SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-7| Agriculture

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SEBA CLASS 9 QUESTION ANSWER (ENG. MEDIUM)

SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-7| Agriculture

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SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-7| Agriculture

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. What is meant by agriculture? Mention briefly the factor influencing agriculture.

Ans. The production of food items by way of cultivation of the land is known as agriculture. In other words, all the activities that man does on land or any activity associated with land such as farming, horticulture, pisciculture, dairy farming, animal rearing etc. are called agriculture.

The factors influencing agriculture are: 

(a) Natural factors:

  1. Soil: Soil is one of the major factors which determine the type of agriculture. All crops cannot be grown on any type of soil. Alluvial soil is ideal for rice cultivation while black soil of Deccan is highly suitable for cotton cultivation. 
  2. Climate: The elements of climate such as temperature, rainfall, moisture, etc. profoundly affect plant growth. Certain crops require high temperature and high rainfall while some grow stunted in such climatic conditions.
  3. Relief conditions: The main elements of relief such as altitude, aspect and gradient of the slope determine the type of agriculture. Crops vary depending on the altitude.

(b) Socio-economic factors: 

  1. Land tenure : The type of ownership of land influences cultivation. Real owners of land are likely to improve their land while Zamindars and Jagirdars or tenants do not do much to improve the condition of the land.
  2. Size of farm holdings: The size of farm influences production scale. Small agricultural holdings prevent mechanisation and use of modern scientific methods of cultivation.
  3. Labour: The quality of labour has great bearing on agriculture. Illiterate labourers follow primitive methods of cultivation while literate labourers use modern machinery and modern means of cultivation.
  4. Capital : Availability of capital makes difference between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture. Huge capital is required for commercial and plantation agriculture.
  5. Marketing and transport: Good market for the product encourages agricultural production. Certain crops are cultivated purely on demand. Availability of good transport facilities boost agriculture of a place.

2. Explain why agricultural practice is not similar everywhere in the world. 

Ans. Agriculture practice is not similar everywhere in the world because:

  1. Natural or physical factors such as nature of the land, surface, slope, climate, availability of water, etc. is different from place to place.
  2. Socio-economic factors such as educational level of farmers, land tenure, size of the farmholdings, availability of the capital, etc. 

3. Classify agriculture and give the basis of your classification.

Ans. The different types of agriculture are: 

(a) On the basis of permanence :

  1. Permanent agriculture Agriculture practised by people who settle down in one place and undertake cultivation of crops both for home consumption as well as for commercial purposes, is known as permanent agriculture. In permanent agriculture, people use different methods of cultivation such as crop rotation, mixed farming, livestock farming, mechanisation, intensive and extensive cultivation, etc.
  2. Shifting agriculture: The practice of burning forest and cultivating the area for some years and then moving away to another place for cultivation is known as shifting cultivation. This type of agriculture is practised by the hill tribes of North-east India. 

(b) On the basis of farm size:

  1. Large-scale/extensive agriculture Agriculture that involves use of machinery as well as cultivation of a single crop on a large area with few men is known as extensive agriculture. Four features of extensive.agriculture are: 
    1. extensive use of machinery
    2. cultivation of single crop 
    3. crop specialisation 
    4. cultivation on a large area.
  2. Small-scale/intensive agriculture : Agriculture wherein the cultivator spends much labour, capital and supplies all the essential inputs such as quality seeds, better fertiliser, adequate water, etc. on a limited area to maximise his production within the shortest time possible is known as intensive agriculture.

(c) On the basis of economic consideration: 

  1. Commercial agriculture : Agriculture carried out for selling the agricultural produce rather than for home consumption of the farmer is known as commercial agriculture. e.g. cultivation of rubber, tea, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, etc.
  2. Subsistence agriculture : Agriculture cultivated for consumption by the farmer’s household and not for selling purposes is known as subsistence agriculture. 

(d) On the basis of land quality, climate and method of farming:

  1. Dry farming: Farming practised in dry regions where rainfall is low and land is dry for most part of the year is known as dry farming. These regions do not have the facility for irrigation and the crops cultivated are such that they are able to withstand dry climatic conditions of the place.
  2. Wet farming: Agriculture practised in areas that get abundance of rainfall is called wet farming. Crops such as rice, jute, bananas, etc. are the main crops cultivated under wet farming. Wet farming is mostly practised in the monsoon region.

(e) Special types of agriculture:

  1. Plantation agriculture: Agriculture wherein a particular item is produced on a large area employing hundreds of people using large machinery and scientific methods of cultivation is known as plantation agriculture. Cultivation of rubber, tea, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, etc. are undertaken under plantation agriculture.
  2. Collective agriculture : Farming characterised by social ownership, collective labour and sharing of agricultural produce is known as collective farming This form of agriculture was introduced by the former Soviet Union. 
  3. Horticulture: The cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and flowers are known as horticulture. The countries noted for horticultural cultivation are the USA, France, and Germany. Denmark, and Netherlands. The practice of horticulture is fast catching up in India with the advancement of farming and globalisation.
  4. Market gardening: The cultivation of various food items, fruits, vegetables and flowers with a view to cater to the needs of the nearby towns and cities is known as market gardening. As a result of globalisation, there is a close link between the producers and consumers forcing the producers to produce as per the requirements of the consumers.
  5. Mixed farming: The farming in which animal rearing and poultry farming is practised along with agriculture within the same area is known as mixed farming.
  6. Truck farming: The farming in which cultivation of crops is practised particularly fruits, vegetables, flowers with a view to export them to other regions through trucks in fresh condition is known as truck farming.

4. What is permanent agriculture? Discuss briefly its characteristics.

Ans. Agriculture practised by people who settle down in one place and undertake cultivation of crops both for home consumption as well as for commercial purposes, is known as permanent agriculture. Its main characteristics are:

  1. Agriculture is done throughout the year. 
  2. The farmers use ploughs, tractors, irrigation and fertilisers in their agricultural operations.
  3. It is the most commonly practised form of agriculture in the world.
  4. The agricultural output in this type of agriculture is relatively high. 
  5. Livestock rearing, pisciculture, horticulture, etc: are part of this form of agriculture.

5. Give a brief outline of shifting cultivation. Explain how this type of agriculture degrades the environment. 

Ans. The practice of burning forest and cultivating the area for some years and then moving on to another place for cultivation is known as shifting cultivation or Jhumming. The cultivator clears a patch of ground by feeling trees, bushes and grasses which are then burnt. Sometimes, the vegetation is burnt without felling the trees. After three or four years, the farmer and his family moves to another area and clears another plot of land for similar cultivation 

This was the first type of agriculture to be developed by man It is known as Jhum cultivation in North-eastern part of India Some of the main characteristics of this form of agriculture are:

  1. Clearing land with the aid of fire. 
  2. Use of hand implements and human labour.
  3. Absence of draught or draft animals.
  4. Absence of private ownership of land. The land belongs to the community.
  5. Each household can use as much land as they want or they can clear and cultivate.
  6. Yield is low and not sufficient to leave any surplus. 
  7. Areas dominated by shifting cultivation have sparse populations.

The main drawbacks of this form of agriculture are : 

  1. Degrades the environment as this agriculture is practised by burning the forest area.
  2. A large area gets cleared by fire which destroys both living and nonliving organisms of the area. 
  3. Destroys the ecological balance of the area which affects the environment of the place. 
  4. Burning of the plants and bushes of the area creates a lot of smoke that negatively affects the atmosphere. 

6. Present a comparative picture of large-scale and small-scale agriculture. 

Ans. A comparative picture of large-scale and small-scale agriculture are:

SL No.Basis of differenceLarge-scale agricultureSmall-scale agriculture
(i)MeaningAgriculture which is marked by the use of machinery as well as single crop cultivation on a large area with few menPractised on a limited area so as to maximise the production within the shortest time possible.
(ii)NatureThese are extensive machinery.These are labour intensive
(iii)Place of practicePracticed in countries where population density is low, e.g. Canada, USA, etc.Practiced in countries where the population is high, e.g.UK, India, etc.
(iv)CultivationInvolves cultivation of a single crop.Involves cultivation of many crops.
(v) Other nameExtensive agriculture.Intensive agriculture.

7. What do you mean by plantation farming? Discuss its characteristics. 

Ans. Agriculture wherein a particular crop is produced on a large area by employing hundreds of people using large machinery and scientific methods of cultivation is known as plantation agriculture. This type of agriculture is mostly seen in the tropical or sub-tropical region, where the climatic conditions and availability of cheap labour favour the cultivation of various plantation crops such as tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, etc. The main characteristics of plantation agriculture are :

  1. Crops are sown or cultivated mainly for commercial purposes.
  2. It is cultivated on a very large area. 
  3. Most operations are done manually except in the developed countries.
  4. It is labour-intensive as well as capital-intensive. 
  5. The final products are prepared in factories.
  6. It has close association with plantation industries. 
  7. Market demands play a significant role in this form of agriculture.

8. Describe briefly the relationship between urbanisation and market gardening. 

Ans. The rapid spread of urbanisation has greatly influenced the production of food grains and vegetables. Today the market determines the type and nature of food production in a country. As the people in the towns and cities have greater purchasing power, agricultural operations mainly cater to their demands. Since people of the urban areas require a lot of vegetables and food grains, many agricultural farms tend to come up near such urban centres. These farms specifically cater to the needs of the cities and towns nearby. Since urban centres require a great deal of fresh vegetables, horticultural farming gets developed close to such areas. The various agricultural products produced by these farms get a good market as they are fresh and can be supplied very quickly due to the presence of good transport and communication systems in the urban areas. This development in agriculture is known as market gardening. This trend is fast catching up in India due to expansion of urbanisation in our country and villages and towns are getting interlinked due to the impact of globalisation.

9. What kind of environment is required for rice cultivation? Write briefly about the geographical distribution of rice.

Ans. Rice is the principal staple food for almost half of the world population. It is mostly cultivated in the monsoon regions of the world. Generally, it is cultivated in the flood-plains, coastal plains and the deltaic plains. It is also cultivated in certain hilly regions. The geographical conditions required for its cultivation are:

  1. It needs a hot and humid climate.
  2. The temperature should be between 25°C-35°C 
  3. The annual rainfall should be 100 cm-200cm

Geographical distribution: 

The countries which experience monsoon type of climate like China, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan and Philippines are the main producers of rice in the world. It is also produced by countries such as the USA, Brazil, Egypt, etc . The highest rice producing country in the world is China and India is the second highest rice producing country. The main rice producing areas in India are:

  1. Ganga-Brahmaputra valley. 
  2. Eastern coastal strip covering all delta regions.
  3. North-eastem region.

10. Give an account of wheat cultivation.

Ans. Wheat is the staple food of most people of the world and it is one of the major food crops of India. The geographical conditions required for its growth are: 

  1. It requires clayey and sandy soils of plain areas.
  2. It needs a cool and moist climate during growing season and dry warm climate at the time of ripening. 
  3. Annual rainfall should be 50 cm to 100 cm.
  4. Temperate climate is suitable with a frost free period of three months.
  5. It requires adequate water supply. Nowadays it is also cultivated in the low rainfall areas due to the availability of irrigation.

Geographical distribution: 

The main wheat producing countries of the world are USA, China, India, Russia, Canada, Australia, France, Germany and Pakistan. China is the leading producer of wheat in the world followed by the USA and India The Ganga Valley of India is the chief wheat producing region.

11. Discuss the importance and geographical distribution of cotton farming.

Ans. Cotton is one of the important cash crops of India. India is the original home of cotton. Its importance lies in the fact that it gives employment to thousands of people in our country. Cotton industry is one of the main agro-based industries of our country. The export of cotton items and raw-cotton brings enormous volume of foreign income for our country. The geographical conditions required for its growth are :

  1. Annual rainfall should be 65 cm to 115 cm. 
  2. Frost-free period of 190-210 days. 
  3. Well-drained highlands with sandy and black soils,
  4. High temperature is ideal for cotton. 

Geographical distribution: 

The main cotton producing countries in the world are the USA, China, Pakistan, Russia, Egypt, India and Brazil.

The USA, China, Pakistan, Russia, Egypt, India and Brazil are the major cotton producing countries of the world. Mississippi and Tenne valleys of the USA mostly produce cotton. In Egypt. The Nile valley and the Hwang Ho and Yangtze valleys of Northern China are known for their cotton production. India’s Deccan plateau and the Meghalaya plateau are favourable for raising cotton. The USA, China and India are the largest cotton producing countries of the world.

12. What kind of environment is required for growing tea? 

Ans. Tea tops the chart among the beverages crops of India. Its importance lies in the fact that it provides employment to hundreds of people and it is a good source of foreign income for our country. The geographical conditions required for its growth are:

  1. Fertile red soils and well-drained soils.
  2. Warm and moist climate throughout the year. 
  3. It is capital intensive and technology-based plantation farming.

Geographical distribution: 

Tea is a major plantation crop of the monsoon regions of Asia, viz.

China, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Japan. Tea production has also started in some African countries like Kenya, Uganda, and Mozambique. India ranks first in the world in the production of tea followed by China. 

The chief areas of tea production in India are :

  1. Brahmaputra and the Barak valleys of Assam. 
  2. Hills of Darjeeling and area of West Bengal.
  3. Hills of Kerala

13. Link the following correctly:

AB
Teaextensive farming is practised
In the less populous countriesis a plantation crop
in the densely populated countriesis a commercial crop
Shifting cultivationis highly productive
Sugarcaneis a major crop of the monsoon region.
Cotton farmingis a fiber crop.
Cottonintensive farming is practised
Commercial farminghas low productivity

Ans.

AB
Teais a plantation crop
In the less populous countriesextensive farming is practised
In the densely populated countriesintensive farming is practised
Shifting cultivationhas low productivity
Sugarcaneis a commercial crop
Cotton farmingis a major crop of the monsoon region.
Cottonis a fiber crop.
Commercial farmingis highly productive

14. Name the major crops cultivated in different types of agriculture such as permanent agriculture, plantation farming, horticulture and market gardening. In which of the seasons are these crops raised? What kind of geographical conditions are required for such types of cultivation? Attempt a comparative discussion.

Ans. The major crops cultivated in different types of agriculture are 

  1. Permanent agriculture: Rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, sugarcane, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, etc.
  2. Plantation agriculture: Sugarcane, cotton, jute, tea, coffee, cocoa, etc. 
  3. Horticulture: Potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage, beetroot, beans, cucumber, pumpkins, carrot, apples, oranges, grapes, watermelon, pears, etc.
  4. Market gardening Fruits and various types of vegetables. 

Seasons: There are two main seasons in India, viz. kharif and rabi crop seasons. Kharif crops such as rice, millets, maize, groundnuts, jute, cotton, pulses and many vegetables are sown in June or July and are harvested at the end of the monsoon. The main rabi crops such as wheat, gram, oil seeds, etc. are cultivated in October-November and are harvested in April-May. Vegetables and fruits are also cultivated during both seasons.

SEBA Class 9 Geography(Elective) Question Answer| English Medium|

UNIT-I: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

CHAPTERCHAPTER NAME Link
Chapter 1Weather and ClimateClick Here

UNIT-II: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Chapter 2People on the EarthClick Here
Chapter 3Population Growth and DistributionClick Here
Chapter 4Human SettlementClick Here

UNIT-III: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

Chapter 5Concept and Classification of ResourceClick Here
Chapter 6Economic Activities or OccupationClick Here
Chapter 7AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 8IndustryClick Here

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

[A] Answer in One Word: 

1. In which part of India shifting cultivation is known as Jhum?

Ans. North-eastern part of India. 

2. Which part of India practices dry farming?

Ans. Western part of India.

3. Name two crops that are cultivated under dry farming.

Ans. Bajra and millets. 

4. Which nationality introduced tea in India?

Ans. British. 

5. Which European power introduced coffee and cocoa cultivation in West Africa? 

Ans. French.

6. Which country came to be noted for the introduction of collective farming called ‘Kolkhoz’? 

Ans. Former Soviet Union.

7. Name the most important fiber crop cultivated in India 

Ans. Cotton.

8. Name three important beverage crops cultivated in India. 

Ans. Tea, coffee and coco. 

9. Which part of the world is most suitable for rice cultivation?

Ans. Monsoon region.

10. Which country is the second largest producer of wheat in the world? 

Ans. USA. 

11. Which part of India is ideal for the cultivation of cotton?

Ans. Deccan plateau.

12. What is the chief feature of commercial agriculture? 

Ans. Crop specialisation.

[B] Define/give meanings of the following: 

1. Kolkhoz.

Ans. The type of collective farming marked by social ownership. collective labour and sharing of farm produce as introduced by the former Soviet Union came to be known as ‘Kolkhoz”.

2. Dairy farming.

Ans. The rearing of milch animals such as cows, buffaloes, sheep, etc. with the object of obtaining milk and other products is known as dairy farming.

[C] Answer the following questions:

1. Name three countries where large-scale agriculture is practiced.

Ans. Three countries where large-scale agriculture is practiced are the USA, Canada and Australia.

2. Name some countries that practice small-scale agriculture.

Ans. Populous countries such as India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Japan, etc. practice small-scale agriculture.

3. Name two important rice producing areas of India.

Ans. Two important rice producing areas of India are

4. Ganga-Brahmaputra valley and eastern coastal region. Which are the main sugarcane producing countries of the world? 

Ans. The main sugarcane producing countries of the world are Brazil, India, China, Thailand, Cuba, Mexico, Fiji, Hawaii, etc.

5. Name three leading producers of cotton in the world.

Ans. Three leading producers of cotton in the world are the USA, China and India 

6. Which are the main wheat producing states of India? 

Ans. The main wheat producing states of India are Uttar Pradesh Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat, etc.

7. Which are the major fibre crops of India? 

Ans. The major fibre crops of India are cotton, jute, wool and natural silk.

[C] Short Questions and Answers: 

1. What are cash crops? Name the chief cash crops of India.

Ans. The crops cultivated mainly for commercial purposes are known as cash crops. The chief cash crops of India are rubber, cotton, jute, tea, coffee, cocoa, etc.

2. Where is commercial agriculture generally practised? Name the regions of the world where this type of agriculture is common.

Ans. Commercial agriculture is generally practised in the mid-latitude low rainfall areas. The main crops cultivated under this system are wheat, maize and cotton. The main regions of the world where commercial agriculture is practised are:

  1. Prairie region of the USA 
  2. Pampas of Argentina
  3. Veld of southern Africa
  4. Downs of Australia

3. What are beverage crops? Which are the beverages crops of India?

Ans. The beverages crops are the crops chiefly used for the manufacture of various drinks. The main beverages crops of India are tea, coffee and cocoa.

4. Mention the chief agricultural crops of India. 

Ans. The chief agricultural crops of India are rice, wheat, millets. maize, sugarcane, sesame, soyabean, groundnut, barley. gram, linseed, mustard seed, jute, cotton, tea, coffee, oil seeds. etc.

5. What are the main problems of Indian agriculture? 

Ans. Some of the main problems of Indian agriculture are: 

  1. Excessive pressure on land
  2. Low productivity
  3. Uneconomic holdings
  4. Too much dependence on monsoons 
  5. Lack of irrigational facilities
  6. Unscientific method of cultivation

Differentiate between:

1. Commercial agriculture and subsistence agriculture.

Ans. The differences between commercial agriculture and subsistence agriculture are :

SI. No.Basis of differenceCommercial agricultureSubsistence agriculture
(i)PurposeDone for commercial purposes.Done for home consumption.
(ii)Crops cultivatedRubber, tea, coffee, etc.Food grains.
(iii)NatureCapital-intensive and labour-intensive.Requires very few people and hardly any capital.

2. Permanent agriculture and shifting agriculture. 

Ans. The differences between permanent agriculture and agriculture are:

SI. No.Basis of differencePermanent agricultureShifting agriculture
(i)AreaDone on a fixed area.No fixed area of cultivation.
(ii)MethodsModern methods of cultivation are used.Primitive methods of cultivation are used.
(iii)YieldQuite highVery low
(iv)Affect environmentAffect the environment.Degrades the environment

Long Answer Type Questions:

1. Mention the chief features of subsistence agriculture: 

Ans. Agriculture in which the main produce of the cultivation is consumed by the farmer’s household and not sold is known as subsistence agriculture. In other words, when the produce of the agricultural operation is just sufficient for consumption of the family and no surplus is left for selling it is called subsistence agriculture. This type of agriculture is mostly seen among the backward communities and tribal regions. The most noticeable feature of this form of agriculture is the dependence on primitive or traditional methods of cultivation. However, the growing population has made subsistence farming increasingly intensive. In most countries of Africa and Asia, this type of agriculture is prevalent. The chief features of subsistence agriculture are:

  1. The size of the landholding is very small.
  2. There is hardly any capital investment.
  3. Traditional methods of cultivation are mostly followed.
  4. The main aim is to meet the family demand. 
  5. The output is very low.
  6. It is mostly seen among the backward communities.

2. Describe the geographical conditions and the areas of the cultivation of sugarcane. 

Ans. Sugarcane is an important commercial crop of the world covered under plantation farming. Sugar is mainly obtained from sugarcane. The main geographical conditions required for the cultivation of sugarcane are :

  1. Fertile and sandy soil.
  2. Adequate sunshine, without snowfall. 
  3. Temperature between 20° C to 27° C. 
  4. Annual rainfall between 100-150 cm.

Geographical distribution: 

Sugarcane is cultivated mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The leading sugarcane producing countries of the world are Brazil, India, China, Thailand, Cuba, Mexico, Fiji, Hawaii, etc. The largest producer of sugarcane in the world is Brazil followed by India.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. The most important physical factor which determines the type of agriculture is _________

  1.  climate
  2.  relief conditions
  3.  soil conditions
  4. availability of water 

Ans. (a) climate

2. Under intensive cultivation ___________

  1. one crop is cultivated
  2. many crops are cultivated
  3. two or three crops are cultivated 
  4. as many crops as possible are cultivated

Ans. (c) two or three crops are cultivated 

3. Under extensive cultivation __________

  1.  only one crop is cultivated 
  2. only two crops are cultivated
  3. many crops are cultivated
  4. as many crops as possible cultivated

Ans. (a) only one crop is cultivated

4. Crop specialisation is a feature of __________

  1. extensive agriculture
  2. commercial agriculture
  3.  intensive agriculture
  4. market gardening

Ans.(b) commercial agriculture

5. The largest tea producing state in India is _________

  1.  Assam
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Kerala
  4. West Bengal

Ans. (a) Assam

6. Grasslands are ideal for __________

  1. extensive agriculture
  2. dry farming
  3. commercial agriculture
  4. collective farming

Ans. (c) commercial agriculture

7. Sugarcane is a ____________

  1. cash crop 
  2. fibre crop
  3. beverage crop
  4. horticulture crop

Ans. (a) cash crop

8. Which of the following countries is the biggest producer of wheat in the world?

  1.  China
  2. India
  3. Russia
  4. The USA

Ans. (d) China

9. The biggest producer of cotton in the world is ___________

  1. The USA 
  2. China
  3. India
  4. Pakistan

Ans. (a) The USA

10. The largest producer of tea in the world is __________ 

  1. Sri Lanka
  2. India
  3. China
  4. Indonesia

Ans. (b) India

Fill in the blanks:

1. ___________ rearing is a component of permanent agriculture. 

Ans. Livestock

2. The grasslands of Australia is known as ___________

Ans. downs

3. Small-scale agriculture is practised in the___________ populated countries of the world.

Ans. densely

4.___________ cultivation requires rainfall between 100 and 200 cm annually.

Ans. Rice 

5. ___________ ranks first in the world in rice production followed by India. 

Ans. China

State whether the following statements are true or false: 

1. No region of India today practices shifting cultivation.

Ans. False

2. Small-scale agriculture is labour-intensive. 

Ans. True

3. In large-scale agriculture several crops are cultivated.

Ans. False

4. The black soils of the Deccan are ideal for cotton cultivation.

Ans. True

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