NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-11| Working of Democracy

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-11| Working of Democracy. which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education:

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-11| Working of Democracy

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I.Multiple Choice Questions 

1.What is meant by ‘gender division’?

(a) Division between the rich and the poor

(b) Division between males and females 

(c) Division between educated and uneducated 

(d) None of the above

Ans:- (b) Division between males and females

2. In which of these countries, the participation of women in politics is not very large?

(a) Sweden

(b) Norway

(c) India

(d) Finland

Ans:- (c) India

3.Indian society is considered as

(a) A matriarchal society

(b) A patriarchal society

(c) A fraternal society

(d) None of these

Ans:- (b) A patriarchal society

4. Which among the following poses the biggest threat to democracy?

(a) Casteism

(b) Communalism

(c) Corruption

(d) Illiteracy

Ans:-(b) Communalism

5.When the demands of one religion are formed in opposition to another, it is associated with

(a) Casteism

(b) Regionalism

(c) Communalism

(d) Socialism

Ans:-(a) Casteism

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. Name a famous leader who was associated with Muslim League?

Ans: M.A Jinnah

2.Name one factor which influences the Indian politics.

Ans: Communalism

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What is the main demand of women organisations and activists regarding reservation of seats for women in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies?

Ans: Many social and political thinkers as well as leaders of women’s movements feel that only empowerment of women can lead to a solution of their problems. Therefore, they demand more representation of women in legislative bodies like parliament and state assemblies.

2. What is the meaning of patriarchal society?

Ans: A patriarchal society is a society where there is male domination in family, offices and all walks of life. Father, rather than mother, is the lead of the family. Most of the family decisions are taken by male members of the family.

3. Mention any two problems faced by Dalits in our society.

Ans: The two problems faced by Dalits in our society are:- 

i) Poverty and

ii) Unemployment.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss the gender issue with respect to its political expression.

Ans: Gender issues in India remains an important problem of the society. Today, the role of Indian women in politics is very limited. Their overall representation in politics in political sphere is very minimal. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha is around 10 percent. Their representation in state assemblies is less that 6 percent. Representation of women in the union and state council of ministers are low. Though, there has been women, Prime Minister, President, some Chief ministers and Governors, their overall representation in politics is quite low in comparison to other countries/regions. However, with the amendment of Panchayati Raj Amendment Act, one-third of seats in Panchayats and municipalities have been reserved for women. There are more than 10 lakh women representatives in these bodies. Women’s Reservation Bill envisaging 33 percent reservation of seats for women in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies is pending before the Parliament. There is no consensus among various political parties on various provisions of the Bill.

It can thus be concluded that political expression of gender division has been beneficial. It has led to significant improvement in status of women.

2. State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine elections in India. 

Ans: Two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine elections in India are:

i)No parliament constituency has clear majority of one single caste More than two castes generally inhabit a constituency. A candidate or a party needs to secure the confidence of more than one caste to win elections.

ii) The ruling party and incumbent MPs and MLAs frequently lose elections. If all castes and communities repeatedly voted for the same political party, same parties and candidates would have kept on winning elections. This is not the case.

3. ‘Caste can take various forms in politics.’ Give any six reasons in support of the statement.

Ans: Caste can take following forms in politics:

(a) While choosing candidates: – When parties choose candidates in election, they keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to get necessary support to win election.

(b) While forming government:- When the government is formed,political parties usually take care that representatives of differentcastes and tribes are involved.

(c) While campaigning:- While campaigning, the political parties and candidates appealed to the people to give them their votes on the basis of castes.

(d) Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one vote has compelled the political leaders to raise caste based issues during election in order to mobilize and secure political support.

4.Describe the influence of politics on caste system.

Ans: The influence of politics on caste system are:

(i) Generally, people of a same caste vote en bloc for a candidate of the same or different caste.

(ii)When they do not vote en bloc they prefer a candidate of their own caste irrespective of the merits or demerits of the candidates. 

(iii) While selecting a candidate for a particular constituency, parties

keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate, and whether the candidate would be able to get the support of the majority caste.

(iv) The office bearers of a party are appointed on the basis of caste to please or not to displease a caste group in the party and in the constituency.

(v) Parties and candidates appeal to the caste sentiments of voters to muster support..

5. Discuss the political expression of communalism.

Ans: The political expression of communalism are:

1. Expression of communalism in everyday beliefs. These involve religious prejudices against certain religious community, stereotypes, belief in superiority of one’s own religion.

2. Often there is political dominance of majority religious groups over minority called majoritarianism. As in Sri Lanka where there is domination of Buddhists over Muslims and Christians. Followers of minority community have strong desire to form a separate nation or autonomous political unit.

3. Political mobilisation of masses on religious lines-political leaders exploit sacred symbols, instigate local religious leaders, emotional appeal, fear to polarise people of one religion for political gains. This happens during elections.

4.Communal violence, riots and massacre for political gains. Muslim League led by M.A. Jinnah used these to effect partition of India. Even in post independence period there have been worst communal riots at the instigation of political parties.

6. Explain the main features of communalism.

Ans: The main features of communalism are:

(1) In communalism religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms, when one religion and its followers are pitted against another.

(ii) In communalism beliefs and practices of one religion are considered superior to those of other religions.

(iii) It is practiced when the demands of one religion are formed in opposition to another.

(iv) In communalism the state favours domination of one religion above all others.

Additional Questions

I. Multiple Choice Questions

1.According to Jawaharlal Nehru, what is the greatest danger for India? 

(a) Communalism 

(b) Casteism

(c) External aggression

Ans:-(a) Communalism

2. The movements which are organised by various women organization to create equality for women are known as

(a) Feminist Movement 

(b) National Movement

(c) Freedom Movement 

(d) Regional Movement

Ans:-(a) Feminist Movement

3. Literacy rate of women in India is______men.

(a) Less than

(b) More than

(c) Equal to

(d) None of the above

Ans:-(a) Less than

4.The numerical proportion between the male and the female is known as

(a) Sex ratio

(b) Gender ratio

(c) Sex ratio

(d) Male ratio

Ans:- (c) Sex ratio

5.In which country Homogenous society exists?

(a) India

(b) Pakistan

(c) USA

(d) Sweden

Ans:- (d) Sweden

6.What is the literacy rate among women?

(a) 48% 

(b) 52%

(c) 50%

(d) 64.46%

Ans:- (d) 64.46%

7.The literacy rate among male is

(a) 75% 

(b) 82.14%

(c) 77%

(d) 98%

Ans:- (b) 82.14%

8.Indian society is based on differences like

(a) Beauty

(b) Chastity

(c) Elopuency 

(d) Castes

Ans:- (d) Castes

9. On what basis Political parties put-up candidate?

(a) Progress

(b) Education

(c) Efficiency

(d) Casteism

Ans:-(d) Casteism

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
Geography Section

10. Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social ______?

(a) Harmony

(d) Love

(c) Tension

(d) Progress

Ans:-(c) Tension

II. Very Short Answer Questions 

1.Who are called Migrants?

Ans:-People who shift from one region to another region within the country or to another country for work or other economic opportunities are called Migrants.

2. Mention two local bodies?

Ans:-Panchayats and Municipalities.

3. What is the main aim of feminist movement?

Ans:-The feminist movement aims at demanding equal rights for women in all spheres of life.

4. How does social division affect politics?

Ans:-Combination of politics and social divisional is very dangerous and explosive. Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. It may lead to disintegration of a country.

5.How many seats are being demanded for the Lok-Sabha and the state assemblies by the women? 

Ans:- The women in India have been demanding one-third of seats in

the Lok-Sabha and state assemblies.

6.What is universal adult franchise?

Ans:-Universal adult franchise is that any citizen who has attended 18 years of age has the right to vote.

7. Define the term Democracy.

Ans:-Democracy is defined as the government of the people, by the people and for the people. Every one has the right to take part in the political process.

8. Do you think Indian cast system is rigid or flexible? 

Ans:-Indian cast system is very rigid.

9. How does politics influence the caste? 

Ans:-Politics influence the caste in the following ways:

(a) Wide base: Each caste tries to widen its base to gain majority

.(b) Coalition: Different caste groups are required to enter into a coalition to strengthen the democracy.

(c) New groups: New caste groups are come such as ‘backward” and forward in the political arena.

10. Mention any two causes of social differences.

Ans:-The two causes of Social differences are; 1.based on religion 2. economic status.

11. What is Communalism?

Ans:-Communalism is a situation when a particular community tries to promote its own interest at the cost of other communities. 

12. What is meant by Casteism?

Ans:- Organisation of people into social groups for the purpose of marriage, work and diet is known as casteism.

13. What is Gender Division?

Ans:-Gender division is a form of social division under which unequal roles are assigned by the society to men and women.

14. What is Homogeneous Society?

Ans:-A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences is called Homogenous Society. For example, Germany and Sweden.

15. Name the three prominent social difference in our country

Ans:- The three prominent social difference in our country are

(1) Gender difference 

(3) Caste difference

(2) Religious difference

16. Which is the main prominent social difference?

Ans:-Gender difference 

17. What is Feminist movement?

Ans:-Feminist movement are those movements which are organized by various women organizations to create equality for women in personal and family life.

18. Name the first women president of India?

Ans:- Pratibha Patel

19. During whose Prime Ministership the Hindu Code Bill was passed?

Ans:- Jawarhalal Nehru

20. Name the Act which provide equal pay for equal work to men and women.

Ans:- Equal wages Act

21. As per 2011 census what is the sex ratio?

Ans:-940 females per 1000 males

22. Write any two demands of women agitations?

Ans:- The two demands of women agitations are: 

(a) Enhancing the political and legal status of women

(b) Improving educational and career opportunities for women section of society

III. Short Answer Questions

1.What are overlapping and cross cutting differences?

Ans:- When some social differences overlap with many other differences, it is called overlapping differences. For example, the difference between the black and white becomes a social division in US because most of the blacks were poor, homeless and discriminated against.

When the social differences cross cut one another or when some groups of people share a common interest on one issue but are different on a different issue is called cross cutting differences. For example, both Northern Ireland and the Netherlands are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics and Protestants.

2. Mention four different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India. 

Ans:- There are four different aspects of life in which women are discriminated.

(a) Education: The literacy rate among women is only 54 percent compared to 76 percent among men.

(b) Work: Indian women work one hour more than an average man every day but most of them are not paid and therefore their work is not often valued.

(c) Gender Preferance: In many parts of India, parents prefer to have sons. They try to abort the girl child before she is born. Thus the sex ratio favours male.

(d) Society: Women suffer due to harassment, exploitation and domestic violence.

3. What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?

Ans:- To solve the issue relating to women and for their upliftment, they should be given equal representation in legislature but the proportion of women in legislature has been very low. Their share in Lok Sabha never reached even 10 percent of its total strength. Their share in the state assemblies is less than 5 percent. A bill proposing one third of seats in Lok Sabha for women has been pending.

4. Discuss the socio-economic conditions of women in our society. Has the political expression of gender really helped?

Ans:- In our society woman are traditionally discriminated and are excluded from all aspects of social and economic life. Even in the modern day there still exists division of labour based on gender in most families and this is the main reason why most women in our society remains confined to the four walls of their houses. Their role in politics or public life is very limited and though the constitution has provided reservation for them in local self- governments and many of them are MLA’s and MP’s there overall representation in political life is minimal.

The political expression of gender is gradually helping to improve women’s role in public life. Today the women in our society is marching shoulder to shoulder with men in all walks of life. They are engineers, doctors, lawyers, scientists, executives, teachers in school and colleges. They are also members of parliament. In India, we have few women chief Ministers, a number of them are ministers in Union and State cabinet. We also had our first women President, Pratibha Patel which indicates the growth and improvement in the overall condition of women.

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