NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-15 Challenges of Democracy

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-15 Challenges of Democracy. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-15 Challenges of Democracy

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I.Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which type of challenge is being faced by most of the democracies of the world?

(a) Foundational challenge 

(b) Challenge of expansion 

(c) Challenge of deepening of democracy

(d) None of the above

Ans: (c) Challenge of deepening of democracy

2. Which type of challenge is being faced by at least one fourth of the countries of the 

(a) Foundational challenge

(b) Challenge of expansion

(c) Challenge of deepening Ans

of democracy 

(d) None of these

Ans: (a) Foundational challenge

3.Legal literacy means 

(a) Legal help

(b) Legal education

(c) Work based on law 

(d) Challenging legal institutions

Ans: (b) Legal education

4. Which among the following is associated with challenges facing Indian democracy?

(a) Population explosion 

(b) Poverty and unemployment

(c) Illiteracy and ignorance

(d) All of these

Ans: (d) All of these

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Name the three types of challenges faced by democracies all over the world. 

Ans: The three types of challenges faced by democracies all over the world are

(i) Foundational challenge

(ii) Challenge of expansion

(iii) Challenge of deepening of democracy

2. Which challenge or democracy involves bringing down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decision?

Ans:-Challenge of deepening of democracy.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What is meant by the term ‘challenges to democracy”?

Ans: The term challenge of democracy is a set of difficulties which are significant and which have to be faced and overcome.

2. What are the ‘political reforms’ or ‘democratic reforms’?

Ans: All the suggestions and proposals for overcoming those challenges in democracy are collectively called democratic reform or political reform.

3. Mention four duties of an active and participatory citizen.

Ans: Four duties of an active and participatory citizen are

(i) Aware of his/her rights

(ii) Willing to perform a citizen’s duties 

(iii) Active interest in the affairs of the country

(iv) Well informed, educated

4.What is the challenge of expansion?

Ans: Challenge of expansion includes expansion of democratic principles and institutions to all the regions, different social groups and all the government institutions, to the grass root levels. Giving greater power to local government bodies and extension of federal principals to all the units of the federation is an important task to complete. This requires broad consensus among political parties because it may involve amendments to the constitution. Inclusion of minority groups, weaker sections, women, etc in the national mainstream is another uphill task.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Explain which four guidelines should be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India.

Ans: Some of the guidelines that should be kept in mind while devising ways and means to political reforms are:

(a) Democratic reforms are to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens as legal constitutional changes alone cannot overcome challenges to democracy.

(b) Any legal change must be carefully look at what results it will have on politics as sometimes the results may be counterproductive. Laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in politics and laws that give political leaders incentives to do good things have more chance of working.

(c) The main focus of political reforms should be on the way to strengthen democratic practice by increasing and improving the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.

(d) Any proposal for political reforms should not only be about what is a good solution but also about who will implement it and how.

2. Describe the role of citizens in a democracy.

Ans: Role of citizens in a democracy are as follows:

(i)The biggest role an ordinary citizen can play is that he/she should not be interested only in his/her own affairs, but of the affairs of the nation as well. Even when he is most occupied in his own business, he should be well informed on general politics.

(ii) The ordinary citizen should have consideration for other people, particularly their needs, views and well being. Unfortunately today. there has been erosion in fellow feeling. There is growing disenchantment with general politics. This can be seen in the low voter turnout. Every citizen must take active interest in public affairs and give every co-operation to the government. There should be a partnership between the people and the government to make democracy successful. In short, citizens should perform their duties with zest and not leave everything in the government’s hands. In a living democracy, people have to be active participants and not just a flock of timid animals shepherded by the government.

An ordinary citizen can help democracy by getting rid of fundamentalism arising out of caste, greed and religion. A citizen should get rid of intolerance, fanaticism and inhuman treatment. A good citizen can get rid of many social and political ills.

Good citizens can be created by citizens themselves. Ordinary people can meet, discuss, deliberate and decide issues. Citizens can work in their localities and discuss public affairs.

For a vigorous, vibrant, living democracy in India we need well informed, concerned citizens, who show interest in public affairs, perform all their civic duties and cooperate with the government.

3.Explain four ways to reform democracy in India.

Ans: Four ways to reform democracy in India are as follows:

(i) Legal means: Passing laws to stop or ban wrong political practices is the easiest way out; but it is also the least effective. It is a general tendency on the part of the people to ask for legal ways to solve social and political problems.

(ii) Consideration of all pros and cons: Any hastily passed law to introduce political reform is likely to be counterproductive. Therefore, weighing all pros and cons regarding its result is a very important task.

(iii) Improving the quality of political participation: Democratic reforms have to be ushered mainly through political practice. Democratic practice must be strengthened to bring about political reforms. This can be done by increasing the quantity and improving the quality of political participation by people.

(iv) Implementation of reforms: Implementation of reforms are most likely to succeed only when mass media, democratic movements and citizens organization come forward for political reforms.

Additional Questions

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following countries are facing the foundational challenge of democracy?

1. US

2. UK 

3. Ghana

4. China 

5. Myanmar

(a)1,2 and 3 

(b)3,4 and 5 

(c) 1, 4 and 5 

(d) 2, 3 and 5 

Ans:- (b)3,4 and 5

2. Which of the following countries are facing the challenge of expansion of democracy?

1. India 

2. US

3. Sri Lanka

4. Nepal

(a) 1, 2 and 4

(b) 1, 2 and 3 

(c) 2. 3 and 4 

(d) 1, and 4

Ans:-(b) 1, 2 and 3

3. It is very tempting to think of ways of reforming politics. 

(a) Legal ways 

(c) Neither of the above 

(d) Either of the above

(b) Illegal ways

Ans:-(d) Either of the above

4. Choose an incorrect statement.

(a) All democratic countries do not have the same challenges 

(b) All democratic countries cannot follow me same recipe of political reforms

(c) All countries face the same challenges of democracy and need

same reforms 

(d) None of these

Ans:-(c) All countries face the same challenges of democracy and need same reforms

5. Pakistan faces

(a) Foundational Challenge of democracy

(b) Challenge of Expansion

(c) Challenge of deepening of democracy

(d) None of these

Ans:-(a) Foundational Challenge of democracy

6.For a bad government……. should be blamed

(a) Voters

(b) All the citizens

(c) Parliament

(d) Election commission

Ans:- (a) Voters

7.Which of the following is democratic country?

(a) Pakistan

(b) Myanmar

(c) India 

(d) Zimbabwe

Ans:-(c) India

8.What gives rises to social inequality?

(a) Nationalism 

(b) Socialism 

(c) Casteism 

(d) Communalism

Ans:-(c) Casteism

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
Geography Section

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. How many countries in the world do not have democracy


2.What is the first step in deepening democracy in India?

Ans:-Educating the people.

3.What does Legal literacy mean? 

Ans:- Legal literacy means legal education.

4. “A man who minds his own business has no interest in Politics, has no business at all”. Who said this?

Ans:- Pericles.

5.Mention any two examples “challenge of expansion”?

Ans:-(a) Ensuring greater power to local governments. 

(b) Extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation.

6. Which challenge is faced by every democracy in one form or another?

Ans:-Deepening democracy.

7.What is the biggest threat to democracy?

Ans:-Corruption is the bigger threat to democracy.

8. What is “Franchise”?

Ans:-Franchise is a system of election in which all the citizens who have reached the age of 18 years or above are entitled to cast votes.

9.What is the greatest threat to the unity and integrity of a nation?

Ans:-Communalism is the greatest threat to unity and integrity of nation. 

10. Name the Act through which citizens can know what is happening in government?

Ans:-“The Right to information Act” empowers the people to know what is happening in government.

11. Which two kinds of challenges are faced by Indian democracy?

Ans:- Challenge of expansion and challenge of deepening democracy.

12. How does castesim create social tension?

Ans:- Castesim divides the society into high caste and low caste. People belonging to the higher caste feel that they have greater rights than the others. Such feelings create social tension.

III. Short Answer Questions

1.Write the role played by education in deepening democracy

Ans:- The role played by education in deepening democracy is Creating a literate society, enlightened masses, tolerant people who have only one goal – the unity, and development of the country. Only education can bring about a qualitative and quantitative change. Freedom, equality, humanism and denial of dogmas should be the themes of education. Only through education there would be a growth of a new intelligentia or intellectual class, taking to modernity. Intellectuals are those people who contribute directly to the creation, transmission and criticism of ideas. Education paves the way to development of science and technology. Modern education has the ability to change the attitude and outlook of people. It can and has brought about changes in customs, traditions, morality and religious beliefs and the whole value system. India must target at achieving universal literacy. Education leads to political awareness among the poor and backward classes. It helps people to cast out obsolete ideas and customs.

2. Write the role played by press in promoting democracy

Ans:- Freedom of Press is another factor that helps in promoting democracy. It helps in forming public opinion on issues of national importance. The press plays a double role-it makes the public aware of what is happening in the country and conveys the public opinion to the government. For this role to be played effectively, the Press should follow a code of conduct. Not only the Press, the mass media (radio, television, newspapers, etc.) should have a free hand.

3. Write some minimum qualification of a democracy

Ans:- (i) All major decisions must be taken by the representatives elected by the people.

(ii)Elections must offer fair choice and opportunities to masses to re-elect or reject a government.

(iii)The choice and opportunity should be available to all citizens or equal footing.

(iv) An elected government must not cross the limits set by the constitution and must respect human rights.

4. What is the role of citizens in deepening democracy?

Ans:-The following are the role of citizens in deepening democracy: 

(a) Citizens must not vote for a candidate for the sake of a favour.

(b) It is the duty of citizen to select the best candidate. 

(c) Taking active part in understanding the working of democracy, citizens should realise the importance of vote.

(d) The citizens should be aware of the fact that the representatives chosen by them are responsible to them.

5. Inequalities between men and women hinder the smooth functioning of democracy” Explain?

Ans:- In a civilized society, women enjoy equal rights with men in socioeconomic and political and religious fields. If women are not allowed to participate in national politics they are deprived of liberty. Thus democracy cannot flourish in such situation and hinder the smooth functioning of democracy.

6. How is communalism hindrance in the path of democracy?

Ans:-Communalism results in disunion, factionalism, mutual suspicion and constant breach of peace. ‘It gives-rise to difference of opinions on petty issues. Democracy can not flourish under such atmosphere.

7. How does inequality of women hinder the proper functioning of democracy in India?

Ans:- Inequality of women in Indian society possess hurdles in the proper functioning of democracy in the following ways: 

(i) Democracy based on equality for all the citizens. But if women are not considered equal to men, democracy can not flourish.

(ii) Women do not have as much freedom and liberty as men do have. Liberty is must for democracy. Without liberty to all the members of the society democracy has no meaning.

(ii) India is a men dominated society. Men commit atrocities on women and exploit them, which is a big blow to democracy.

8.How does casteism and untouchability hinder the proper functioning of democracy in India?

Ans:-Nothing wrong in having faith in one’s own caste. But to hate other caste and practice untouchability is a crime against humanity. It amounts to ‘social inequality, which undoubtedly hampers democracy. It does so in the following manners. 

(i)Casteism creates a sense of high and low. Higher caste people exploit lower paste people, which is against the principle of democracy.

ii) Because of casteism people get divided into various groups and consequently differences crop up. This is against the unity of the nation.

iii) The voting behaviours of the voters in an election is influenced by casteism which is very harmful for functioning of democracy. 

9. Mention the major challenges of Indian democracy.

Ans:-Communalism, regionalism, casteism, untouchability, inequality of women, economic inequality, population explosion, corruption. illiteracy, etc. are the major challenges of Indian democracy.

10. Can we draw a list of political reforms applicable to all democracies? Why/why not? 

Ans:-Different countries face different challenges, hence political reforms also differ from country to country. There cannot be a general list of political reforms. We can, of course, discuss political reforms in India. Here too, it is difficult to draw a list which is permanent and full proof because new challenges may arise in future and current challenges become irrelevant.

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