NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-12 Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy

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NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-12 Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy

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EXERCISE

Chapter-12 

I.Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which form of power sharing is most commonly referred to as federalism?

(a) Horizontal division of power

(b) Vertical division of power

(c) Division of power among various communities 

(d) Sharing of power among political parties

Ans: (b) Vertical division of power

2. When was the report of the States Reorganisation Commission implemented? 

(a) 1956 

(b) 1958

(c) 1960

(d) 1965

Ans: (a) 1956

3.The Gram Sabha supervises the functioning of

(a) Nyaya Panchayat

(b) Gram Panchayat

(c) Zila Parishad

(d) Block Samiti

Ans: (b) Gram Panchayat

4. The rights of the Adivasis are protected by a separate Act passed in

(a) 1988

(b) 1990

(c) 1976

(d) 1996

Ans: (d) 1996

5.The Concurrent List has

(a) 47 subjects 

(b) 51 subjects 

(c) 56 subjects 

(d) 50 subjects

Ans: (a) 47 subjects

Il. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Name three Indian states which have been created in 2000. 

Ans: Three Indian states which have been created in 2000 are Chattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand

2. What was the main objective of Sarkaria Commission?

Ans: The main objective of Sarkaria Commission is to examine the centre-state relationship.

3. Name the apex court of India.

Ans: The Supreme Court

4.Name a state which enjoys special powers in Indian federal set-up.

Ans: Jammu and Kashmir

5. What is the popular name of rural local government? 

Ans: The popular name of rural local government is Panchayati Raj

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Which countries follow ‘coming together’ style of federalism?

Ans: USA, Switzerland and Australia.

2. Name the two amendments which gave legal status to local self-government in India. 

Ans:73th & 74th amendments.

3. What do you understand by the term ‘holding together’ federation?

Ans: Under “Holding Together federation” a large country decides to divide its power between constituent state and national govemment.

4. Name the court which solves the disputes arising between central government and various state governments.

Ans: Supreme Court.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Differentiate between a federal and a unitary form of the government? Give an example.

Ans: A federal government is a system of government in which power is constitutionally divided between the national or central government and various regional units. Each government is autonomous. Federalism allows two sets of identities; people belong to the region as well as the country. The national government in a federation holds power related to common national interests like Defence, Foreign policy, Finance etc. Example:-India is federal in character where power is divided between the centre and state government, on the other hand while comparing their power the centre power is prevail which make a strong centre/ unitary.

2.Mention any four factors behind the decentralisation of power in India.

Ans: Four factors behind the decentralisation of power in India are:

i)Several states of India are bigger than independent countries of Europe. For example. Uttar Pradesh is bigger (in terms of population) than Russia, Maharashtra is as big as Germany. For the sake of efficiency in administration, a state had to give some of the powers to local self-governments.

(ii)A large number of issues and problems are best settled at local level because these may be different in different localities of same state.

(iii) People at local level have better knowledge of problems and solutions at local level. They have original and better ideas to spend money wherever needed and to better manage the resources.

iv) If local people directly participate in the processes of governance, democracy is strengthened at the grassroot level.

3. List the main features of 73rd Amendment Act.

Ans: The main features of 73rd Amendment Act are: 

i) The 73rd Amendment Act made provisions for rural government which is also referred to as Panchayati raj

ii) The three-tier Panchayati Raj structure have been enacted in all the states. 

iii) The three-tier Panchayati Raj comprises of Gram Panchayat’ at the base, the middle is referred to as Panchayat Samiti and at the apex is the ‘Zila Parishad’.

iv) The Panchayat Samiti is formed by a group of few gram Panchayats together and its members are elected by the Panchayat members of that area. 

v) Each village or a group of villages has a Gram Panchayat. It is a council consisting of panchas and Sarpanch who are elected by all adult population in a village.

vi) The Zila Parishad is formed by all the Panchayat Samiti in a district. The members of Zila Parishad are elected. Members of lok Sabha and MLA’s of that district are also its members.

4. Explain the threefold distribution of legislative power between the Union Government and the State Governments.

Ans: The threefold distribution of legislative power between the Union Government and the State Governments are:

(a) The Union List: Subjects of national interests come under this list. For example, defence, foreign policy, atomic energy, banking. post and telegraph are included in this list. Only the central government can pass laws on subjects mentioned in this list.

(b) The State List: It is made of those important subjects on which the state governments can pass laws. Subjects like police, local government, trade and commerce within the state and agriculture are included in this list.

(c) The Concurrent List: The Constitution has provided a third list, which has subjects which are the common concern of both the Centre and State governments. In ordinary circumstances, both can frame laws on these subjects. But if there is a conflict between a Central law and a State law over a subject in the Concurrent List, then the Central law would be effective. This list includes subjects like criminal and civil procedure, marriage and divorce, education, economic planning, trade union.

5. Mention two major objectives of a federal government.

Ans: The major objectives of federal government are:-

i)To safeguard and promote the unity and integrity of a country: Unity and integrity are central to maintain peace and order in a country. Therefore, the federal system of government ensures it by constitutionally dividing the power between the national or central government and various regional units.

(ii)To accommodate regional diversity: India is a multi-religious, multi- ethnic and multi-regional country. Therefore, the federal government not only conform different forms of diversity but also toil towards nurturing these diversities.

6. Describe any four features of federalism.

Ans: Four features of federalism are: 

(i) Two or more levels of government

(ii) Each level has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration

(iii) Authority and jurisdiction of each tier is guaranteed by Constitution 

(iv) Modification in fundamental provisions of Constitution require consent of all levels.

7.What makes India a federation?

Ans: Indian federalism has succeeded because its provisions are clearly laid down in the Constitution. But the more important reason for its success in the last sixty-eight years is mainly because of the nature of democratic politics. Our nationalist leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru and his Cabinet colleagues had deep faith in ideals of democratic politics. They nurtured these ideals carefully. The spirit of federalism, unity and diversity and desire for living together were the shared ideals since the freedom struggle and all of these features make India a federation.

8. Mention the power and functions of a Panchayat.

Ans: The power and functions of a Panchayat are as follows:

(i) Preparation of plan for economic and social development for the village.

(ii) Implementation of schemes for economic development of village.

(iii) Construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, healthcare centres, educational institutions etc.

(iv) Providing basic amenities such as clean drinking water and sanitation facilities to the villages.

(v) Collection of taxes and fees.

9. Describe any four measures taken to decentralise power in India.

Ans: Four measures taken to decentralize power in India are:-

(i) Firstly, the first step taken to decentralize power in India was the Community Development Programme of 1952.

(ii) Secondly, a third tier of government at the local level called local self-government was introduced.

(iii) Thirdly, some of the powers of the Central and State governments were transferred to the autonomous local self-government.

(iv) Fourthly, the 73 and 74 Amendments were passed by the Parliament in 1992 to establish rural local government known as Panchayati Raj institutions or PRI’s and urban local government known as Nagar Palikas.

10. Mention any four features of local self-government. 

Ans: Any four features of local self-government are:-

(i) It is now constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.

(ii) Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and executive heads of these institutions for weaker sections of society such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.

(iii) An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.

(iv) The state governments are required to share powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from state to state.

THINGS TO DO

I. ASSIGNMENT

1. Study the following typical situations and explain what would be legal/constitutional remedy.

(a) Suppose the Government of Rajasthan was opposed to the central government’s nuclear policy and it tried to prevent the union government from conducting nuclear explosion in Pokharan.

Ans:- Even though, Rajasthan government opposed programme for nuclear test, it could not prevent the central government from holding such test as National Security, Defence, Nuclear Policy are part of the Union list, as defined by the constitution of India and is the prerogative of the central government to makes laws, frame policies and take decisions on it.

(b) There is a conflict between the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over sharing of water of the river Kaveri.

Ans:- (1) Article 262 (2) Inter State Water Disputes Act 1956.

(c) The Government of Bihar introduces new textbooks whose style and content is not liked by the Union government.

Ans:-Government of Bihar have to take permission from the Union government because education is under concurrent list on which both the state and union government can make laws and incase of any conflict of laws only the Union laws prevails.

(d) If the chief ministers of Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha and Chhattisgarh pursue different and opposing policies to deal with Maoist or Naxalite insurgencies.

Ans:-NEW ANTI-NAXAL POLICY – Central Armed Police Force and State Police are presently dealing with Maoist insurgency menace. The new policy says that the State Police should take the lead in the campaign with support from Central Force in an attempt to fine-tune the existing policy measures. The Policy says asking states to take lead and CRPF to act as “a glue” to hold the grid together across the states.

Additional Questions

I.Multiple Choice Questions

1.Which are the basic objectives of a federal system?

(a) To safeguard and promote unity of the country

(b) To accommodate regional diversity

(c) To share powers among different communities

(d) Both A and B

Ans:- (d) Both A and B

2.Which of the following is incorrect regarding a unitary government? 

(a) There is either only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the central government

(b) The central government can pass on orders to the provincial government

(c) A state government is answerable to central government 

(d) The powers of state government are guaranteed by the Constitution

Ans:- (d) The powers of state government are guaranteed by the Constitution

3.Which of the following is not one of the key features of federalism?

(a) There are two or more levels of government

(b) Each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation. taxation and administration

(c) The existence and authority of each tier of government is constitutionally guaranteed

(d) Constitution can be unilaterally changed by anyone level of

government 

Ans:-(d) Constitution can be unilaterally changed by anyone level of

4.government What is the third tier of government known as?

(a) Village Panchayats 

(b) State government

(c) Local-self government

(d) Zilla Parishad

Ans:-(d) Zilla Parishad

5._______is the official language of India.

(a) Hindi

(b) English

(c) Punjabi

(d) None

Ans:-(a) Hindi

6.Every adult who is_____ the Gram Sabha. years of age is a member of

(a) 18

(b) 16

(c) 21

(d) 25

Ans:- (a) 18

7.______is the highest institution of Panchayati Raj

(a) Zila Parishad

(b) Block Samiti

(c) Village Panchayat

(d) Union Government

Ans:-(a) Zila Parishad

8.Who is the head of the Muncipal Corporation?

(a) Chairman

(b) Sarpanch

(c) Mayor

(d) Panch

Ans:- (c) Mayor

9. Which of the following is the smallest unit of local self government?

(a) The Gram Sabha

(b) The Gram Panchayat

(c) Zila Parished 

(d) Block Samiti

Ans:-(b) The Gram Panchayat

10. Local bodies in large cities are known as 

(a) Villlage panchayat

(b) Town Committee

(c) Municipal corporation 

(d) Zila Parishad

Ans:-(c) Municipal corporation

11. What is the second tier of Panchayati Raj?

(a) Village Assembly

(b) Village Panchayat

(c) Block Samiti

(d) Zila Parishad

Ans:-(c) Block Samiti

12. The members of the block samiti are —

(a) Directly elected

(b) Indirectly elected

(c) Nominated

(d) Appointed

Ans:-(b) Indirectly

13. Some of the members of the zila parishad are

(a) Chief ministers

(b) Governors

(c) MLAs

(d) Pradhan

Ans:- (c) MLAs

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. What is basic aim of Indian Federalism? 

Ans:- The national unity is the basic aim of Indian Federalism.

2. Who are the sources of power in democracy? 

Ans:- People are the source of power in democracy.

3.What is vertical division of power?

Ans:- The division of power involving higher and lower levels of governments are called vertical divisions of power.

4. What is the official language in India?

Ans:- Hindi as well as English.

5. What is the smallest unit of local self-government?

Ans:-Village Panchayat.

6.Who is the head of the Municipality?

Ans:-Municipal Chairman.

7.What is Federalism?

Ans:- Federalism is a system of government in which power is constitutionally divided between central government and various regional units.

8. Name the two main objectives of Federal Government

Ans:- (i) To safeguard and promote unity and integrity of a country (ii) To accommodate regional diversity.

9.Name some department or example under National government

Ans:-Defence, Foreign, Finance.

10. Name one department or example under provincial/state government

Ans:- Law and order.

11. What is unitary?

Ans:-A strong centre.

12. Name the two sets of identities in Federalism

Ans:-(i) People belonging to the region

(ii) People belonging to the country.

13. Which article of the Indian Constitution mention Directive Principle of state policy?

Ans:- Article 40.

14. When was community development programme set up?

Ans:- 1952.

15. When was the 73rd and 74th Amendment Act passed?

Ans:- In 1992. They came into force in 1993. The 73rd deals with Panchayati Raj and 74° deals with municipalities.

16. What are the structures of Panchayati Raj?

Ans: (i) Gram Panchayat at the base (Village)

(ii) Panchayat Samiti at the block

(iii) Zila Parishad at the District 

17. What is the name of Urban local government?

Ans:- Nagar Palikas.

18. Name the highest local government in Urban areas.

Ans:-Municipal Corporation.

19. Name the highest local government in rural areas

Ans:- Zila Parishad.

20. What is Power Sharing?

Ans:- Power sharing is a strategy under which all the major segments of the society are provided with a permanent share of power in the governance of the country.

21. What is “Coming Together” Federation?

Ans:-Coming Together Federation involves Independent states coming together on their own to form a bigger unit. So that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity they can increase their security and economic resources.

22. What is the basic cause of forming linguistic states?

Ans:- The basic cause of forming the linguistic state is to make the country more stronger and united, and to make administration easier.

23. What is Decentralisation?

Ans:- Under decentralization some of the powers are taken away from centre and state government and given to village, Panchayat, Municipal committees etc.

24.Distinguish between Democratic Government and Legitimate government?

Ans:-Democratic Government is chosen by the people. So they have the right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate govemment is one where groups, through participations, acquire a stake in the system.

25. What is Zila Parishad?

Ans:- The highest institution of Panchayati Raj is the Zila Parisad which co-ordinate the work of all the block samities in the whole district. 

26. What is the Gram Sabha (The Village Assembly)?

Ans:- The Gram Sabha or the village Assembly is local body which has been established in every village to meet the local needs of the village people. Every adult who is 18 years or above is the

member of the Gram Sabha.

27. What is Municipal Corporation?

Ans:- Local bodies in big cities are called Municipal Corporation. 

28. Why is power sharing desirable?

Ans:- Power sharing is desirable because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

29. Name some countries that have “holding together federation”

Ans:-India, Spain and Belgium

30. Which Article provided Special Status to Jammu and Kashmir?

Ans:-Article 370.

31. How many subjects are there in the Union list?

Ans:- 100.

32. How many subjects are there in the state list?

Ans:-61.

33. How many subjects are there in the concurrent list?

Ans:-52.

34. How many mother tongues are there in India? 

Ans:- 1652.

35. How many languages have been officially recognized in India?

Ans:-22.

36. Which Schedule recognized language?

Ans:- 8th Schedule.

37. When was Sindhi added to constitution?

Ans:- 1962.

38. By which amendment Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added to the constitution? 

Ans:-71st Amendment 1992.

39. When was Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santhali added to Constitution?

Ans:-92nd Amendment 2003.

40. Which article provided for President’s Rule?

Ans:-Article 356.

41. When did the popularity of Congress declined?

Ans:-After 1990.

42. What is Decentralisation?

Ans:- When power is taken away from central and state governments and transferred to autonomous local self-government, it is called decentralization. 

43. When was Telangana created out of Andhra Pradesh?

Ans:-2014.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Why there is need for power sharing?

Ans:- There is need for power sharing to (a) Avoid conflict between social groups (b) Create democratic spirit

2. What are the advantages of decentralisation?

Ans:- The decentralization has the following advantages: (a) There are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level as the locals have better knowledge about them.

(b) Direct participation of people in political activities to solve various problems.

(c) Foundation of democracy is strengthened.

(d) It reduces the burden of the central Government

3. Analyse the centre-state relations?

Ans:- The term centre state relations refer to the process of dealing with the state by the central government. In fact, there must be cordial and co-operative relations between the state and the centre. But conflict occurs between the centre and the state when there are different government at centre and state. If central government is ruled by a particular political party which is not in the state then the central government put pressure on the state government to follow its rule. So it is detrimental for both state and the union govemment.

4. Seats are reserved for women in the local self-government. Seeing the position of women in India as well as the corruption in politics, how far do you think this reservation will help? 

Ans:- Earlier the participation of women in politics or public life is very less/limited. However, it has been increasing with the provision of 33% reservation for them in local bodies. This reservation helps and encourages them in public affair. They were no longer inferior to men. Moreover, women are more sincere and dedicated to their work. If more women are elected in local bodies with the help of this 33% reservation, corruption in our society will be less.

5. Mention the policies that have strengthened federalism in India.

Ans:-The federalism in India has been strengthened by adhering to the letter and ypspirit of the Constitution by the Centre as well as the states. The ruling parties and their leaders at both levels of government have exhibited remarkable sagacity and wisdom to maintain a cordial relation. In several decades after independence, the government at the Centre and in most of the states belonged

to the same party, that is, Congress. Hence the relations were obviously cordial, efficient and normal.

6. Mention the three major decisions which has strengthened the federal principal in India?

Ans:- The three major decisions which has strengthened the federal principal in India are:

(i) Creation of linguistic states

(ii) Language policy

(iii) Centre-state relations.

7. What is a coalition government?

Ans:- Coalition government has two or more political parties form a political alliance on the basis of common minimum programme to run a government. A coalition government is formed when no single political party gets a majority in Parliament or a Legislative Assembly election.

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