SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-2| People on the Earth

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SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-2| People on the Earth

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SEBA Class 9 Geography (Elective)|Notes & Answer| Chapter-2| People on the Earth

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. Give a definition of human geography’ and mention its major branches.

Ans. The division of geography which studies man’s relation with the natural environment and the man-made human environment done in spatio-temporal perspective is termed as human geography. This branch of study consists of several branches and sub-branches. Some of the notable branches of human geography are:

  1. Settlement geography
  2. Social geography
  3. Economic geography
  4. Cultural geography 
  5. Political geography
  6. Urban geography
  7. Population geography
  8. Medical geography 
  9. Historical geography
  10. Geography of regional development and planning, etc.

2. Briefly write about the subject matter of human geography.

Ans. Human geography is the study of man’s activities in the natural and man-made environment and the varying influences of one over the other. It is a vast subject and has an extensive area of study, but the study is mainly human-centric. The main subject matter of human geography are:

  1. Study the relationship between the physical environment and man: Human geography studies the relationship between the physical environment and man. The physical environment greatly influences the activities of man. In turn, man adjusts himself to the environment for his sustenance.
  2. Study of man-made environment and how man creates an environment : Human geography deals with man-made environment and how man creates such an environment. Man-made environment varies from region to region, e.g. human settlement in the plains is very dense while it is quite thin in the hilly region. Thus, the understanding of the nature of man-made environments in various forms and the causes behind them constitute an important area of study.
  3. Study of various human characteristics in different places: Human geography focuses on different human characteristics in varied places just like the way earth’s surface is characterised by physical differences. Similarly, the physical structure, religious-linguistic composition, behaviour and customs, economic activities, educational qualities, etc. of nearly seven billion people living on the earth also varies.
  4. Study of various changes and processes that take place: Human geography studies various changes and processes that take place in the relationship between environment and man which is dynamic in nature.

3. Write briefly, what you mean by ‘human race’. 

Ans. ‘Human race’ refers to a group of people having almost similar physical traits and skin colour and carrying breeds of similar characteristics from generation to generation through the general reproduction process. Biologists and anthropologists opine that man was born in central Africa about 5-6 lakh years ago as a result of the process of evolution. This newly emerged animal human species came to be known as Homo sapiens. However,due to the impact of varying climatic, and geographical conditions of different places, men with different physical characteristics were seen living on the earth from the very beginning of human life. As a result, noticeable differences emerged among people of different locations in body structure, skin colour, structure of nose and face, hair colour, etc. People of similar physical features are categorised together to form a human race Biologists have divided human beings into three basic human races, viz. Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid.

4. Write briefly the bases or criteria of division of the human race.

Ans. People living in different parts of the world have differences in their skin colour and various aspects of body structure. Nevertheless, people with similar physical features have been placed together to form what is known as human race. The term ‘human race’ refers to a group of people having almost similar physical characteristics which are transferred to the next generation through the process of heredity. People possessing similar physical features have been categorised into the following three broad groups, viz. Caucasoid race, Negroid race and Mongoloid race.

These groups have been categorised on the following main bases or criteria:

  1. Skin colour 
  2. Hair colour
  3. Height
  4. Structure of nose
  5. Facial features
  6. Structure of forehead

5. Discuss in brief the origin of human and human race. 

Ans. Very little is known about the origin of human beings. According to the theory of evolution proposed by biologists and anthropologists, man seems to have originated from certain types of monkeys like ape, chimpanzee, gorilla, etc. This is supposed to have taken place during the middle of Pleistocene period (about 5-6 lakh years ago) when the overall natural environment including climate was favourable. This newly emerged animal human species came to be called Homo sapiens. It is also presumed that this process must have taken place in central Africa and later these newly evolved man-like creatures migrated to other parts of the world.

Living in a different physical environment caused further biological developments in human beings. As a result of the influence of the physical environment around the difference. physical characteristics began to appear in Homo sapiens settled in different parts of the world. Accordingly, the human beings settled in the hot regions of Africa were identified as Negroid (i.e.dark skin colour), colder regions of earth were named as Caucasoid (i.e. while skin colour) and the colder regions of Central Asia were identified as Mongoloids (i.e. yellow skin colour). Thus, these three groups can be considered as the primary human races of the world. However over the years, a number of sub-races seemed to have emerged from these primary groups. All human beings living today belong to one of these primary groups or from a combination of primary groups or their sub-races.

6. Divide man on the earth based on the physical characteristics like hair, nose, face, height, skin, etc. 

Ans. On the basis of physical characteristics such as hair colour, facial structure, height, skin colour, etc., the human race can be divided into following three broad categories:

  1. Caucasoid race
  2. Negroid race
  3. Mongoloid race

The major human races in the world are:

The main characteristics of the three major human races are:

Sl. NoBasicsCaucasoid raceNegroid raceMongoloid race
(i)Skin colourPale reddish, white to olive brown.BlackSaffron to yellow brown
(ii)Eye colourLight blue to dark brown.Black to dark brownBrown to dark brown
(iii)Hair colourLight blonde to dark brown.CurlyBlack, long and and straight
(iv)FaceNarrow to medium.Broad to narrowBroad and flat
(v)LipsThin.ThickNormal
(vi)NoseSharp and narrow.Wide and bluntFlat or low
(vii)HeightMedium to tall.Short to tallRelatively small
(Viii)Head formLong to broad and short.ElongatedGenerally flattened

7. Mention the characteristics of the three major human races in the world.

Ans. The major human races in the world are:

The main characteristics of the three major human races are:

Sl. NoBasicsCaucasoid raceNegroid raceMongoloid race
(i)Skin colourPale reddish, white to olive brown.BlackSaffron to yellow brown
(ii)Eye colourLight blue to dark brown.Black to dark brownBrown to dark brown
(iii)Hair colourLight blonde to dark brown.CurlyBlack, long and and straight
(iv)FaceNarrow to medium.Broad to narrowBroad and flat
(v)LipsThin.ThickNormal
(vi)NoseSharp and narrow.Wide and bluntFlat or low
(vii)HeightMedium to tall.Short to tallRelatively small
(Viii)Head formLong to broad and short.ElongatedGenerally flattened

8. Which regions of the world are considered the first origin of man? With the help of a sketch , briefly write about the spread and distribution of major human races in the world.

Ans. There is no conclusive evidence to say when or where exactly man began to live on earth. But information from modern archaeology reveals that human beings were first seen in the eastern part of tropical Africa of the old world at least one lakh years ago. About 25-30 thousand years ago, human beings started moving towards other parts of the world. The long period of migration and impact of geographical conditions and climatic changes, etc. brought tangible changes in the physical characteristics of man at that time. It is believed that human body structure at that time was merely a mixture of the major human race, viz. Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid race. But due to migration and process of natural selection or heredity, differences among human races began to emerge in man settled in different parts of the world. It can be said that the first migration started from Central Africa, the centre of human origin. The human race began to move towards north and north-east directions. Initially, this group must have used the island groups as the vast oceans stood as block 

towards east and west. Besides, the snow-covered oceans during the Pleistocene ice-age acted as linkage between the landmasses. This enabled them to cross Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. Similarly, the people of Central Asia of Mongoloid racial origin moved towards North, Central and South America. Moreover, people of Caucasoid racial origin migrated from south-west Asia and moved to North and Western Europe and North and East Africa and from Central Africa to South and East Africa and some parts of South Asia.

The people residing in India belong to a sub-race called Mediterranean class of the Caucasoid racial group who migrated from Southern Europe. The white people living in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand belong to the Nordic class of the Caucasoid racial group which migrated from Western Europe.

Thus, we can say that people living in different parts of the world is a mixed population of different races.

9. What are the major religions? Discuss the salient characteristics and distribution of these religious groups along with their population size.

Ans. The major religions of the world are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism. These four religions constitute about 75% of

the world’s population. The population size of these religions as per 2006 estimate is given below :

NamePopulation size (in crores)Percentage
1. Christianity
2. Islam
3. Hinduism
4. Buddhism
213 crores
135 crores
90 crores
38 crores
33%
21%
14%
6%

[I] Christianity: Christianity was founded about 2000 years ago by Jesus Christ. Though this religion started in old Israel, soon it began to spread to other parts of the world through missionary activities. Particularly in the then Roman empire. Some of the main features of Christianity are:

  1. Christians are monotheists (belief in one God). 
  2. It is the biggest religion in the world with nearly 213 crores people belonging to this religion (as per 2006 data) 
  3. Christianity has two major divisions, viz. Roman Catholics and Protestants.
  4. Their holy book is the ‘Bible’.. 

[II] Islam: Islam was founded by Prophet Mohammad about 1400 years ago in the desert region of Middle East and soon it spread to parts of Africa, South Asia and South-east Asia. Some of the features of this religion are:

  1. Muslims are monotheists (belief in one god).
  2. The two major groups of Islam are Shia and Sunni. 
  3. It is the second largest religious group in the world.
  4. Their holy book is called the ‘Quran’. 

[III] Hinduism: Hinduism is considered as the world’s oldest religion. It was founded after Aryans settled in the Indo-Gangetic valley about 5000 years ago. The salient features of this religion are: 

  1. Hinduism came to be known after the name of its birth place-India, located on the east of the river Indus.
  2. It was founded about 5000 years ago. 
  3. This religion is closely associated with many of the social and cultural practices of India.
  4. It is practised by the majority of the Aryans and Dravidians.
  5. Their chief holy books are the four Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 

[IV] Buddhism: Buddhism was founded by Lord Gautam Buddha about 2500 years ago in the Bodh Gaya region of northern India. This religion spread from India to the neighbouring countries of Bhutan, China, Sri Lanka South East Asia, etc. Some of the main features of Buddhism are:

  1. Its two major divisions are Hinayana and Mahayana sects.
  2. The main holy book of Buddhists is Tripitaka.

10. Write in brief about religious composition and distribution of population in India. 

Ans. India is a land of many religions. India has been the birthplace of major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Religious composition: The religious compositions of India kare :

SI. No.ReligionsPercentage
(i)
(ii)
(iii) 
(iv)
(v)
Hindus
Muslims 
Christians
Sikhs
Buddhists
81.4% 
12.4%
2.3% 
1.9%
0.8%

Distribution: The largest religious group in India is the Hindus who live throughout all parts of the country. The chief Islam dominated state in India is Jammu and Kashmir. People of Islam religion are also found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, etc. The Sikhs mostly live in the states of Punjab and Haryana. North-eastern states such as Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya have high concentration of Christians. They are also found in certain pockets in different parts of the country. The Buddhists are mostly found in Sikkim, western part of Arunachal Pradesh, northern part of West Bengal and northern part of Bihar. The Jains mostly live in Rajasthan.

SEBA Class 9 Geography(Elective) Question Answer| English Medium|

UNIT-I: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

CHAPTERCHAPTER NAME Link
Chapter 1Weather and ClimateClick Here

UNIT-II: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Chapter 2People on the EarthClick Here
Chapter 3Population Growth and DistributionClick Here
Chapter 4Human SettlementClick Here

UNIT-III: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

Chapter 5Concept and Classification of ResourceClick Here
Chapter 6Economic Activities or OccupationClick Here
Chapter 7AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 8IndustryClick Here

11. Write short notes on:

  1. Man and human geography
  2.  Human race
  3. Negroid population group
  4. Religious composition
  5.  Buddhist religion 
  6. People of Christian religion in India

Ans.

(a) Man and human geography: 

Man seems to have originated millions of years ago as a result of the process of evolution from certain animals like monkeys, chimpanzees, gorillas, etc. This may have happened in central Africa around 5-6 lakh years ago and later spread to other parts of the world. This aspect of origin, developmental and existence of man and his influence on the environment are the major areas of the study of human geography. As a result of the impact of the environment on man, people in different places began to have different physical characteristics, which in the process led to the formation of three distinct human races named Caucasoid race, Negroid race and Mongoloid race. Over the years numerous sub-races have been formed from these primary races in different parts of the world. The science that studies this development of man and his relationship between the physical environment and man-made environment and the impact and influence of one over the other is known as human geography.

(b) Human race: 

According to biologists and anthropologists man seem to have originated in central parts of Africa about 5-6 lakh years ago as a result of the process of evolution. The newly emerged man belonged to a group of species called Homo sapiens. According to anthropologists man seems to have passed through several stages to reach the present level of development. During the later stage, man seems to have migrated to different parts of the world. As a result of the impact and influence of the geographical conditions, further physical differences began to emerge among the people of the world. Nevertheless, people with similar physical features have been placed together to form what is known as human race. The term ‘human race’ refers to a group of people having almost similar physical characteristics which are transferred to the next generation through the process of heredity. On this basis, man has been categorised into three primary human races called Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid races.

(c) Negroid population group: 

Negroids are mostly found in Africa, Southern India, Sri Lanka, some parts of south east Asia and in certain parts of Oceania. The people belonging to the Negroid racial group have tall stature with dark or dark-brown body skin, curly hair and wide and blunt nose. 

The sub-races of the Negroid population group are:

  1. Nelotic-Hemitic of eastern Africa.
  2. Bantu of Central and Southern Africa.
  3. Bushman and Pigmy of Western Africa.
  4.  Negrito of Southern India and South-east Asia.
  5. Melanesian of South-western Pacific Ocean region. 
  6. Australoid of Oceania.

(d) Religious composition: 

The set of rules and morals that guide people of different places or groups living on the earth for a proper living is termed as religion. From time immemorial, people all over the world praised some form of religion or othar The four major amigions of the world are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buitism. They constitute about 75% of the world’s population and the rest 25% consists of Sikhs, Jains, Chinese Folk religion Confucius, Bahai, Judai (Ziu-Himbru), Shinto, Vaishain etc. The religious composition of the people of the world is: ((according to 2006 estimate)

NamePopulation size (in orores)Percentage %
1.Christianity
2.Islam
3.Hinduism
4. Buddhism
5.Judai religion
6.Chinese Folk religion
7. Sikh religion
8.ahai religion
9.Other religions
213
135
90
38
1.6
39
2.3
71
24.6
33.0
21.0
14.0
6.0
0.2
6.1
0.3
0.1
19.3

(e) Buddhist religion: 

Buddhism was founded by Gautam Buddha about 2500 years ago in the Bodh Gaya regio of Northern India. The two major divisions of Buddhists are Hinayana and Mahayana sects. The main holy thook of Buddhism is Tripitaka. According to 2006 estimate, there were about 38 crores Buddhists in the world. They constitute about 6 per cent of the world’s population. Buddhism spread from India to the countries of Bhutan, China, Sri Lanka, South-East Asia, etc. Distribution:

  1. The Buddhists of Hinayana mostly live in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, etc.
  2. The Buddhists of Mahayana sect are found in countries such as Tibet, Mongolia, Taiwan, Sinkiang region of China, Japan, North and South Korea, Bhutan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, etc.

(f) People of Christian religion in India: 

According to the 2001 census, nearly 2.3 per cent of the population in India are Christians. Christians are mostly found in the states of Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Kerala, Andhra Pra Tallade, Ohristians are domly two s, viz. Roman Catholics and Protestants. The Prestants are luther divided into several subgroups acham phasing different aspect of Christianty All these groups are found in India. They are of the fastest growing religions in India mostly due to their missionary work throughout the country.

12. Choose the correct armour: 

(a) When was human being born on maths?

  1. 5-6 lakh years ago
  2. 11-2 lakh years ago
  3. 50-60 lakh years ago
  4. 10-12 lakh  years ago

Ans: (i) 5-6 lakh years ago

(b) Which is the largest religious group in terms of population? 

  1. Islam
  2. Hindu
  3. Christian
  4. Chinese Folk religion

Ans. (ii) Christian

(c) In which continent did man appear/originate first?

  1. Asia
  2. Africa
  3. Europe
  4. Oceanin

Ans. (ii) Africa

(d) With which racial did the people of China belong?

  1. Caucasoid group 
  2. Negroit group
  3. mongoloid group
  4. Austratoit group

Ans. (iii) Mongoloid grup

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Very Short Questions and Answers: :

1.To which species does man belong? 

Ans. Homo sapiens.

2. Which region is considered to be the secondary location of the human race?

Ans. Asia.

3. Which is the largest racial group in the world? 

Ans. Caucasoid.

4. Which religion is the oldest religion in the world?

Ans. Hinduism.

5. Who was the founder of Islam religion? 

Ans. Prophet Mohammad.

6. Name the holy book of Buddhism. 

Ans. Tripitaka.

7. When did Hinduism originate? 

Ans. Nearly five thousand years ago.

[B] Define/give meanings of the following:

1. Human race.

Ans. Human race is a group of people possessing similar physical features which are passed onto the next generation through heredity. 

2. Religion.

Ans. Religion is defined as the set of rules and morales which guide people of different races and cultures residing on the earth for a living.

[C] Answer the following questions:

1. Name the main tribal groups in Assam that belong to Mongoloid racial stock.

Ans. The main tribal groups of Assam that belong to the Mongoloid racial stock are Bodo, Karbi, Mising, Garo, Rabha, etc.

2. To which human race do Indo-Aryans living in the Indian sub-continent belong? 

Ans. The Indo-Aryans living in the Indian sub-continent belong to the Mediterranean sub-race of the Caucasoid race.

3. Name the countries that have a high concentration of Hinayana sect of Buddhism. 

Ans. The countries that have high concentrations of Hinayana sect of Buddhism are Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, etc.

4. Name the states in India where Christianity is prominent. 

Ans. In India, Christianity is prominent in the states of Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya. 

5. Where is the original home of the Caucasoid human race? 

Ans. The original home of the Caucasoid human race is the Caucasus mountain region between the Black sea and the Caspian sea.

6. Which was the first and last racial group to migrate to Assam? 

Ans. The first racial group to migrate to Assam was the Mon-Khmer group and the last group was the Ahoms from Burma.

7. Name the European countries that have a high concentration of people of Islam religion.

Ans. The Europeans countries that have a high concentration of people of Islam religion include Albania, Bosnia, Tazikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

[D] Short Questions and Answers:

1. What is the core subject matter of human geography? 

Ans. The core subject matter of the study of human geography is the study of growth and distribution of man on the earth including his diverse characteristics, activities, composition, physical structure, his influence on the environment and vice versa, etc.

2. To which racial group do the white people in South Africa,Australia and New Zealand  belong? 

Ans. The white people in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand belong to the racial group called Nordic class of the Caucasoid human race. This racial group migrated to these countries from western Europe in the recent past.

3. Which are the major sub-groups of Caucasoid race? 

Ans. The Caucasoid race is the largest human race in the world. Over half of the world’s population belongs to this group of human race. The major sub-groups of Caucasoid race are: 

  1. The Nordic group
  2. The Alpine group
  3. The Mediterranean people of Europe 
  4. The Indo-Aryan people of Southern Asia
  5. Semitic-Hermitic people of Western Asia 

4. In which parts of the world do we find Negroid racial people?

Ans. The Negroid racial groups mostly live in the following places:

  1. Continent of Africa
  2. Southern India and Sri Lanka of Asia
  3. Some parts of south-east Asia
  4. Some places of Oceania 

5. Name some of the sub-races of Negroid race.

Ans. Some of the sub-races of the Negroid human race are : 

  1. Nelotic-Hemitic of eastern Africa
  2. Bantu of Central and Southern Africa
  3. Bushman and pigmy of Western Africa 
  4. Negrito of Southern India and South-east Asia
  5. Melanesian of South-western Pacific Ocean region 
  6. Australoid of Oceania

6. Where do Mongoloid races live? 

Ans. The Mongoloid human race generally lives in the following areas:

  1. Central Asia 
  2. East Asia
  3. South-east Asia

7. Name the Asian sub-races that are part of the Mongoloid human race.

Ans. The major Asian sub-races that are part of the Mongoloid human race are:

  1. Chinese
  2. Japanese
  3.  Korean
  4. Burmese
  5. Thai
  6. Vietnamese
  7. Khmer
  8. Malay, etc.

8. Name the countries that have a high concentration of Hindus.

Ans. The countries that have a high concentration of Hindus are:

  1. India 
  2. Nepal
  3. Fiji
  4. Guyana
  5. Surinam
  6. Trinidad 
  7. Sri Lanka
  8. Bangladesh
  9. Malaysia

Long Questions and Answers:

1. Where are the people of Islam religious group of the world settled?

Ans. According to 2006 estimate, people of Islam religious group constitute about 21% of world’s population. They are largely settled in the northern part of Africa, Middle-East, Pakistan, Bangladesh of South Asia and some parts of South-east Asia. Some of the Islam-dominated African countries are Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Chad, Mali, Senegal, etc. of Africa. The Europeans countries that have high concentration of people of Islam religion include Albania, Bosnia, Tazikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, etc. are the main Islam dominated Middle-east countries. They are also found in the south-east Asian countries such as Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, etc.

Distinguish among:

1. Caucasoid race, negroid race and mongoloid race. 

Ans. The differences among caucasoid race, negroid race and mongoloid race are :

SI. No.Basis of differenceCaucasoid raceNegroid raceMongoloid race
(i)OriginCaucasoids seemed to have been the indigenous people of Europe.Negroid’s original home appears to be AfricaMongoloid seemed to have originated from Central Asia
(ii)FeaturesCharacterised by white to olive brown skin colour, straight or curly hairs with black or brown colour, sharp and narrow nose.Possess features like dark or dark brown body colour, curly hair, wide and blunt nose with tall stature.Characterised by features such as yellowish body skin, smaller eyes and straight hair
(iii)Found inEurope, Southern Asia, Continent of Africa, Western Asia, etc.Continent of Africa Southern India and Sri Lanka of Asia, some parts of South east Asia and some places of Oceania.Central and East Asia and South east Asia

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