NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-13 Competition and Contestations in Democracy

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-13 Competition and Contestations in Democracy. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-13 Competition and Contestations in Democracy

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EXERCISE

Chapter-13

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1.Who chooses the candidates for contesting elections in India?

(a) Members and supporters of the party

(b) Top party leadership

(c) The existing government

(d) None of these

Ans: (b) Top party leadership

2. Which of these countries has a one-party system?

(a) India 

(b) China

(c) USA

(d) UK

Ans: (b) China

3. Which of these is not a good option for a democratic state?

(a) One-party system

(b) Two-party system

(c) Multi-party system

(d) None of the above

Ans: (a) One-party system

4. Which among the following political parties was formed by Kanshi Ram and Mayawati?

(a) Communist Party of India

(b) Revolutionary Socialist Party

(c) Bahujan Samaj Party

(d) All India Forward Bloc

Ans: (c) Bahujan Samaj Party

5.Shiromani Akali Dal is associated with

(a) Karnataka

(b) Punjab

(c) Tamil Nadu

(d) Himachal Pradesh

Ans: (b) Punjab

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1.Name three components of a political party.

Ans: The three components of a political party are:

i) The leaders

ii) The active members, and

iii) The followers.

2.Define a political party.

Ans: A political party is a group of people who share common ideology and aim to form government by contesting elections and winning a majority of the contested seats.

3.What is the difference between a national party and a state party?

Ans: National parties are present in all or many of the federal units, whereas state parties are present in only one of the federal units.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Differentiate between a ruling party and an opposition party.

Ans: Aruling party is a party who form and run the government after winning an election. It is a party which makes big policy decisions of the government and its top leaders form the Cabinet which runs the government whereas, an opposition party is a party which fail to form the government. They examine and criticize the government for its failures and wrong policies.

2. Name two countries each adhering to 

(i) one-party system

(ii) two-party system.

Ans:(i) China (Communist party of China,

(ii) United States of America and U.K.

3. Write the major objectives of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Ans:(i) One-party system: China and Cuba. (ii) Two-party system: U.S.A and Great Britain

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Explain how a political party can shape public opinion.

Ans: A political party is a group of people who share common ideology and aim to form government by contesting elections. These political parties play a pivotal role in shaping and mobilizing public opinion on important social, political and economic matters. They raise and highlight issues that concern people and often bring important issues of the society into the media spotlight. The party machinery i.e, its cadre and general members plays an important role in shaping the public opinion. Many pressure groups often act as extensions of the political parties among different sections of society. Naturally, these pressure groups propagate among their members, the political line of their parent parties. Political parties also launch movements for the redressal of certain issues. Opposition party also plays a significant role in formation of public opinion through organizing meetings, demonstration and pamphlets and by highlighting the issues on mass media. This helps in creating awareness and shaping public opinion.

2. State the various functions which political parties perform in a democracy.

Ans: The various functions which political parties perform in a democracy are:

(i) Contesting elections: Political parties put up candidates in various constituencies to contest an election.

(ii) Declaring different policies and programmes: Each party has a different set of ideology, policy and programme which it desires to implement after forming government.

(iii) Making laws for the country: Laws are made after the bills are debated and passed by legislatures by a majority.

(iv) Parties form and run governments: The majority party in a legislature forms the government. Top leaders of the party form the cabinet which runs the government.

(v) Role of opposition: The parties which fail to form government play the role of opposition inside the legislature and outside. They examine and criticise the government for its failures and wrong policies.

(vi) Shaping public opinion: Opinion of people against and in favour of certain issues and policies of the government can make the prospects of a ruling party in the coming election.

(vii) Providing people access to government machinery and

welfare schemes: ÿpA member of a ruling party can easily approach the government machinery through a local leader, say, an MLA, an MP or a councillor. Welfare schemes launched by the government are made easily accessible to citizens by a party which is responsible to people’s needs and demands.

3.What are the characteristics of a political party?

Ans: The characteristics of a political party are as follows:

(i)Political parties are formed by a group of people who share common ideology.

(ii) The main aim of a political party is to form the government.

(iii) Policies and programmes are essential for each political party to win support of the people.

(iv) Political parties are the life-blood of a democratic party.

(v) Political party has three essential components-they are the leaders, the active members and the followers.

(vi) Political parties contest elections and make laws for the country.

(vii) National and State parties are the two most important political parties.

4.”The quality of democracy depends on the degree of public participation. Explain.

Ans: Public participation can be regarded as a vital part of democratic governance. It is infact an intrinsic element to the success of a democracy. India, is a democratic country whereby the government is formed by the people and for the people which clearly means that the citizens or the general public play the most important role in its governance and success of the nation. Active participation of the citizens not only helps in the creation of an unbiased democratic climate but also leads to the formation of a healthy government from the grass root level, it will also generate a wave of awareness and interest which will promote better decisions when electing representatives in the democratic system.

To make democracy effective a large number of citizens also need to actively take part in the election process since it is the most integral part of the democratic system. Citizens of a nation cannot reform politics by simply criticizing the government from the outside. The problem of bad politics can only be solved by adopting better politics. That is possible only when ordinary citizens participate in the process of democracy.

THINGS TO DO

I.DEBATE

Organise a debate on the topic ‘Reforming our political parties and leaders’. Each student should be given only five minutes to speak on the topic. [Note: The class teacher should help participants to prepare the speech on political reforms by discussing the topic in detail in the classroom.]

Ans:-(1) The present electoral system of single-member constituencies should be replaced, by system of proportional representation.

(2) Strict action should be taken against those who indulged in booth-

capturing and bogus voting.

(3) There should be provision for recall.

(4) The elections including the polling should be so conducted that the people are in a position to exercise their franchise freely. without intimidation, coercion, interference, undue inducement by political parties and others.

(5) The number of polling booths in a constituency should be increased.

(6) The electoral rolls should be open for additions and deletions every three months after the general revision is completed.

(7) Every effort should be made to check the role of money in elections.

(8) Election petitions should be disposed of expeditiously.

(9) The state must share election expense. 

(10) Ministers and other officials must not misuse the official machinery.

(11) Eligible voters should be given identity cards.

(12) The Election Commission has suggested that election need not be countermanded on the death of any candidate.

(13) Every political party, registered with the commission, should publish its accounts annually.

II. SEMINAR

Which party system is better? One-party system/two-party system or multi-party system. This is a question often asked in political circles, in seminars, in debates and discussions. Organise a seminar on the topic ‘which party- system is better? One-party system/ two- party system/ multi-party system. Select five bright students to speak at the seminar. Invite a local politician/ MLA/MP to speak at the seminar.

Ans:-One party is better in the following ways:

1. National Unity. A single-party system helps in building up national unity. The nation is not divided into various hostile groups. The entire country becomes one political unit and functions quite successfully.

2.Strong Government. In a single-party system the govemment is always strong and it can carry out its policies more efficiently. Once a policy is framed, all the members of the party must follow that policy. No member of the party is allowed to criticise the policy of the party.

3.Continuity of Policy. In a single-party system there is always continuity of policy. The political party can make long-term plans. because the party knows that it will remain in power for all times to come. This way the country can follow the same policy for a long time.

4. National Progress. In a single-party system the nation progresses very speedily. The political parties have no clash and struggle for power. There is no unhealthy criticism of the government. The entire country functions as one political unity and nation progresses by leaps and bounds.

5.Party Discipline. There always prevails rigid and iron discipline in a single-party system. No member of the party can afford to violate the party discipline, if any member dares violate party discipline it results in his political death. If a member is expelled from the party, he cannot participate in the political functions.

Two party is better in the following ways:

1. Formation of Government is easy. The main advantage of the two-party system is that in it the formation of ministry is very easy. The council of ministers is chosen from the members of majority party in the legislature. In a-two-party system, one party gets a clear majority and the leader of the party is appointed the Prime Minister and all other ministers’ are appointed on his recommendations.

2.People directly choose the Government. In a two-party system the government is chosen according to the wishes of the people. The people can cast their votes to that party which they want to come to power. The party which gets the majority of the seats controls the government. In a two-party system the government is stable and strong.

3.Government remains responsible. In a two-party system, the responsibility for a good or bad government can be easily fixed. The administration is more responsible because administrative responsibility falls on a particular political party. If the ruling party does not run the administration smoothly’ the people will vote it down and they vote to power the other party.

4.Government becomes stable. In a two-party system the government generally remains stable. The government’ is formed by the majority party. All the ministers are taken from a single party. As a matter of course, they work as a team and they remain in office as long as they continue to enjoy the confidence of that party.

5.Strong Government. In a two-party system the government is strong. The ministry is always sure of the support of majority party and therefore, whatever decisions it takes, it can pursue them strongly.

6.Strong opposition. In a two-party system the opposition party also plays a very important role. One party forms the government and the other party is called the opposition party. The opposition party always makes a constructive criticism of the government. It brings to light the defects of the ruling party and tries to create public opinion in support of its policies.

Multi party is better in the following ways:

(1) Representation to all shades of opinion. An important merit of multiple party systems is that in the legislature all shades of opinion get representation. There exist various political parties which represent different shades of opinion and each party gets somewhat representation in the legislature. This way the legislature becomes such an institution as represents every type of view-point.

(2) More choice to the voters. In Multiple party systems the voter enjoys a greater degree of independence and choice because so many parties contest the elections. The voter can vote for a candidate of his own choice.

(3) Position of the legislature becomes significant. In a multiple party system the legislature does not become a tool in the hands of the cabinet, rather it keeps the cabinet under its control. In fact, the ministry functions in accordance with the wishes of the legislature. They give importance to legislature.

(4) Government changes according to times easily. In multiple party system, the government can be changed easily even before the next election. In this system no single party can have its own way. Therefore, if the ministry does not change its policy according to the time then one or other party quits the ministry and thus the government falls. This way the ministry can be changed when the time so demands.

(5) Nation is not divided into two halves. In a multiple party system the political parties do not bitterly criticise one another because after the resignation of the cabinet no single party is confident of forming the government.

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Additional Questions

I.Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which of these statements is incorrect?

(a) Parties reflect fundamental political unity in a society 

(b) Parties try to persuade people why their policies are better than others

(c) They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections

(d) All the above

Ans:- (b) Parties try to persuade people why their policies are better than others.

2. Parties put forward their choose from them______and _____and the voters choose from them.

(a) Policies, programmes

(b) Rules, regulations

(c) Views, opinions

(d) All the above

Ans:-(a) Policies, programmes

3. Political parties exercise power through which of these functions?

(a) Parties contest elections

(b) They play a decisive role in making laws for a country 

(c) They form and run governments

(d) All the above

Ans:- (c) They form and run governments

4.Which of these statements is correct?

(a) Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission

(b) The Commission treats all the parties equally

(c) It offers some special facilities to large and established parties 

(d) All the above

Ans:- (a) Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission

5.Which of these is not a good option for a democratic state?

(a) One-party system

(b) Two-party system

(c) Multi-party system

(d) None of the above

Ans:- (a) One-party system

6. Indian party system is

(a) Multi Party 

(b) Bi-Party Single

(c) Single Party

Ans:-(a) Multi Party

7. The political parties are good bridge between 

(a) The President & the Parliament 

(b) The Government & the People 

(c) The Governor & the Legislature

(d) The Chief Minister & the Governor 

Ans:- (b) The Government & the People

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Name the three national parties in India.

Ans:- INC, BJP and CPI (M).

2. What would happen in a situation if there are no political parties? [HOTS]

Ans:- Without political parties government cannot be run.

3. When does a political party get recognition as a national party in India?

Ans:-A party that secures at least six per cent of total votes in a Lok Sabha election or Assembly elections in any four states and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is given the status of a National party.

4. Name any three national parties.

Ans:- BJP, INC, CPI (M).

5. Name the alliance or coalition formed by congress.

Ans:- United Progressive Alliance (UPA).

6. What does RSS stand for?

Ans:- Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangha (RSS).

7. Name the alliance or coalition formed by BJP.

Ans:-National Democratic Alliance (NDA)

8.When did CPI (M) split?

Ans:- The Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI (M) split from Communist Party of India (CPI) in 1964.

9. Name some regional parties?

Ans:-NPF, TDP, DMK.

10. What is democracy according to Abraham Lincoln? 

Ans:-Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as “a government of the people, by the people and for the people.”

11. How many seats are reserved for women in local bodies?

Ans:- 1/3.

12. Which amendment constitutionally recognizes Panchayati Raj?

Ans:- 73rd Amendment Act 1992.

13. What is the chief aim of a political party?

Ans:- The chief aim of a political party is to form the government at the centre or in a state.

14. What is multi party system?

Ans:- It is a system where there are three or more parties.

15. What is Representative Democracy?

Ans:- It is a system where the people elect their representatives on their behalf.

16. What is an alliance or coalition?

Ans:- When several parties join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or coalition.

17. Name some countries that have two party systems.

Ans:- USA, Great Britain, Canada.

18. Name some countries that have one party system. 

Ans:- China, North Korea, Cuba.

III. Short Answer Questions

1.Mention the factors which led to the rise of political parties.

Ans:- The factors which led to the rise of political parties are:

(i) Large size and diversity

(ii) Imbalance in centre-state relations

(iii) Feelings of dominance of Northern India

(iv) Lapses of congress.

2. The rise of regional parties has led to strengthening of federalism and democracy in our country’. Do you agree with the opinion? Why/why not? 

Ans:-“The rise of regional parties has led to strengthening of federalism and democracy in our country”. I agree with the above mentioned lines because the rise of regional parties led to cooperation and relations between the state and centre. Moreover, regional parties have made politics more competitive and there is more participation at the grass-root level which strengthened our democratic principles.

3. How has multi-party system strengthened democracy in India?

Ans:- On the positive side, this system is healthy for a multi religious and multilingual country like India with more than a billion population. This system allows all shades of interests and opinions to have a fair representation.

4. What is Multi party system?

Ans:- Multi party system is a system where three or more parties function and several parties have reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own or in alliance with others.

5. What is a Movement? Give any two examples?

Ans:-Movement means an attempt to influence policies rather than taking part directly in electoral competition. 

Example:-(a) Narmada Bachao Andolan

(b) Anti liquor Movement

6.What is called an alliance or a front?

Ans:- When several political parties in a multiparty system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or a front.

7.What is the aim of the opposition?

Ans:-The opposition aims at ensuring good government in the country.

8. Name the motions moved by opposition in legislature? 

Ans:-Adjournment and no-confidence motion.

9. What is meant by no Confidence Motion?

Ans:- Sometimes the opposition parties feel that the government has lost majority in the Lok Sabha as its policies are unpopular. In that case, they can pass motion against council of minister called no confidence motion.

10. What is Adult Franchise?

Ans:- The right to vote given to all citizens above a certain age without any discrimination is called Adult franchise.

11. What is Coalition?

Ans:-A coalition government is a govemment in which several parties cooperate. It generally happens when no party gets a majority in the Parliament and several parties join together to prove their majority.

12. Explain the role of political parties in competition and contestation?

Ans:-(a) Election: Parties contest elections and elections are contested mainly among the candidates put up by the political parties.

(b) Declaration of policies: Political parties put forward their considered views and policies before the people and suggest ways to tackle the issues..

(c) Moulding public opinion: The parties stimulate issues of public interest before the nation by means of mass communication such as press, radio, television, etc and by circulating hand bills, posters, pamphlets to solve the problem of the nation

(d) Selection of the candidates and participation of election: Political parties contest elections. So they select suitable candidates, issue party manifesto, organize election campaigns and use every legitimate means of winning the election.

(e) To form and run the government: Formation of govt. is one of the aims and functions of a political party.

(f) Linkage between the govt. and people: Parties provide a link between people and the govt. Party representatives meet the public at the local level to listen their problems and convey these to their party colleagues in the govt.

13. Political parties play a major role in democracy. Give three points to justify this statement.

 Ans:- Political parties play a major role in democracy.

(i)Political parties help in formation of the government. The majority party in Parliament provides a stable government.

(ii)Political parties help in moulding public opinion on important issues through public meetings, demonstrations, posters, speech over radio, T.V.

(iii)Political parties act as a link between the people and government. They describe the policies of government to the people and convey the reaction of the people to the government. It helps the government in close touch with public opinion.

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