NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-38| Population and economic development

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-38| Population and economic development. Important questions for NIOS Economics (318) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-38| Population and economic development

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-38| Population and economic development

Intext Questions 

1. State whether the following statements are true or false.

(a) Rate of growth of population depends on the birth rate.

 Ans. False 

(b) In an underdeveloped economy the population grows at a very fast rate.

 Ans. False

(c) A developing economy experiences high rate of growth at a very fast rate.

 Ans. True 

(d)Both the birth rate and the death rate in a country can be zero. 

Ans. False 

(e) Developed countries have low birth rate, low death rate of growth of population.

 Ans. True

2. State whether the following statements are true or false.

(a) High rate of growth of population in developing countries increases capital formation.

 Ans. False 

(b) Large size of population in developing economies is a massive productive asset. 

Ans. False

(c) Developing countries need a high rate of growth in their population in order to fully utilise their natural resources.

 Ans. False 

(d)Fast growth rate of population increases the demand for consumer goods and thus helps in faster economic growth.

 Ans. False 

(e)Large size of population helps in better utilisation of forests. 

Ans. False

(f)Because of fast growth of population developing economies have to grow even for maintaining their present income levels. 

Ans. True 

Terminal Exercise 

1. What do you understand by the growth rate of population?

Ans. Increase in the number of people in a country during a period of time is called the growth of population. This growth is mainly due to the excess of births over deaths as immigration in the present day world is an insignificant contributor to the increase in population in a country 

2. Explain how economic growth affects growth rate of population.

Aus. Population growth affects economic development; and, in its turn, economic development affects population growth. So far, we have studied the effects of population growth on economic development.

We now take up the effects of economic development on population growth.

As economic growth takes place, the income levels start rising leading to improvement in standard of living. Medical and sanitation facility improve. Some diseases are eradicated. All these have a direct effect on death rate. It starts falling rapidly. During these phase the birth rate also starts declining. Economic development brought in its wake higher standards of living, better food, adequate clothing and shelter, as also  protection from the natural disasters of drought and famine. 

The improvement in medical facilities and health care also led to a fall in infant mortality and healthier people and longer life-expectancy.

3. Explain the effects of high growth rate of population in developing countries on human and natural resources.


(a) Effect on Human Resources: 

In developing countries like India, there is already a shortage of capital and even the natural resources are getting scarcer with the fast increasing population. These countries are not able to utilise even their existing labour force as is evident from the large level of unemployment. Furthermore, every year there is a large addition to the labour for due to high growth rate of population. So the number of unemployment also increases and this problem becomes more acute. If labour force is not fully utilised, it becomes a liability. It only consumes and does not contribute to production.

The high rate of population in developing economies also creates problems in the process of improving the quality of human resource. The quality of human resource is poor in these economies. Modern economies are becoming more and more knowledge intensive and capital intensive. So the modern production techniques require highly skilled labour force. In developing economies the literacy level is very low. There is widespread illiteracy. Due to the large size of population, huge resources are needed for removing illiteracy and for skill formations. This problem becomes more serious because of the fast growth rate of population.

Thus, the developing countries due to the scarcity of capital and other resources are not able to fully utilise their labour force and the quality of human resource is poor. The problem becomes more serious because of the fast rate of growth of population. Hence, the large and fast increasing labour force creates problem in the growth of the economy and in the  process of improvement in quality of human resource. 

(ii) Effects on Natural Resources 

Natural resources comprise land surface, minerals, forests and water etc. We will now examine the effects of high rate of growth of population in developing countries on each one of these important natural resources. 

4. Explain the effects of rapid rate of growth of population in India on capital formation. 

Ans. Capital plays a very important role in economic growth. The stock of capital in a country determines its pace of economic growth. In developing countries fast growth rate of population results in rapid increase in the needs for consumption. Requirement of food, water, clothing, housing, transport, education, electricity, medical facilities and almost of all necessities increases at a fast rate even at their low level of consumption. So a large part of resources for investment that the developing economies are able to generate are eaten away by their fast increasing population. In other words high growth rate of population reduces the supply of these resources for raising the per capita income and quality of life of the people in developing economies. All this has an adverse impact on the growth of these economies. 

Thus, high growth rate of population adversely affects capital formation in develop in developing economies. More resources are used for meeting the fast increasing consumption needs. This leaves less resource for increasing productive capacity of the economy. This adversely affects the future growth rate of these economies. 

The high rate of growth of population has slowed down the pace of economic growth in the development economies. Had population been increasing at a slow rate, the rate of economic growth of these economies would have been much higher and there would have been much more improvement in income level. 

NIOS Class 12th Economics (318) Notes/Question Answer

Chapter Chapters NameLink
Chapter 1Economy and Its ProcessClick Here
Chapter 2Basic Problems of an EconomyClick Here
Chapter 3Economic Development and Indian EconomyClick Here
Chapter 4Statistics: Meaning and ScopeClick Here
Chapter 5Making Statistical Data MeaningfulClick Here
Chapter 6Presentation of Statistical DataClick Here
Chapter 7Statistical MethodsClick Here
Chapter 8Index Numbers (Meanings and Its Construction)Click Here
Chapter 9Index Numbers (Problem and Uses)Click Here
Chapter 10Income FlowsClick Here
Chapter 11National Income: ConceptsClick Here
Chapter 12National Income: MeasurementClick Here
Chapter 13Uses of National Income EstimatesClick Here
Chapter 14What micro EconomicsClick Here
Chapter 15What affects demandClick Here
Chapter 16What affects supplyClick Here
Chapter 17Price determinationClick Here
Chapter 18CostClick Here
Chapter 19RevenueClick Here
Chapter 20Profit maximizationClick Here
Chapter 21Government budgetingClick Here
Chapter 22Money supply and its regulationClick Here
Chapter 23Need for planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 24Achievements of planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 25Recent economic reforms and the role of planningClick Here

Optical Module – I

Chapter 26AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 27IndustryClick Here
Chapter 28Independence of Agriculture and IndustryClick Here
Chapter 29Transport and CommunicationClick Here
Chapter 30EnergyClick Here
Chapter 31Financial InstitutionsClick Here
Chapter 32Social Infrastructure (Housing, Health and Education)Click Here

Optical Module – II

Chapter 33Direction and composition of India’s Foreign tradeClick Here
Chapter 34Foreign exchange rateClick Here
Chapter 35Balance of trade and balance of paymentsClick Here
Chapter 36Inflow of capital (Foreign Capital and Foreign Aid)Click Here
Chapter 37New trade policy and its implicationsClick Here
Chapter 38Population and economic developmentClick Here
Chapter 39Population of IndiaClick Here

Leave a Reply