SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-8| Industry

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SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-8| Industry

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SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-8| Industry


1. Classify industries stating the basis of your classification.

Ans. Systematic production characterised by division of labour, huge investment, use of machinery, tools, power, etc. is known as an industry. Industries are classified in the following manner. 

(a) On the basis of the size of establishment :

  1. Household cottage industries: The industry managed by the family members and produces goods for the local market are called household industries. e.g. khadi, handloom, brassware, pottery, cane-making, bee-keeping, leather, small machine tools, carpentry, artificial flower-making etc.
  2. Small-scale industries: The industries having an investment of less than rupees one crore and employing few people are known as small-scale industries. e.g. cane-making industry, handloom industry, toy-making industry, etc.
  3.  Large-scale industries: The industries which employ a large number of workers and have huge investment in plant and machinery are known as large-scale industries. e.g. iron and steel industries. cotton textile industries, ship-building industry, etc. 

(b) On the basis of raw-materials used :

  1. Agro-based industries: The industries using agricultural products as raw-materials for the production of processed food items are termed as agro-based industries. e.g. sugar industry, jute industry, tea industry, etc.
  2. Mineral-based industries: The industries using various categories of minerals such as iron ore, copper, manganese, petroleum, diesel, coal, natural gas, etc. as raw-materials for the production of various goods are known as mineral-based industries. e.g. iron and steel industries, aluminium. copper and petroleum industries, etc.
  3. Forest-based industries: The industries using forest items for the production of various industrial items are termed as forest-based industries. e.g. paper industry, plywood industry, etc.
  4. Animal-based industries: The industry using animal products such as meat, milk, skin, etc. for the production of various consumer items are known as animal-based industries.e.g.dairy industry, meat industry, etc.

(c) On the basis of products produced:

  1. Basic industries: The industries on which the other industries depend for their functioning and survival are known as basic industries. e.g. iron and steel industries, oil industries, etc.
  2. Consumer goods industries: The industry which produces goods directly consumed by the consumers are called consumer goods industry. e.g. cosmetic industry, radio and television industry, etc.

(d) On the basis of ownership: 

  1. Public sector industries: The sector of the economy under the control and management of the government are termed public sector industries. The primary objective of this sector is to bring about maximum social welfare. e.g. defence industry, space exploration industry, nuclear industry, etc.
  2. Private sector industries: The sector of the economy under the control and management of private investors and entrepreneurs are termed as private sector industries. e.g. oil industry, iron and steel industry, cement industry, etc.
  3. Co-operative industries: The industries that are run by co-operative societies are known as co-operative sector industries. e.g. many sugar mills, Mother Dairy, etc.

2. What is a household industry? What kind of goods is produced by this industry? 

Ans. The industry organised at household level by the family members themselves and produce goods for the local market is known as household industry. It is marked by the following features:

  1. Very small in size.
  2. Produce goods using local raw-materials and traditional technology.
  3. Generally the goods are sold at the local level.

The main items produced by the household industry include pottery goods, metallic utensils, handloom clothes, cane-making, furniture-making, ornament-making, etc.

3. Present a comparative discussion on small-scale and large-scale industries. 

Ans. A comparative discussion on large-scale industries and small scale industries is as follows:

SI. No.Basis of difference MeaningLarge-scale industriesSmall-scale industries
(i)Industries employing a large number of people and have huge investment in plants and machineries.Industries having an investment of less than rupees one crore, employing few people and have small machines to make products.
(ii)TechnologyAre mostly technology basedUses simple technology
(iii)UsesUses raw materials from the local area.Uses raw materials from local as well as outside areas.
(iv)ObjectiveBring about rapid industrialisation and prominent in developed countries.Promote the industrial development of a particular region mostly in developing and underdeveloped countries.
(v)National IncomeContribution to national income is much higher.Contribution to national income is lower.
(vi)ExamplesIron and steel industries, cotton textile industries, ship-building industries, etc.Handloom industries,toy-making industries, etc.

4. Define agro-based industry with examples. 

Ans. The industries primarily using agricultural raw-materials for industrial production in factories and processing units are known as agro-based industries. Generally, agricultural 

products are processed into consumer food items in processing units using industrial methods of production. e.g. the main agro-based industries include sugar industry, jute industry, tea industry, coffee industry, edible oil industry, etc. 

5. Give a brief idea of the mineral-based industry.

Ans. The industries depending on minerals as the main raw-material for industrial production are known as mineral-based industries. They generally come up in areas noted for the availability of mineral resources. However due to fast development of transport facilities, such industries also come up far away from the sources of minerals. The main mineral-based industries include iron and steel industry, aluminium industry, copper industry, oil industry, etc.

6. What do you mean by basic industry? Give examples. 

Ans. The industries on which other industries depend for their functioning and survival are known as basic industries. e.g. iron and steel industry, oil industry, etc. provide raw materials for other machine building industries.

7. Give an outline of the factors determining the localisation of industry.

Ans. The concentration of several industries in a place or a region due to certain economic advantages is known as localisation of industries. 

The main factors which determine the localisation of industries are:

(i) Nearness to raw-materials: 

Most industries tend to get established near sources of raw-materials to avoid high transport cost. e.g. iron and steel industries are found in the areas where iron-ore and coal are found. Cotton textile industries flourish in Maharashtra-Gujarat region.

(ii) Availability of power : 

Most industries tend to get established near thermal power plants and hydel projects. Generally many industries get established close to power houses to reduce the overall cost of production. Moreover, it facilitates the continuous supply of power.

(iii) Good transport facilities: 

Industries tend to get localised near highways, ports, cities and commercial centres. One of the reasons for high development of textile industry in the Mumbai region is due to the presence of excellent network of roadways, airways and railways

(iv) Availability of labour : 

The availability of labour encourages setting up of industries. Bangalore has become the centre of computer-related industries due to the presence of skilled manpower over here. This has been one of the main reasons for the rapid expansion of the iron and steel industry in states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, etc. Which have abundant cheap labour. The availability of manpower has also contributed to the growth of the sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh.

(v) Nearness to market: 

Most industries and factories are situated near industrial and commercial towns as these provide a wide market to sell their goods. The textile industry developed in the Maharashtra-Gujarat region due to the very huge market in this region. Besides, the export of finished goods to the international market is also easy from the port of Mumbai.

(vi) Climate: 

Climatic conditions have a bearing on the choice of the place of industries. e.g. cotton textile industries have come up in the western region due to its humid climate. The main reason for the high development of sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh or the development of woollen industry in Punjab region or the growth of jute industry in West Bengal has been mainly due to this reason.

8. Write with examples about the role of raw materials in the location of industries.

Ans. One of the main factors that influence the localisation of industries is the availability of raw-materials near the centre of production. Generally, industries tend to come up near the sources of resources. The main reason for this is the eagerness of the investors and producers to reduce the cost of transporting raw-materials to the factories. This is the chief reason for the presence of textile industry in the Maharashtra Gujarat region and for the development of iron and steel industry in the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, etc. These states have huge reserves of iron-ore and coal which are essential for the production of iron and steel. Similarly, jute industry in India is mostly concentrated in the state of West Bengal as the state is the main supplier of raw-jute in the country. The sugar industry is mostly concentrated in the state of Uttar Pradesh because the state is the chief producer of sugarcane in the country. Perishable raw-materials like sugarcane cannot be transported to far-away places as they get spoiled during the stage of transportation. Therefore, sugar industrial units came to be established very close to the area of sugarcane production. All these show that availability of raw-materials is a major determining factor in the localisation of industries.

9. Write briefly on the iron and steel industry of India. 

Ans. Iron and steel industry is the most basic and key industry of India. The real beginning of steel production in India began with the setting up of a steel plant at Jamshedpur by Jamshedji Tata in 1907. Soon after independence several steel plants were set up in different parts of India. Presently iron and steel industries are mainly located in the major mineral region of India such as Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. At present, there are some steel plants under the private sector and some under the public sector. The main steel plants under the private sector are the steel plants at Jamshedpur in Bihar, Burnpur in West Bengal and Bhadravati in Karnataka. The main steel plants under the public sector are at Bhilai (M.P.), Rourkela (Orissa), Bokaro (Bihar) and Durgapur (West Bengal). In Asansol and Salem also iron and steel industries are localised. Iron and steel industry plays a key role in the Indian economy. The factors responsible for rapid development of iron and steel industry in India are: 

  1. Vast stock of iron ore in states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, etc.
  2. Availability of cheap labour 
  3. Huge domestic market
  4. Favourable government policy
  5. Availability of adequate power near the sources of iron ore.

SEBA Class 9 Geography(Elective) Question Answer| English Medium|


Chapter 1Weather and ClimateClick Here


Chapter 2People on the EarthClick Here
Chapter 3Population Growth and DistributionClick Here
Chapter 4Human SettlementClick Here


Chapter 5Concept and Classification of ResourceClick Here
Chapter 6Economic Activities or OccupationClick Here
Chapter 7AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 8IndustryClick Here

10. Give an account of the cotton textile industry of India. 

Ans. Cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries of India. Today, it is one of the key industries of India. It consists of three sectors, namely:

  1. mill sector
  2. powerloom sector 
  3. handloom sector.

The cotton textile industry has a significant role in the Indian economy and profoundly contributes to its all-round growth. The main centres of cotton textile industries are located in Gujarat and Maharashtra. This is chiefly due to availability of raw-materials, cheap power, nearness to the Mumbai and Kandla ports, excellent network of roads and railways and climate. It is also produced in different parts of the country as well. The chief cotton textile producing areas are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.

11. Draw a map of India and locate thereon three iron and steel industries and the three cotton textile industries.


[A] Answer in One Word:

1. Name two forest-based industries.

Ans. Plywood and paper industries.

2. Which is the most important basic industry?

Ans. Iron and steel industry. 

3. Which type of industries require a lot of capital?

Ans. Large-scale industries.

4. What is the annual production of steel in India? 

Ans. About 30 million metric tons.

5. Name a non-weight losing raw-material.

Ans. Cotton.

[B] Very Short Answer Type Questions (One sentence Answers):

1. How is industry divided on the basis of output or product?

Ans. On the basis of output or product, industries are classified into: 

  1. Basic industry
  2. Consumer goods industry 

2. Where and when was the first iron and steel industry established? 

Ans. Jamshedpur in 1907 by J.N. Tata.

3. Name the countries which are well-advanced in the cotton textile industry. 

Ans. USA, Russia, UK, China, Japan, Egypt and India.

[C] Short Questions and Answers:

1. Mention the economic advantages of industrialisation. 

Ans. The economic advantages of industrialisation are:

  1. Provides employment to hundreds of people. 
  2. Boosts the national income of the country.
  3. Brings about all-round development of the country. 
  4. Brings about the development of transport, internal trade.foreign trade, etc.
  5. Provides various goods for human living.

2. State the main factors that boost the development of industries. 

Ans. The main factors that boost the development of industries are:

  1. Growing demands of expanding population.
  2. Rapid progress in science and technology.
  3. Favourable government policies. 
  4. Enterprising private investors.
  5. Availability of adequate resources particularly mineral and power resources. 

3. State the main features of small-scale industry. 

Ans. The main features of small-scale industry are:

  1. Number of persons employed is quite small. 
  2. Capital investment is less than rupees one crore.
  3. Uses locally available raw-materials and labour force.
  4. Helps the development of rural areas and promotes decentralisation of industries. 
  5. Have made considerable progress in thickly populated countries like India and China.

4. Why is the iron and steel industry called a basic industry? 

Ans. Iron and steel industry is called a basic industry as this industry forms the base for the rest of the industries. Any industrial production requires power, various types of machinery, tools, transport vehicles, etc. Without these vital industrial inputs, no production can take place in any industry. These vital industrial inputs cannot be made without iron and steel. Thus, the iron and steel industry forms the basic industry of any nation.

5. Name the main public sector steel plants in India. 

Ans. The main public sector steel plants in India are:

  1. Bhilai steel plant (Chhattisgarh) 
  2. Rourkela steel plant (Orissa)
  3. Durgapur steel plant (West Bengal)
  4. Bokaro steel plant (Jharkhand)

6. Mention the main benefits of cottage and small-scale industries. 

Ans. The main benefits of cottage and small-scale industries are:

  1. Provides employment to thousands of people. 
  2. Fosters rural development.
  3. Uses local raw-materials and their purchase boosts the rural economy.
  4. Earns foreign exchange by way of export. 
  5. Fosters decentralisation of economic power.
  6. Removes pressure on agriculture.

7. What are handicrafts? Name the major handicraft industries of India. 

Ans. The items produced by skilled workers in small and cottage industries are known as handicrafts. The major handicraft industries of India are carpet-making, hand painting of clothes, wood carving, toy-making, earthenware, metalware, bamboo and cane work, stone-carving, coir making, pottery, etc.

8. How does capital influence localisation of industry? 

Ans. One of the major factors that influence localisation of industries is the availability of capital. As industries need machines, power, buildings, raw-materials, large numbers of labourers, etc. capital is essential. Many regions rich in resources and having abundance of manpower remain industrially backward due to lack of capital. It is the capital that initially encourages the individuals and the government to set up factories for the production of various items.

9. What is the role of government in the localisation of industry?

Ans. The role of government in the localisation of industries are: 

  1. The industrial development of a country is based on the industrial policy outlined by the government.
  2. It totally controls the public sector industries and makes it an agent of social welfare. 
  3. The government decides the type of industries to be developed. 
  4. The government partially controls the activities of the private sector in this field.
  5. Only the government can bring about equitable regional industrial development.

Long Answer Type Questions:

1. Discuss the importance of cottage industries in Indian economy.

Ans. Cottage industries play a crucial role in the economic development of the country. The role of cottage industries in Indian economy are:

  1. Provides employment to thousands of people in the rural areas
  2. Reduces excessive pressure on land. 
  3. Since such industries use very little capital, the rural capital is well utilised.
  4. Use local raw-materials which promotes rural trade thereby increasing rural income.
  5. Encourages decentralisation of economic power. 
  6. Helps to remove regional imbalances and disparities.
  7. Removes rural poverty.

Distinguish between:

1. Public and private sector industries. 

Ans. The differences between public and private sector are: 

SI.No.Basis of differencePublic sector industryPrivate sector industry
(i) ControlGovernment control.This sector is under the control of private individuals.
(ii) AimMaximum social welfare.Maximum individual profit
(iii) CompriseIndustries that affect the unity and integrity of the country.Industries that serve the consumerneeds of the people.


1. Ornament-making is an important industrial activity of

  1.  household industry
  2. small-scale industry
  3. large-scale industry
  4. medium-scale industry

Ans. (a) household industry

2. The greatest benefit of industrialisation is that it

  1. provides various goods for man’s consumption
  2. provides employment to hundreds of people 
  3. brings about economic development in the country
  4. boosts exports

Ans. (b) provides employment to hundreds of people

3. Tea-processing belongs to _________

  1. large-scale industry 
  2. medium-scale industry
  3. agro-based industry
  4. basic industry

Ans. (c) agro-based industry

4. Paper industry is a part of __________

  1. small-scale industry
  2. large-scale industry
  3. forest-based industry
  4. medium-scale industry

Ans. (c) forest-based industry

5. The most important factor that brings about localisation of industry is the availability of __________ 

  1. power
  2. transport
  3. cheap labour
  4. raw-materials

Ans. (d) raw-materials

6. The main advantage of small-scale industry is that it ___________

  1. boosts employment opportunities
  2. brings about regional development 
  3. improves the standard of living
  4. earns a great deal of foreign income 

Ans.(b) brings about regional development

7. The first iron and steel factory was established by J.N. Tata in 1907 at _________

  1.  Jamshedpur
  2. Durgapur
  3. Bumpur
  4. Bokaro

Ans. (a) Jamshedpur

8. The textile industry is most developed in the state of _________

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Madhya Pradesh
  3. Maharashtra 
  4. Gujarat

Ans. C. Maharashtra

9. Sugar industry is mostly concentrated in the state of __________

  1. Maharashtra
  2. Bihar
  3. West Bengal
  4. Uttar Pradesh

Ans. (d) Uttar Pradesh

10. The biggest industry in India is _________

  1. Sugar industry
  2. Ship-building industry 
  3. Iron and steel industry
  4. Mining industry

Ans. (c) Iron and steel industry

 Fill in the blanks:

1. Industrially advanced countries mostly consists of ___________ countries.

Ans. developed

2. Household industries generally produce goods for the ___________ market.

Ans. local

3. ____________ industries have made considerable progress in the thickly populated countries like China and India. 

Ans. Small-scale

4. Iron and steel industry is the most important ____________ industry in our country. 

Ans. basic

5. ___________ established the first iron and steel industry of the country at Jamshedpur. 

Ans. J.N. Tata

State whether the following statements are true or false: 

1. Cotton textile industry is the biggest industry in India. 

Ans. False

2. Private sector industries are most dominant in the capitalist countries. 

Ans. True

3. Textile industry is mostly situated near the source of raw-materials.

Ans. True

4. Steel industry in India is totally under the control of the government.

Ans. False

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