NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-32| Social Infrastructure (Housing Health and Education)

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-32| Social Infrastructure (Housing Health and Education). Important questions for NIOS Economics (318) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-32| Social Infrastructure (Housing Health and Education)

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-32| Social Infrastructure (Housing Health and Education)

Intext Question 

1. State whether the following statement are true or false:

(a) Transport, communication, power, water constitute the social infrastructure of an economy. 

Ans. False

(b) Improvement in facilities like education, health, housing, drinking water supply, is necessary for improving the quality of life. 

Ans. True

(c) Indra Awas Yojna was started for providing houses to the weaker sections of the society. 

Ans. True

(d) Housing and Shelter Upgradation Scheme for the urban poor was introduced for the cities with population of 50 lakh and above. 

Ans. False 

2. State whether the following statement are true or false:

 (a) Good health of the people of a country is an indication of good production capacity of the people of that country. 

Ans. True

 (b) Small pox has been completely eradicated from the country. 

Ans. True 

(c) Target of providing medical facilities to all the citizens in the country has been achieved.

 Ans. False

 (d) In the year 1980-81, expected life in the country was 58.7 years.

Ans. False

 3. Fill in the blanks from the words given in the bracket: (easily, quality, economic development, efficiency, 52)

 (a) Education directly improves the ________ of people by promoting________  and productivity.

 Ans. quality, efficiency

(b) Education person can adapt himself to modern ideas________ 

Ans. easily

(c) There exists a positive relationship between education and ________ .

 Ans. economic development 

(d) Overall literacy was ________ percent in 1991.

 Ans. 52

Terminal Exercise 

1. What is the meaning of housing? What is its importance?

Ans. Housing is shelter, buildings or something else that covers and protects. 

House provide shelter. A good shelter is very necessary for comfortable, tension free living. A house is not just four walls and a roof. It should be airy, spacious and comfortable. A house provides protection from sunlight, rain, heat, cold etc. It provides stability to an individual. It helps an individual to indulge in family life, social life. It promotes peace of mind and happiness of an individual which leads to an increase in productivity. Quality of life in slums is very low as compared to those people who are living in proper houses. The physical ability to work of an individual is adversely affected if he has no proper place to live in. 

Employers of today realise the importance of providing housing facilities to their employees. The government has also realised this and now-a-days Government provides housing facilities to many of its employees. Government has set up colonies for this purpose. Even the private sector provides the facility of housing to their employees. Many private industrial units provide housing facilities for their employees. 

Proper housing also includes provision of basic services like water, sanitation, drainage and electricity. Further, the type and location of a house is also very important. It is very hard to live in a place where there is no nearby market to buy the daily needs or there is no proper bus service to go from one place to another. Quality of housing has a direct bearing on the efficiency of human resources.

 2. Write a note on rural and urban housing plan. 

Ans. Rural Housing Schemes: 

Several schemes have been started by the government to solve the problem of rural housing. Under the Minimum Need Programme house sites are allocated and construction. assistance provided to rural landless workers, artisans and weaker sections. This scheme was initiated in 1971. 

The Indian Awas Yojna (LAY) was introduced in 1985-86 for the poorest of the poor belonging to the Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes and freed bonded labourers in the rural areas. Houses under this scheme are built in clusters so that common facilities can be provided for the clusters. 

Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) has been financing several rural housing schemes by allocating 15% of its resources to such schemes.

Urban Housing Schemes: 

Housing schemes started by the government in the urban areas are as follows: 

  1. Social housing schemes for different income groups operated by the States and City level agencies with the budgetary support and loan from HUDCO, LIC and other financial agencies. 
  2. As part of the Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), Housing and Shelter upgradation scheme for the urban poor was introduced in 1989 in cities with population between 1 to 20 lakhs. 
  3. A scheme for Footpath Dweller Night Shelter was introduced in 1988-89 to provide shelter. Later sanitation facility was extended to pavement dweller in the cities. 
  4. Co-operative group housing societies have been formed for different income groups with the help of loans from LIC, HUDCO and Commercial Banks.
  5. Various other schemes including ownership housing scheme for central government employees, working women scheme, environmental improvement of urban slums and house improvement scheme, rental housing scheme for employees of public sector undertakings are operated by various state government. 

3. What are the reasons for housing problems in urban areas?

 Ans. Following are the reasons of housing problems in urban areas: 

(a) Increasing population: 

The population of the country is increasing at a very fast rate which causes the increase in demand for housing.

(b) Urbanisation: 

The movement of people from rural to urban areas leads to increase in demand for houses in urban areas. 

(c) Resource constraint: 

The availability of resources with the government are not sufficient to meet the requirement of housing for the entire population and hence the increase in the number of slums.

4. Why is good health necessary? What was the situation of health facilities at the time of Independence? 

Ans. It is an old saying that “Health is Wealth”. This aptly summarises the importance of health for an individual. Health represents a state of physical and mental wellbeing. Without good health, we will not be able to enjoy the good things in life. It is also not possible to earn a good living when one is not healthy.

In general it can be said if we have healthy people in a society, it will contribute greatly to its efficiency and productivity. There is a direct relationship between good health and economic growth.

Situation at the time of Independence 

Prior to Independence, due to lack of medical and health facilities, infant mortality rate were very high. The health situation in India was not satisfactory. It is very distressing to note that India had long been the land of epidemics, smallpox, cholera, malaria, typhoid, tuberculosis and many other diseases which took a heavy toll of life due to insufficient medical facilities, sheer ignorance and poverty of the masses. Infant mortality was 219 per 1000 and life expectancy was merely 32 years till 1951. 

5. What is the present position of health facility India? 

Ans. Planned development has resulted in vastly improve health facilities. This is supported by the following data: 

  1. The number of doctors and hospitals has increased by more than three times and that of nurses more than eight limes 
  2. The number of medical colleges has increased from 28 before the start of the first Five Year plan to more than 106 present.
  3. Small pox has been totally eradicated. The country was declared free from this disease in April, 1997.
  4. As a result of expansion of health and medical facilities death rate has come down from 27.4 per thousand in 1951 to 9.3 per thousand in 1993. 
  5. Life expectancy at birth has also improved considerably It was 54 years in 1981 and  stands  at 60.8 years in 1992-93. 
  6. Greater care of women  due to change in the society’s attitude toward women has also contributed to higher life expectancy of the female population in India. 

6. What change has taken place in the life expectancy rate in India after Independence? What are the steps taken by the government to raise life expectancy rate in India?

Ans. While poverty of the Indian people is at the root of phenomenon of short life span, the discovery of wonder medicines to control epidemics like plague, cholera, influenza, or small pox, the general improvement in medical assistance increase in number of hospital, doctors, nurses, medicines and better control of diseases have all helped to save. Even then, the present level of life expectancy in India does not compare favourably with the level obtained in developed countries of the world. 

Increase in life expectancy rate was mainly the result of the following steps taken by the Government: 

  1. National programmes were launched for the control of small pox, malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy and blindness.
  2. Programmes have been undertaken to control other communicable diseases including diphtheria, whooping, cough, polio, etc. through better sanitation and immunisation. 
  3. Public awareness programme- through newspapers, magazines, public hoardings, radio, television, etc. the Central Health Education Bureau informs the people about proper immunisation, preventive measures against epidemics and disease and also the primary health facilities available in their neighbourhood. 

NIOS Class 12th Economics (318) Notes/Question Answer

Chapter Chapters NameLink
Chapter 1Economy and Its ProcessClick Here
Chapter 2Basic Problems of an EconomyClick Here
Chapter 3Economic Development and Indian EconomyClick Here
Chapter 4Statistics: Meaning and ScopeClick Here
Chapter 5Making Statistical Data MeaningfulClick Here
Chapter 6Presentation of Statistical DataClick Here
Chapter 7Statistical MethodsClick Here
Chapter 8Index Numbers (Meanings and Its Construction)Click Here
Chapter 9Index Numbers (Problem and Uses)Click Here
Chapter 10Income FlowsClick Here
Chapter 11National Income: ConceptsClick Here
Chapter 12National Income: MeasurementClick Here
Chapter 13Uses of National Income EstimatesClick Here
Chapter 14What micro EconomicsClick Here
Chapter 15What affects demandClick Here
Chapter 16What affects supplyClick Here
Chapter 17Price determinationClick Here
Chapter 18CostClick Here
Chapter 19RevenueClick Here
Chapter 20Profit maximizationClick Here
Chapter 21Government budgetingClick Here
Chapter 22Money supply and its regulationClick Here
Chapter 23Need for planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 24Achievements of planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 25Recent economic reforms and the role of planningClick Here

Optical Module – I

Chapter 26AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 27IndustryClick Here
Chapter 28Independence of Agriculture and IndustryClick Here
Chapter 29Transport and CommunicationClick Here
Chapter 30EnergyClick Here
Chapter 31Financial InstitutionsClick Here
Chapter 32Social Infrastructure (Housing, Health and Education)Click Here

Optical Module – II

Chapter 33Direction and composition of India’s Foreign tradeClick Here
Chapter 34Foreign exchange rateClick Here
Chapter 35Balance of trade and balance of paymentsClick Here
Chapter 36Inflow of capital (Foreign Capital and Foreign Aid)Click Here
Chapter 37New trade policy and its implicationsClick Here
Chapter 38Population and economic developmentClick Here
Chapter 39Population of IndiaClick Here

7. Write a note on medical facilities in the rural areas of India.

Ans. The rural health system is a three tier structure of Sub Centres, Primary Health Centres (PHCs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs). There are at present approximately 22,000 primary health centres, 1.5 lakh sub centres and 2400 community health centres and at village level 6.5 lakh trained dais and 4.2 lakh village health guides besides a large number of rural dispensaries. 

It is proposed to expand these facilities further in a phased manner so as to have one primary health centre for every 30,000 population (20,000 in hilly and tribal areas), one sub centre for every 5,000 population (3,000 population in hilly and tribal areas) and one community health centre for about one lakh population by the year 2000 A.D.

But lack of buildings, shortage of manpower and inadequate provision of medicines, supplies, and equipment constitute major impediments in the achievement of these objectives. 

To solve these problem Eighth Five Year Plan approach was to consolidate rather than expand the existing network so that their performance is optimised.

It also advocates to develop mechanism to make the rural health services responsive to the needs of the rural masses and accountable to the community. Panchayati Raj system would become an effective instrument for active community participation in the health programme.

8. Explain the need and importance of education.

 Ans. Following are the need and importance of education. 

1. Education improves the quality of people

Education population is an asset for the country. Education develops basic skills and abilities, increases efficiency and makes us modern in outlook. Education also promotes a scientific temper and a spirit of enquiry, which are essential for understanding the complexities of a modern technological world. 

2. Brings change in attitudes towards life 

Education also develops human personality and all round development. An educated person can adapt himself to modern ideas quite rapidly. It brings about a change in the attitude of people towards work, towards life. It makes man able to break traditions and do away with blind disbeliefs. 

3. Change in attitude towards women 

Education has helped to bring about a change in attitude towards female child although gradually people have stopped decimating between a girl child and a boy. It has also bought a change in career attitude towards female. Their education today is also considered as important as that of a boy. Early marriage is no longer favoured for female today. 

4. Change in status of women 

The role that women play in rural areas has also changed. Although women are not formally educated, informal education is provided through media-radio, television, etc. so that they no longer live in purdah and become aware of their rights. Women can even rise to the post of village sarpanch these days and they are even contesting elections. 

5. Change in attitude of women towards work

Education also changes their attitude towards work. They have become more career conscious. Women today are doing everything; we find women as doctor, chartered accountants, IAS officers, scientist etc. This has brought about a change in the social set up and social relations and also an improvement in the quality of life. 

6. Necessary for adopting modern techniques. 

As already said an educated person can adapt himself to modern ideas quite rapidly. Skilled manpower, which is so. important for manning our industries and also for using modern agriculture practices, comes through technical education. 

9. Write a note on the situation of education in India at the time of Independence.

Ans. At the time of Independence, the situation with regard to education was not a happy one. There was widespread illiteracy and the level of education was less than 15 per cent.. Facilities in terms of school buildings, laboratories, libraries, play grounds etc. were inadequate. Very few facilities for professional courses in commerce, management, architecture, town planning, agriculture and physical education existed. There were very few medical colleges. In the year 1951, there were only 28 medical college with approximately 2700 students studying there. 

10. What are the measures taken by the government to remove deficiencies in the education system in India?

Ans. Following are the measures taken by the government to remove deficiencies in the education system in India. 

1. Restructuring education system 

The National Policy on Education (NPE) adopted in 1986 stressed the need for restructuring the educational system, to improve its quality at various stages, develop science and technology and to expand opportunity in the field of education.

2. Promotion of literacy 

For promoting literacy, the Sixth Plan provided for mass education through programmes of elementary education (formal and informal). The Seventh Plan also aimed at eradicating illiteracy in the age group of 15-35 years by 1990 through non-formal education. Although these targets have been achieved but still some ground has been gained. 

The National Literacy Mission (NLM) has been mandated to make 10 crore persons literate in the age group of 15-35 by the end of Eighth Five Year Plan. The total literacy campaign 

has become the principal strategy of the NLM in eradication of illiteracy throughout the country. 

3. Improvement in primary education

For solve the problem of high dropout rates the New National Policy on Education calls for improvement in primary schools all over the country. The programme is known as Operation Black Board.

A free Mid Day Meal programme was launched from 15th August 1995, intended to give a boost to universalization of education, increasing enrolment, retention simultaneously. 

4. Technical education 

In respect of higher education and technical education the emphasis in on improvements in quality and standard of education.

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