NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-29| Transport and Communication

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-29| Transport and Communication. Important questions for NIOS Economics (318) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-29| Transport and Communication

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-29| Transport and Communication

 Intext Question 

1. State whether the following statements are true or false:

a) Railways, roads, banking, etc. are example of infrastructural facilities. 

Ans. True 

b) Briefcase, toothpaste, shaving cream, etc. are example of infrastructural facilities. 

Ans. False

c) Infrastructural facilities are required by industry are not by agricultural sector.

 Ans. False 

d) Post, telephone, fax, settlement etc. are various means of communication. 

Ans. True 

2. State whether the following statements are true or false: 

a) Transport system helps in broadening the market for finished goods. 

Ans. True

 b) Expansion of transport facilities itself helps industrialisation directly.

Ans. True

c) There are five types of Indian transport services.

 Ans. False 

d) Means of transport are needed to carry passengers and goods from one place to another. 

Ans. True

e) Vehicles are not an essential component of road transport system. 

Ans. False 

3. State whether the following statements are true or false: 

a) Road transport is ideally suited only for long distance. 

Ans. False 

b) There is only one national highway in India. 

Ans. False

c) For interior areas especially hilly areas road transport is the main mode of transport. 

Ans. True

d) Maintenance of national highways is the responsibility of Central Government.

 Ans. True

4. State whether the following statements are true or false: 

a) With the development of railways, the mobility of labour has increased. 

Ans. True

 b) Indian railways have a single gauge system.

 Ans. False

c) The share of narrow gauge in total movement of goods is higher than broad gauge

Ans. False

d) Wagon and engine are essential component of any rail transport. 

Ans. True 

5. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

 a) Water transport can be divided into ___________ types. 

Ans. two 

b) Means of inland waterways operate ___________the country.

Ans. within 

c) Among all the modes of transport, water transport is the ___________ mode.

 Ans. cheapest 

6. State whether the following statements are true or false: 

a) Port facilities in India are quite adequate.

Ans. False

b) All those vehicles which run on water are included in water transport. 

Ans. True 

c) Movement of goods from India to other countries and vice-versa takes place mainly through water transport.

 Ans. True 

7. State whether the following statements are true or false:

a) The infrastructural facilities required for civil aviation are provided by Indian Airlines. 

Ans. False

b) Air India operates on internal routes♥.. 

Ans. False 

c) There are a present 85 aerodromes in India. 

Ans. True

 d) Air transport has been successful in promoting tourism. 

Ans. True

e) Perishable goods can be quickly sent from one place to another by air transport. 

Ans. True 

8. State whether the following statements are true or false:

a) Due to the use of telephones the volume of mail is decreasing. 

Ans. False

b) India has around ten thousand post offices. 

Ans. False

c) Speed post was introduced soon after Independence.

 Ans. False 

d) PIN does not help in faster delivery of letters. 

Ans. False 

e) Telecommunication system is used only for entertainment. 

Ans. False

 f) Newspapers also give useful information of business and industry.

 Ans. True

g) Cellular phones can be used to give/receive messages while you are moving in a vehicle. 

Ans. True 

h) Internet services are not available in India.♥ 

Ans. False 

Terminal Exercise 

1. What are the various components of the transport system? 

Ans. There are four different modes of transport in India: Indian 

         a) Road transport

         b) Rail transport 

         c)Water transport 

         d) Air transport 

2. How many types of roads are there in India?

Ans. Roads in India is classified into four types: 

i) National highways: 

These roads are national importances which connect various state capitals, important parts and places of the country. Some of these roads link India with neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Nepal, and Burma. At present there are 24 national highways in India. Their total length is approximately 34,000 Kms. Central government is responsible for the maintenance of national highway. 

ii) State highways: 

  • These are important roads of the states which connect national highways with main business centres. State government is responsible for the maintenance of State highway and their total length is 11,250 thousand kins.

 iii) District highway: 

These are important roads of the district. These roads connect the important roads of a district with the roads of different states. The maintenance of these roads is the responsibility of district administration. 

iv) Village roads: 

These roads connect one village with another and different villages with district. The maintenance of these roads is the responsibility of Zila Parishad and Panchayat Samities. 

NIOS Class 12th Economics (318) Notes/Question Answer

Chapter Chapters NameLink
Chapter 1Economy and Its ProcessClick Here
Chapter 2Basic Problems of an EconomyClick Here
Chapter 3Economic Development and Indian EconomyClick Here
Chapter 4Statistics: Meaning and ScopeClick Here
Chapter 5Making Statistical Data MeaningfulClick Here
Chapter 6Presentation of Statistical DataClick Here
Chapter 7Statistical MethodsClick Here
Chapter 8Index Numbers (Meanings and Its Construction)Click Here
Chapter 9Index Numbers (Problem and Uses)Click Here
Chapter 10Income FlowsClick Here
Chapter 11National Income: ConceptsClick Here
Chapter 12National Income: MeasurementClick Here
Chapter 13Uses of National Income EstimatesClick Here
Chapter 14What micro EconomicsClick Here
Chapter 15What affects demandClick Here
Chapter 16What affects supplyClick Here
Chapter 17Price determinationClick Here
Chapter 18CostClick Here
Chapter 19RevenueClick Here
Chapter 20Profit maximizationClick Here
Chapter 21Government budgetingClick Here
Chapter 22Money supply and its regulationClick Here
Chapter 23Need for planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 24Achievements of planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 25Recent economic reforms and the role of planningClick Here

Optical Module – I

Chapter 26AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 27IndustryClick Here
Chapter 28Independence of Agriculture and IndustryClick Here
Chapter 29Transport and CommunicationClick Here
Chapter 30EnergyClick Here
Chapter 31Financial InstitutionsClick Here
Chapter 32Social Infrastructure (Housing, Health and Education)Click Here

Optical Module – II

Chapter 33Direction and composition of India’s Foreign tradeClick Here
Chapter 34Foreign exchange rateClick Here
Chapter 35Balance of trade and balance of paymentsClick Here
Chapter 36Inflow of capital (Foreign Capital and Foreign Aid)Click Here
Chapter 37New trade policy and its implicationsClick Here
Chapter 38Population and economic developmentClick Here
Chapter 39Population of IndiaClick Here

3. Why is rail-road coordination necessary? Explain.

Ans. There should be cooperation and coordination between railways and roadways. The roads have certain advantages such as adjustment of its time table to the convenience of customers which railways cannot do. The railways have fixed places for loading and unloading. Further, the working hours of the personnel are so regulated and the time table so fixed that not much flexibility is possible in its operation. However, certain commodities like steel, coal, wood etc. can be carried only through railways. Rail journey is very cheap and comfortable for long distances and overnight. Roads are preferred for short distances. 

4. Define water transport. How many types can it be divided into? 

Ans. Water transport is an ancient mode of transport. This was very important at a time when there were no buses and trains. All those vehicles which run on waters e.g. boat, ship are included in waterways. Indian water transport is of two types: 

 a) Inland Waterways

 b) Shipping and Ports

a) Inland Waterways

Inland water transport is considered to be the cheapest mode of transport for long and short distances. Readymade routes have been provided by nature.

There are many cities in the country where development of some industries, such as the tea industry of Assam and the indigo industry of Bihar, are the result of inland waterways.. The inland waterways are very old. However, with the introduction of railways and roadways the importance of inland waterways has declined. After Independence, the government has paid a lot of attention to inland waterways. 

At present, inland water transport is important only in certain river and canal system and in certain region of the country eg on the river Brahmaputra in the North Eastern region, the Ganga in Eastern region

b) Shipping and Ports

With the help of shipping we can easily import and export commodities. Shipping also helps in maintaining relation with foreign countries. It is much safer to use this particular mode of transport for carrying such fragile goods as glassware, electrical goods, etc. which need smooth movement and delicate handling and also to carry bulky and heavy goods like timber, coal, heavy machines. 

Ports are also an important constituent of the water transport infrastructure. Along with the increase in number of ships, the number of ports has also increased. At present India has 10 major harbours, which largely handle ships on international routes. 

Some of these are as follows: 

  1. Mumbai
  2. Calcutta 
  3. Cochin 
  4. Kandla
  5. Chennai 
  6. Marmagao
  7. Paradeep 
  8. Mangalore
  9. Visakhapatnam 
  10. Tuticorin

These port handle ships on international routes and are helpful in export of such commodities as coconut, copra, coir yarn, spices, fish oil, timber etc.

For the trade purpose it is essential that port have sufficient loading and unloading capacity.

5. Write the names often major ports in India.

Ans. At present India has 10 major harbours, which largely handle ships on international routes. Some of these are as follows: 

  1. Mumbai 
  2. Calcutta 
  3. Cochin 
  4. Kandla  
  5. Chennai 
  6. Marmagao
  7. Paradeep 
  8. Mangalore
  9. Visakhapatnam 
  10. Tuticorin 

6. “Air transport is important for the Indian economy”. Explain. 

Ans. Air transport is important for the Indian economy for the following reason: 

1. Expansion of trade: 

Perishable, costly and decorative goods can be sent to and brought from foreign countries in a short span through air transports. 

2. Helpful in the development of agriculture: 

Sometimes, aeroplanes also provide help to agriculture by sprinkling medicines in the fields and protect the crops from being destroyed. 

3. Means of defence:

Aeroplanes are important means of a country’s defence. Foreign attacks can be prevented with the help of aeroplane. 

4. Relief in national calamities: 

Air transport helps in sending medicines and food supplies to the flood, earthquake, and typhoon affected area. 

5. Development of tourism: 

Air transport has helped in the development of tourism a lot. Many new aerodromes have been added near the tourist centres to provide airways facilities to the tourists.

 7. Why is the postal network important for communication? 

Ans. Postal services are important for the public in general and business in particular. The following points highlight the importance of Postal Services: 

  1. Cheaper means of communication: Postal mail services are available at relatively much lower rates than any other means of communication. Newspapers and journals have large  circulation and reach the people even in remote villages because of postal services. This is made possible because newspapers and magazines can be sent at concessional rates.
  2. Encourage Savings: People of ordinary means are encouraged to make small savings through the various small savings schemes run by the post offices. Besides, savings through the post offices are allowed tax concession, e.g. savings in National Savings Certificates and Public Provident Fund. There is also provision for prizes to be given to people saving in post offices. 
  3. Safe remittance of money at lower rate: The cheapest and most common means of remitting money is by money order through post offices. If money is to be sent urgently, it can be done by Telegraphic Money Order. Postal order is another mode of transfer of money.
  4. Promotion of trade: Availability of postal services has facilitated the growth and expansion of both internal as well as external trade. Trade enquiries are made and business deals are finalised through correspondence. Placing order, intimation of sending goods, reminders for payments are mostly communicated by post. Cheques, drafts and valuable documents are also sent by post. The registered mail containing valuable documents can be insured for specified amounts to cover the risk of loss in postal transit. Mail order business totally depends on postal mail and parcel delivery service. 
  5. Facilitate distant learning: Open Schools, Open Universities and other institutions offering distant and correspondence education, educate learners by sending instruction materials through post. They also make all correspondence with the learners through the post office. Thus, students in far off places can get the advantages of learning their lessons without the necessity of attending regular 

8. What do you understand by the term infrastructure? 

Ans. Infrastructure is the term for the basic physical classes. systems of a business or nation-transportation, communication, sewage, water and electric systems are all examples of infrastructure.

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