NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-1| The Rise of Nationalism In Europe

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I This chapter NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-1| The Rise of Nationalism In Europe .Introduction to chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe which is a part of the class 10 syllabus of social science for students studying under Nagaland Board of School Education: The nature of nationalism in Europe underwent many changes. Nationalism did not exist in Europe in the Middle Ages (in its present form). 

NBSE Class-10| Social Science Notes/Solutions| Chapter-1| The Rise of Nationalism In Europe

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Exercises

I.Multiple Choice Questions

1. The first clear expression of Nationalism in Europe came with:

(a) The American Revolution

(b) The French Revolution 

(c) The Russian Revolution

(d) The Industrial Revolution

Ans: (d) The Industrial Revolution

2. Nationalism brought about in Europe the emergence of:

(a) The Nation States

(b) The Modern States

(c) Multi-National Dynastic States 

(d) Alliances formed among many European States 

Ans: (a) The Nation States

3. The term ‘Plebiscite’ means:

(a) Adult Franchise

(b) A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal

(c) When the rich and the aristocrats select their leaders

(d) A vote by the people to elect their leader

Ans: (b) A direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal

4. Socially and politically dominant class in Europe during the mid–eighteenth century was –

(a) The Nobility

(b) The landed aristocracy

(c) The Church

(d) The absolute monarchs

Ans: (b) The landed aristocracy

5. Who claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das Volk?

(a) Johann Gottfried

(b) Adamantios Korais

(c) Constantine Rhigos

(d) Karolyi

Ans: (a) Johann Gottfried

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. What does the word ‘liberalism’ mean?

Ans: The term liberalism has its roots in the Latin word ‘Liber’ which means free. For the new educated middle class it meant freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law.

2. When was the Treaty of Vienna drawn?

Ans: The Treaty of Vienna was drawn in 1815.

3. Which treaty finally recognised Greece as an independent nation? 

Ans: The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.

4. Who founded the secret society called ‘Young Italy’? 

Ans: The secret society called “Young Italy’ was founded by Giuseppe Mazini.

5. What was Zollverein?

Ans: Zollverein was a customs union formed by Prussia in 1834, which many German states joined.

6. Who was considered by Italians as the ‘brain”?

Ans: Count Cavour was considered by Italians as the ‘brain’.

7. Who started the first freedom movement in Italy?

Ans: The first freedom movement in Italy was started by Carbonari society.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. What were the names given to the two allegorical representations of France and Germany?

Ans: They portrayed the French Nation as a woman named ‘Marianne’ with a red cap, the tricolor and the cockade. ‘Germania’ became the allegory of the German nation.

2. Who was considered the soul of Italian unification? Why?

Ans: Giuseppe Garibaldi was considered the “sword”, a brave soldier (Cunv-patriot). He forced Italy into a cohesive political unit.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. How did Greece become a nation state?

Ans: An event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece has been a part of Ottoman Empire since 15th century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greek which began in 1821. Nationalist in Greek got support from other Greeks living in Exile and also from many west Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. And finally in 1832 Greece was declared a kingdom.

The Greeks were the first to revolt against the Ottoman Turkish Empire in 1821. They were greatly impressed and influenced by the national and liberal movements spreading all over Europe. Their national sentiments found expression in Philke Hitaria-the “Sociry of Friends”. It was a mass movement to secure independence. The Turkish emperor perpetrated great atrocities on the Greeks when they revolted. This put the Christian countries to shame and they forced Greeks and the Turks to come to an agreement. The Greeks living in exile also supported the nationalists in Greece Poets and artists also joined the campaign as they considered Greece to be the cradle of European Civilisation. Lord Byron, the famous English poet, even fought in the war against the

Turks. He died during the war in 1824, In 1827, England, France and Russia defeated the Turks, the Egyptians and their allies in a naval battle. They signed a Treaty in London in 1827 which forced the Turks to recognize Greece as an independent state under the suzerainty of Turkey. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation. In January, 1833 Greece was declared a Kingdom and Prince Otto, second son of King Louis I of Bavaria, was chosen the King.

2. Describe the events that led to “Dual Monarchy” in Hungary. What were its consequences?

Ans: The Austrian Empire had subjects belonging to various races and speaking different languages. The new Austrian Emperor, Francis Joseph in 1848 had to face the revolt of Hungary under Kossuth, who declared his country as independent, but when Hungary started treating its Slav population badly, the Austrians suppressed its newly won independence in 1849.

But by 1860 Austrians realised they could not hold on to Hungary under their iron rule. They drew up a charter and restored it to its 1848 position. The Hungarians got their Diet (Parliament) back and gave autonomy to its town and cities. The Hungarians were not satisfied by this arrangement and the stalemate continued till 1866. The defeat of Austria by Prussians forced Austria to compromise with the Hungarians’. In 1867 (i) Austria-Hungary had a common ruler King Frances Joseph – Dual Monarchy.(ii) Both states were considered equal. (iii) They had two separate Parliaments and a joint ministry for 3 important departments – finance, war and foreign affairs. 

Its consequences are:

The Austrio-Hungarian Dual Monarchy disturbed the political balance of this region. It led to a breakup into a number of small Balkan states. It also, eventually, led to World War 1, when the Austrian Crown Prince and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serb.

3. Explain liberalism in political and economic fields prevailing in Europe in the 19th century.

Ans: Liberalism in political and economic fields prevailing in Europe in the 19th century are: 

(i) Politically liberalism stood for a constitution, a representative government ruling by consent and a parliamentary system etc.

(ii) Economically liberalism stood for freedom of markets and end of restrictions on movement of good and services. The term liberalism has its roots in the Latin word “Liber” which means free. For the new educated middle class it meant freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law.

(a) Politically, liberalism stood for

  1.  A constitution;
  2. A representative government ruling by consent;
  3. A parliamentary syste
  4. Ownership of private property.
  5. End of the privileges of the aristocracy.

Drawbacks:

(i) Till the early 20th century liberalism did not grant equal rights to men without property and all women.

(ii) There was no universal sufferage. Under the French Revolutionary Government and under Napoleonic Code women were denied all political rights and were subjugated to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, women struggled for their political rights.

(b) Economically, liberalism stood for

  1. Freedom of markets:
  2. End of state restrictions on movements of goods and capital:
  3. A customs union or Zollverein was formed by Prussia in 1834. which many German states joined.
  4. This union reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two and abolished tariff barriers; 
  5. A network of railways led to great mobility and gave an impetus to national unity. It boosted economic nationalism. 

4. “Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.” Support the statement with examples.

Ans: The Romantics, like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder believed that true German Culture could be discovered only among the common people – das volk.

  • He proclaimed that national feelings could only be strengthened by folk songs, folk dances, folk poetry.
  • The Romantics also believed in the vernacular language – the language spoken by the large illiterate audiences. 
  • Language also played a very important role in boosting nationalism.

How folk stories played an important role in spread of nationalism can be seen from the folk tales written by Grimm Brothers, Grimm’s Fairy Tales, which is a classic and its ageless stories have been popular for generations.

5.  “Till mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states as exist today.” Justify by giving examples.

Ans: Till the late 18th century, a nation was identified with the name or person of the sovereign. Examples: the Tudors or the Stuarts of England, the Habsburgs of Austria.

It was only in the nineteenth century at nationalism became such a force that brought about dramatic changes in the intellectual and political world of Europe. ÿpInstead of multinational dynastic empires (for example, the Habsburgs of Austria, the Tsars of Russia), there arose new Nation States. These new nation states had a centralised power which ruled over a clearly defined territory. In these states, not only the ruler but the common people also shared a common identity and history. Through different events and processes, nation states and nationalism emerged in Europe.

6. Mention any four proposals of the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

Ans: The four proposals of the congress of Vienna, 1815 are as follows:

  1. The Bourbon dynasty, which was exiled and deposed during the French revolution, was restored to power. 
  2. France lost all the territories it had won and annexed under Napoleon.
  3. France was surrounded by new states to prevent it from aggression and expansion in future.
    1. Thus, Belgium was added to the kingdom of Netherlands set up in the north.
    2. In the south Genoa was added to Piedmont. 
    3. Austria was given the control of North Italy and new territories were added to the Prussian Empire in the west, including a portion of Saxony.
    4. The only country untouched was Germany where Napoleon had set up a confederation of 39 states.
    5. Russia was given a part of Poland.

7. Discuss, with examples, how culture, art and language helped in the rise of nationalism in Europe.

Ans: The feeling of nationalism was strengthened, developed and given encouragement by art – music, literature, drama-played a big role in it. Their contribution was equal to the heroic battles fought by heroes. The Romantics, as opposed to the Classicists, encouraged depiction of emotions, feelings and intuition. They did not believe in glorification of logic, reason and science. For them, the basis of a nation should not be wars or territorial expansion but a common cultural past, a shared heritage by all.

The Romantics, like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herde, believed that true German Culture could be discovered only among the common people – das volk.

  • He proclaimed that national feelings could only be strengthened by folk songs, folk dances, folk poetry.
  • The Romantics also believed in the vernacular language – the language spoken by the large illiterate audiences. 
  • Language also played a very important role in boosting nationalism.

How folk stories played an important role in spread of nationalism can be seen from the folk tales written by Grimm Brothers, Grimm’s Fairy Tales, which is a classic and its ageless stories have been popular for generations.

The bothers became active in politics and took part in the liberal movement for the freedom of press. They believed that their work of collecting German folk tales and publishing them in German language was an effort on their part to promote the German spirit and oppose the French domination. We can see how music, art and language help in promoting nationalism. They make people feel proud of their own culture, heritage and build up a resistance to foreign rule.

8. State the ideas of Mazzini which led to the rise of nationalism in Italy.

Ans: He was considered the ‘Soul’ of nationalism. He established a secret society known as “Young Italy” and was totally devoted to a united Italy, Mazzini was born in Genoa which was under the control of Piedmont. From the beginning he was a staunch patriot and gave up everything to fight for his country’s liberation. He was arrested and imprisoned in 1831 for supporting Carbonari, After his release from prison he founded a new organisation called the “Young Italy.

The “Young Italy” movement was started to arouse the whole of Italy to a greater unity and to fight for independence. Mazzini firmly believed that young men of Italy could easily achieve freedom for their motherland. He declared that the need of the hour was self-sacrifice He created confidence among the Italians that they could fight and achieve independence. His motto was, “God and the people” and his method was educating the public through literary propaganda and agitations.

In 1848 there were revolutions all over Europe and they were all directed against tyrannical rulers. In many parts of Italy people demanded reforms. The rulers of Italy were forced to grant constitutional reforms. Mazzini succeeded in establishing a republic at Rome. The failure of the 1848 revolution made Mazzini go into exile in Britain. But he continued to direct the national movement from there, through secret correspondence.

THINGS TO DO

1. PROJECT

Topic covered: The Emergence of Nationalism as a force in the 19th century and its main consequence.

Ans:-As the 19th century progressed, a gradual change came in the character of nationalism. It had begun as a humane and tolerant creed based on the concept of brotherhood. But in the last part of the 19entury,nationalism became a symbol of rivalry among various national movements.

The nationalist groups in various parts of the world became intolerant to each other and were ready to go to war at the slightest pretext. The cunning diplomacy and readiness to go to war had helped Bismarck to successfully unite Germany. His policy of “blood and iron” inspired other major European powers to manipulate the nationalist aspirations of their subjects to further their own imperialistic objectives.

Main consequences:Nationalism had now became Militaristic and Chauvinistic. This tension was specially seen in the Balkans after 1871. Balkans was an area comprising 

  1. modern day Romania, 
  2. Bulgaria,
  3. Albania, 
  4. Greece,
  5. Macedonia, 
  6. Croatia, 
  7. Bosnia- Herzegovina, 
  8. Slovenia,
  9. Montenegro. The people of these regions belonged to the Slav race. These led to the birth of many nation states. 

Objective: To create awareness of how and why nationalism became a force and led to the birth of Nation-States.

II. GENERAL DISCUSSION

1. Discuss the role of language in the growth of nationalism in Europe with special reference to Poland, Germany, and Hungary. Students should be encouraged to make comparisons with some present nations; for example, Belgium, India.

III. ACTIVITIES

I. Let each student take a map of 

(i) Germany and 

(ii) Italy, and show 

  1. Germany before Unification. 
  2. Germany after Unification.
  3. Number of states in Italy before unification (mention under whose rule)
  4. Italy after unification (Give dates of the states who joined after unification).

1. Germany before Unification.

Activity 2. Germany after unification.

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT [PSA]

1. Read the given extract and answer the following questions.

Rise of Nationalism

Nationalism is a spirit in which the highest loyalty of a person is dedicated to his state. Balanced nationalism is conducive to national growth whereas violent nationalism may lead to wars. American War of Independence is the best expression of the spirit of nationalism and desire for freedom. French Revolution spread the spirit of nationalism all over Europe.

The spirit of nationalism had gripped many peoples after the Napoleonic wars. The fire of nationalism was smouldering in Germany, Poland, Italy, Hungary and the Balkan states. People craved for personal freedom and self-rule. Thus the wave of nationalism and liberalism was rising everywhere but there were people like Metternich who did their best to obstruct it. The spirit of nationalism and liberalism was given no place in the reconstruction of Europe after the Congress of Vienna which aimed at reviving the old order.

Liberalism and democracy promoted the spirit of nationalism. Generally, liberalism means restrained liberty and equality. Liberalism aimed at redeeming the majority of fields from control. It wanted to ascertain individual freedom of speech, writing, organisation of assembly and security of personal property. It also wanted to establish the constitutional government and duly elected legislatures. It was interested in extending the franchise but with certain reservations. Liberals were in favour of minimum governmental interference. They held that the government should only maintain law and order. Liberals favoured laissez-faire. They opposed religious interference in the government administration. The aristocrats, the clergy and military officers were the main opponents of liberalism. Liberalism first of all, spread in those countries of western Europe which were in strong grip of Industrial Revolution.

From ideological point of view, nationalism emerged from the intellectual movement of the eighteenth century which condemned disparity and despotism. Nationalism favoured a constitutional government but did not want to give franchise to the poor and the wage earners. They liked social reforms only to get rid of dictatorship. They demanded constitutional monarchy to achieve prosperity without 4 any obstacle. The outlook of nationalists changed after 1870 as the middle class had gained property and power and now opposed any more political and social changes. The middle-class industrialists turned conservative so they were replaced by the industrial proletariat class. After 1870, liberalism and nationalism did not go together. Nationalism 5 too turned violent and aggressive. On the other hand, new-liberalism advocated maximum government interference in the economic matters, as it considered the changed outlook of nationalism inimical to the middle and proletariat classes.

The ideal of nationalism is incomplete without secularism. French Revolution paved the way for secular states in Europe. Secularism originated from Holy Oak in Western Europe. He states, that secularism discovers as an immediate duty of life the highest moral an intellectual development of human beings. The popularity of secularism, intensified the spirit of nationalism.

Chapter No.Chapter’s Name
UNIT-IINDIA AND THE CONTEMPORY WORLD
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism In Europe
Chapter 2The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 3Nationalism in India
Chapter 4Trade and Globalism
UNIT-IIRESOURCES (INDIA)
Chapter 5Resources
Chapter 6Power Resources
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9Transport and Communication
Chapter 10Map Reading
UNIT-IIIDEMOCRATIC POLITICS
Chapter 11Working of Democracy
Chapter 12Power Sharing Mechanism in Democracy
Chapter 13Competition and Contestations in Democracy
Chapter 14Outcomes of Democracy
Chapter 15Challenges of Democracy
UNIT-IVUNDERSTANDING AN ECONOMY
Chapter 16Development
Chapter 17Money and Financial System
Chapter 18Role of Services Sector in Indian Economy
Chapter 19Consumer Awareness
UNIT-VNAGALAND
Geography Section

Tick (√) the right answer.

1. Nationalism is a feeling in which the highest loyalty of a person is dedicated to the

(a) Monarch

(b) State

(c) Individual himself

Ans:- (b) State

2. Which of the following Revolutions was an expression of nationalism?

(a) American Revolution 

(b) French Revolution

(c) Both of these

Ans:- (c) Both of these

3. Which of the following factors led to the spirit of nationalism?

(a) Liberalism

(b) Democracy

(c) Both of these

Ans:-(c) Both of these

4. Liberals favored 

(a) Economic interference

(b) Laissez-faire

(c) Both of these

Ans:-(b) Laissez-faire

5. Who were the main opponents of liberalism?

(a) Aristocrats and clergy

(b) Military officers

(c) All of these

Ans:- (c) All of these

6. The rise of nationalism is attributed to which century?

(a) 17th century 

(b) 18th century

(c) 19th century

Ans:- (c) 19th century

7.The ideal of nationalism is incomplete without

(a) Religious orthodoxy

(b) Secularism

(c) Dictatorship

Ans:-(b) Secularism

8. The idea of secularism originated in

(a) USA

(b) Western Europe

(c) India

Ans:-(b) Western Europe

Additional Questions

1. Multiple Choice Questions

1. Liberalism meant to the new middle classes:

(a) Political freedom for them

(b) Freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law

(c) End of aristocracy 

(d) New political rights

Ans:-(b) Freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law 

2. A nation state, according to the French philosopher Ernst Renan, was formed by

(a) A common language, race, religion or territory

(b) A nation with a shared history or descent, of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion, wish to perform still more great deeds together 

(c) A large scale solidarity, its existence a daily plebiscite.

(d) Both B and C.

Ans:-(b) A nation with a shared history or descent, of endeavours, sacrifice and devotion, wish to perform still more great deeds together

II. Very Short Answer Questions

1. What gave rise to Conservatism?

Ans:-The rise of Napoleon, his conquests and his defeat in 1815, gave rise to a new ideology in Europe, called Conservatism.

2. Who were the first to revolt against Ottoman Turkish Empire in 1821?

Ans:- The Greeks were the first to revolt against the Ottoman Turkish Empire in 1821.

3. When did Greece become an independent nation?

Ans:-1832.

4. When was Italy finally united?

Ans:-1870.

5. Who was considered as the ‘Soul’ of nationalism in Italy?

Ans:- Giuseppr Mozzine was considered the “Soul’ of nationalism. He established a secret society known as “Young Italy”.

6. What was the allegory of a French nation? 

Ans:- They portrayed the French Nation as a woman named Marianne with a red cap, the tricolour and the cockade.

7. Who unified the Germans?

Ans:-Otto von Bismarck and unified the Germans.

8. Name the policy used by Otto von Bismarck to unite Germans.

Ans:-“Blood and iron” policy.

9. Define plebiscite.

Ans:- A direct vote by which all the people of a region accept or reject a proposal.

III. Short Answer Questions

1. Mention the development that formed the basis of the rise of nationalism in Europe?

Ans:- These developments formed the basis of rise of nationalism in Europe.

  1. The Renaissance led to the rise of the vernacular languages and use of those languages for literary expression.
  2. The Reformation made several national churches to break away from the Catholic church.
  3. Rise of strong dynasties and kingdoms.

2. Write a note on the battle of Navarino.

Ans:- The Battle of Navarino (1827) was a major defeat for the Ottoman Empire in the war for Greek independence. In this action a combined British, French, and Russian fleet defeated a Turkish and Egyptian fleet.

3. How did Zollverein or Customs Union paved the way for political unity?

Ans:-The Prussian Govemment passed many tariff reforms to conver Prussia into a Free Trade Area. All the German states, with the exception of a few states, joined the Custom Union of Prussia. This brought about an economic union of German states in 1837. This economic union was called Zollverein and it paved the way for political unity.

IV. Long Answer Questions

1. Why and how was a change brought about in Europe, which led to the rise of nationalism?

Ans:- It was only in the nineteenth century that nationalism became such a force that it brought about dramatic changes in the intellectual and political world of Europe. ypInstead of multi-national dynastic empires (for example, the Habsburgs of Austria, the Tsars of Russia), there were the new Nation States. These new nation states had a centralised power which ruled over a clearly defined territory. In these states, not only the ruler but the common people also shared a common identity and history with the ruler. The rise of new middle class, the spread of the ideology of liberalism, the treaty of Vienna and a new spirit of conservatism, all these factors led to the rise of nationalism is Europe.

2. With reference to Italy, explain.

(i) The condition of Italy before Napoleon’s conquests.

Ans:- Italy, the home of Renaissance, Before Napoleon’s conques was a divided country, it had numerous kingdoms under different dukes

It was dominated by big powers like Austria, Spain and France. When Napoleon conquered Italy, the Italians began to regard him as a liberator.

(ii) After Napoleon’s downfall.

Ans:- After the downfall of Napoleon Italy was again divided

  1. The pope received his papal states 
  2. The king of Sardinia got back his kingdom of Piedmont and island of Sardinia
  3. The Spanish king recovered the kingdom of Naples and Sicily. 

(iii) ‘The Carbonari Society’.

Ans:- In the early stages of unification the feeling of nationalism was missing among the Italians. The first movement for freedom from foreign rule was started by the “Carbonari Society.” It was a secret society formed mainly by charcoal burners and hence it became famous as Carbonari Society.

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