NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(B)|Road Safety

NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(B)|Road Safety. Important questions for NIOS Environmental Science (333) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(B)|Road Safety

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(B)|Road Safety

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INTEXT QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1. What does Road Safety mean?

Ans: Road safety can refer to the precautionary measures taken by any vehicle driver, cyclist, pedestrian and passenger on road in order to prevent injuries, accidents and thereby assuring safety. There are traffic rules and regulations which have been laid out and should compulsorily be followed 

2. What are 4 ‘E’s in respect of road safety? Specify in brief. 

Ans: In order to combat these factors some remedies have been devised and can be summarized as the 4 ‘E’s

  1. Engineering Indian Roads are commuted by pedestrians, bicycles, carts, rickshaws, public heavy vehicles, light motor vehicles etc. Therefore roads should be constructed systematically and scientifically for the benefits of all commuters. Likewise vehicles should also be manufactured with latest and advanced technologies. Proper and correct engineering of roads can ensure lower rate of accidents
  2. Enforcement: Regular and strict enforcement of road safety rules and regulations have managed to bring down accident rates and can continue to do so in future. It also gives States the scope to incorporate safety related positive legislative changes and strict enforcement thereof. 
  3. Education: Imparting education on golden rules of the road to each and every driver and road user will help ensure safer roads for travellers and vehicles.
  4. Emergency Services: Well regulated and effective emergency medical services can bring down the number of deaths due to accidents substantially.

3. What is a Helmet and why should it be used?

Ans: As per section 129 of Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 wearing of helmet by both the Biker and the rider is mandatory. The helmet certified by Bureau of Indian Standards is only permissible for use. Two wheelers make up a large proportion of those injured or killed on the roads. A helmet protects from head injuries and fatalities and its use is effective at reducing fatalities up to 40% and up to 70% severe head injuries. Non-compliance of this legal requirement is punishable under MV Law.

4. Write a short note on the requirement of a seat belt. 

Ans: A speeding vehicle causes the occupant’s body to reach a state of uniform motion along with the motion of the vehicle which is termed as inertia. In the event of a collision or sudden use of brakes of a vehicle, the occupant’s body still remains in motion due to the force of inertia. A seatbelt serves as a Primary Restraint System by applying opposite force on the occupant’s body and hence preventing ejection from the vehicle. Additionally it also keeps the passenger and driver’s body in correct position so that air bags can function with maximum effectiveness during a collision. As a result injuries can be minimized during collisions. Studies reveal that a significant percentage of deaths during accidents can be attributed to negligence in fastening of seat belts. U/S 177 of Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, non-fastening of seat belt is a punishable offence.

5. What is a Driving Licence? Specify the classes of Motor Vehicles for which Driving Licence is granted? 

Ans: Driving licence is a licence issued by a competent authority authorizing the person to drive a specified class of vehicle. In Assam, a driving licence is issued by the District Transport Officer of the Transport Department.

Following are the classes of vehicle for which a Driving Licence is issued:

  • Motor cycle without gear, 
  • Motor cycle with gear,
  • Invalid carriage, 
  • Light motor vehicle,,,
  • Transport vehicle,
  • Road-roller,
  • Motor vehicle of a specified description.

There are two steps for eligibility to have a Driving Licence. 

Step 1: Learner’s Licence

Step 2: Main Driving Licence 

A person below the age of 18 years is not eligible to apply for a Learner’s Licence. However, a person completing the age of 16 years is eligible to apply for a two wheeler without gear vehicle with the consent of parents or guardian The applicant is granted Learner’s Licence if qualified in a preliminary test on traffic signals, road signs and road regulations. During the course of learning the learner has to display the letter ‘L’ in red on a white background in the front and rear of the vehicle. No person other than the instructor giving guidance should be sitting in to control the vehicle during learning. 

Upon gaining confidence in driving one becomes eligible to apply for the driving licence after 30 days from the date of issue of learner’s licence. On successful completion of a necessary test for driving one is granted the Driving Licence. 

6. What does the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 state with respect to drunken driving?

Ans: Driving under the influence of alcohol can reduce the response time of the driver of a vehicle. This in turn results in a large number of accidents on roads. To reduce the number of drunken driving cases on Indian roads the enforcement agencies conduct regular checks. If breath analysis or blood tests indicate a blood alcohol level of 30 mg or more for every 100 ml of blood, the driver is liable for a fine of minimum rupees 2000 or imprisonment or both u/s 185 of Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.

7. Mention 5 road rules applicable for a school bus?

Ans: The rules applicable for a school bus are 

  • Drivers must have 5 years experience of driving heavy vehicles.
  • The driver becomes unfit to drive school bus if he commits the following offences twice during a year
    • Jumping of Red Light
    • Parking at No Parking area
    • Overtaking unlawfully 
    • Violation of Stop line at Road intersection
    • Allowing unauthorized persons to drive
  • Over speeding or under the influence of drugs disqualify a person to be a school bus driver
  • Drivers should wear uniforms. 
  • School buses must be painted with yellow colour with school name and contact details. 

8. How many classes of road signs exist? Mention them.

Ans: Accordingly in India, uniform road signs are incorporated in Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 These Road signs are classified into three and these are:

  1.  Mandatory Road signs 
  2. Cautionary Road signs
  3. Informatory Road Signs 

9. What should a driver do in case of an accident?

Ans: The driver shall stop the vehicle forthwith. If any person is injured due to an accident, the driver of the vehicle involved in the accident shall take immediate measures to get medical treatment of the injured unless the injured person or his guardian desires otherwise. Inform the occurrence of the accident to the nearest police station as soon as possible, in any case within 24 hours and also to inform the insurer in writing.

10. What valid documents should be carried by a non transport (personal) vehicle?

Ans: In case of non transport (personal) vehicle, one may require to produce the following valid documents of his vehicle on demand by authorised officials –

In case of Non-Transport (Personal) Vehicle 

  1.  Registration Certificate.
  2. Insurance Certificate.
  3. Pollution under control certificate (if the vehicle is 1 year old from the date of initial registration). 
  4. Driving licence of the class of vehicle you are driving. 

In case of Transport (Commercial) vehicles:

  1. Fitness Certificate
  2. Up-to-date Road tax receipt or proof thereof.
  3. Permit
  4. Conductor’s licence in case of Bus 
  5. Any other documents as required by permit conditions

NIOS Class 12th Environmental Science (333) Notes/Question Answer

ChaptersChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Basic Concept of EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 2Ecological ConceptClick Here
Chapter 3Biodiversity and its conservationClick Here
Chapter 4Natural ResourcesClick Here
Chapter 5Environmental PollutionClick Here
Chapter 6Social Issues and EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 8 (A)Disaster Management: Responsibilities and PrecautionsClick Here
Chapter 8 (B)Road SafetyClick Here

11. What are the major causes of Road accidents?

Ans: Studies suggest that there are numerous and varied reasons which can cause road accidents. Drunk driving, high speed, sleepless night, rough road, inclement weather, car break down, violating traffic rules to They can be summarized as given below:

  1. Human factors: 85% of accidents are caused by human factors such as drunk driving, drowsiness, fatigue, lack of awareness of road signs, violation of rules, distracted driving. pedestrian errors etc
  2. Infrastructure: Poor infrastructure such as incorrect road engineering, dilapidated condition of roads etc also contributes significantly to road accidents 
  3. Mechanical factors: Mechanical errors such as driving an ill-maintained vehicle, abrupt mechanical failure etc. can lead to accidents on road.
  4. Environmental factors: Unfavourable terrain, unforeseen natural calamities, bad weather conditions etc. cause accidents frequently.

12. What is the name of the Road Safety plan adopted Worldwide in the year 2011? Write in brief.

Ans: One of the main objectives to educate the youth on road safety is with the hope that the future generation, who plays an active role in the society, will in turn spread awareness among the masses on the challenges of road safety. simultaneously being well equipped themselves on the same.

The United Nations General Assembly in March 2010, has declared a worldwide movement and therefore, on 11th May 2011 “The Decade of Action on Road Safety 2011-2020” was launched across the globe. The movement has been initiated not only to start awareness on road safety but also to curb the loss of lives due to road mishaps. There are several strategies’ put forward under this initiative, some of them are to enhance emergency services, building road safety management, improved legislation and enforcement on helmets, seatbelts, child restraints and avoiding drinking and driving and speeding etc. In India too, there have been many initiatives taken by the government. Since 1989, the Government has been organizing ‘Road Safety Week’ every January devising several different strategies to promote awareness on road safety. In the year 2005 the Union Cabinet based on the recommendations of the Sundar Committee approved the National Road Safety Policy to improve road safety activities in the country. Among the eleven policies adopted for the National Road Safety Policy, awareness among the public has been given prime importance. 

13. Since when did the National Road Safety policy was adopted in India?

Ans: 2005. 

14. Mention 5 Traffic Rules to ensure Road Safety.

Ans: There are certain Rules of the Road which are expected to be followed by the road users for the purpose of safety. These are enlisted in the Motor Vehicle Laws. Some of those are mentioned below—

  1.  Keep the vehicle as far as possible to the left hand side of the road and allow other vehicles to move by your right hand side.
  2. A vehicle intending to take a right turn should move along the centre of the road and allow other motor vehicles behind it to overtake from the left side or vice versa.
  3. Overtake vehicles from same direction by right hand side
  4. Do not overtake if
  1. If creates difficulties for vehicles from opposite side 
  2. Road intersection, hillside where visibility is not clear
  3. Another vehicle is trying to overtake you. 
  4. You have not got proper signal from the vehicle moving ahead of you.
  1.  If a vehicle has begun to overtake a vehicle ahead, it shall not accelerate or do anything that will cause inconvenience to the intending vehicle from overtaking smoothly.
  2. While entering onto the main road from a bye-lane, where traffic is not being regulated, give priority to the vehicles travelling along the main road slowly.
  3. Give way to the fire brigade vehicle or ambulance by drawing yourself to the left side.

15. What kind of licence is to be procured from our country by an Indian to drive in foreign country? What are the application procedures?

Ans: There is a provision in the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 for granting International Driving Permit for Indian Citizens to drive in foreign countries. It is valid for 1 year only. One can apply in the prescribed form with the following details to the local District Transport Officer.

  1.  Copy of Indian Driving Licence 
  2. Copy of Passport and Visa
  3. 3 copies of recent passport photo 
  4. Medical certificate in prescribed form
  5. Necessary fees

Very Short Questions: ▷▷ Marks: 1/2

Q. 1. Fill in the blanks.

(a) According to the World Health Organisation, million people die and around __________ million persons are injured in road accidents across the world annually.

Ans: 1.25, 5 

(b) In the year 2014, there are __________ numbers of road accidents occurred in India.

Ans: 450898

(c) The road safety week was started in the year__________  in India.

Ans: 1989

(d) The statistics of road accidents are keptly __________ in India.

Ans: National Crime Record Bureau.

(e) A drunken driver can be punished under the article__________ of India constitution. 

Ans: u/s 185 of Motor Vehicle act 1988.

(f) The National Road safety policy was adopted by govt. of India after the recommendation of __________ committee.

Ans: Sundar

(g) The United National general assembly declared the decade of action of Road safety 2011-2020 on __________ day.

Ans: 11th May 2011.

(h) The validity of an international driving licence is __________ years.

And: One year

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