measured by GDP.

2. Differentiate between renewable and Non-renewable resources.

Ans:- Renewable resources are resources which can be used repeatedly and replaced naturally whereas, Non-renewable resources are resources of economic value that cannot be readily replaced by natural means on a level equal to its consumption.

3. Mention two things necessary for a good health?

Ans:- Two things are necessary for good health. First balanced and nutritious diet and, second health care facilities (e.g., hospital, doctors, nurses, beds, equipments etc.) It may be noted here that mere presence of health care facilities is not sufficient to have healthy people. The same should be accessible to all the people. No one should fail to secure them because of their inability to pay for them.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Differentiate between Human Development and Economic Development.

Ans:-

Human developmentEconomic development
(i) It is a broader aspect of development as it includes monetary as well as the non-monetary aspects. 
(ii) It is the process of both quantitative and qualitative growth. 
(iii) Human development is the end or the final goal of all development.
(i) It is a narrow concept as it includes only the monetary aspects. 
(ii) It includes only the quantitative growth.
(iii) It is a means to achieve human development.

2. Discuss present position of India in context of literacy. 

Ans:- The current literacy rate of India is 74.04%. Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 75% (2011 figure) from 12% at the end of British rule in 1947. Although this was a greater than six fold improvement, the level is well below the world average literacy rate of 84%, and of all nations, India currently has the largest illiterate population. Despite govemment programmes, India’s literacy rate increased only “sluggishly, and a 1990 study estimated that it would take until 2060 for India to achieve universal literacy at then-current rate of progress. The 2011 census, however, indicated a 2001-2011 decadal literacy growth of 9.2%, which is slower than the growth seen during the previous decade. There is a wide gender disparity in the literacy rate in India: effective literacy rates (age 7 and above) in 2011 were 82.14% for men and 65.46% for women. The low female literacy rate has had a dramatically negative impact on family planning and population stabillisation efforts in India. Studies have indicated that female literacy is a strong predictor of the use of contraception among married Indian couples, even when women do not otherwise have economic independence. The census provided a positive indication that growth in female literacy rates (11.8%) was substantially faster than in male literacy rates (6.9%) in the 2001- 2011 decadal period, which means the gender gap appears to be narrowing.

3. How do national income and per capita income serve as indicators of development?

Ans:-(i) National Income: National income is defined as the total value of all the final goods and services produced within a country plus income from abroad. Economists generally measure economic development in terms of increase in national income. But it should be noted that mere increase in the money value of goods and services produced is not enough. Because a part of this increase in national income may be simply because of rise in prices of goods and services, and only a part due to increase in physical outputs of goods and services. For economic development to take place, the physical volume of outputs of goods and services must increase over time. The money value of national income at current prices is not the true indicator of economic development of a country.

To find change in only physical output, money, national income is divided by price index. The value so obtained is called Real National Income. It is the real national income which is the true index of economic development. Increase in real national income means increase in the volume of goods and services that human beings need. Whatever people like and should have, they will be able to get with greater income. So greater real income is considered to be an important goal.

To make sure that we or our descendants shall be well provided over the years, we must keep aside something from what we produce today and not use up all of it. For this what we have to do is to maintain the capacity for production intact over the years. Only then the output level can be maintained every year. Since capital equipment is subject to wear and tear, each year the country (or economy) must be ready to devote a part of its resources to maintaining its capital equipment intact by repairing or replacing it. This is the only way that the output level can be maintained over the years. Using resources in this way for production rather than for consumption is called investment.

(ii) Per Capita Real Income: However, for comparison between countries, national income is not a useful measure. Since countries have different populations, comparing national income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn or obtain. Hence we compare average income (popularly known as per capita income).

When the total national income is divided by the country’s total population, it is called per capita income. Every country tries to raise its national income as well as per capita income with the available resources.

Per capita income= National income / Total population

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