NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions

NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions. Important questions for NIOS Environmental Science (333) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions

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NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions

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INTEXT QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1. Write the names of two natural and two man-made disasters.

Ans: earthquakes, floods, attack by terrorists, ethnic clashes. 

2. What are the reasons for various disasters in Assam?

Ans: Depends on how you define a Disaster. According to the Oxford Dictionary, disaster means “A sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.” Going by that definition, the following can be identified as the common disasters in our state, man-made as well as natural

(i) Floods & Erosion 

Traditionally, floods are caused in Assam due to the Brahmaputra’s huge sediment load being ranked second in the world. Second cause being rampant destruction of forest cover. Assam has lost 3,085 square kilometres of forest cover since 1987. But off late, discharge from river dams in the uplands of the neighbouring states, cause great floods in a matter of hours in the low lying areas of our state. Also river embankments and dykes, our Water Resources Department’s age old ‘weapon’ to tackle floods, go without repairs for years, before eventually causing catastrophic floods. In the town and metropolitan areas however, the causes of floods are often unnatural, often ranging from haphazard planning, improper drainage systems, clogging of discharge routes etc. Erosion is almost a direct result of forest declination and riverbank breach during the flood season. Assam lost a total of 72.5 sq km to 80 sq km per year between 1997-98 to 2007-08 due to riverbank erosion. Majuli, Assam’s hallowed turf is now on the brink of extinction due to erosion and has lost almost half its original land area.

(ii) Landslides 

Mostly a direct result of massive earthquakes, excess rains and floods, and also massive encroachment. Assam receives above normal rainfall and thus roads are easily damaged. Also surrounded by hills in almost every part of the state and now due to population inlfux and heavy migration from rural to urban areas, the bedrock of these hills have been tested, which causes heavy landslides and in most cases even loss of life and property.

(iii) Earthquakes

Assam falls in Seismic Zone V, the highest with respect to earthquake activity. Assam is thus vulnerable to high density earthquakes at any point of time and has also faced two extremely high intensity earthquakes in 1897 and 1950 which measured 8.7 and 8.5 on the Richter Scale respectively. In the 1897 earthquake, Guwahati was completely destroyed; Chandubi Lake was formed after a forest was submerged beneath the land. The 1950 earthquake is more famous for being the reason when the Brahmaputra river changed its course.

(iv) Thunderstorms

Locally known as Bordoichila, these pre-monsoon thunderstorms oft cause great devastation especially in the rural areas. At the end of the storms, one can easily see uprooted electric poles, trees, damaged crops, ruffled shelters etc.

(v) Protests, Riots and Clashes 

Almost a routine in the state. In every nook and corner of the state, one can see a hoarding or a banner of a local outfit. Assam faces riots due to numerous reasons like separatist demands, influx and landlessness, unemployment, highhandedness of the locals, ethnic problems, failure of administration among others.

(vi) Terrorist Activities 

There are several terrorist groups operating in Assam. ULFA being the prominent one. Others include groups like NDFB(S), KPLT, HuM, JeM etc. These outfits eventhough and thankfully, are not as active as they used to be earlier, are known to cause surprise guerrilla attacks on the police forces, the army and camp mostly in the resource rich parts of the state.

3. Write three reasons for artificial (man-made) disasters in India.

Ans: Three major reasons of artificial (man-made) in India are

  1.  Human carelessness
  2. Sheer lack of foresight and 
  3. Lack of proper planning.

4. How can man-made disasters be mitigated? Suggest three measures of your own.

Ans: The risk of man made disasters is one of two: Accidental or intentional. Trying to prevent intentional disasters is fighting crime or terrorism, which is already done and is difficult.

Preventing accidental disasters relies on procedures, training and more training. We do this all the time. Usually it’s based on previous experience, which means that someone died so that things are done a certain way.

In the past 10 years, most of the disasters were either because of indiscriminate hydropower projects in ecologically sensitive areas (for example: Uttarakhand) and illegal encroachment (urban floods in various cities like Mumbai, Guwahati, Kashmir).

With the race for ‘development’, we have forgotten about sustainability. We do need electricity and micro-projects, tidal energy plants, wind and solar energy are great options to coal based plants and hydropower.

The only way man-made disasters can be stopped is by preserving and protecting ecologically sensitive areas and keeping the natural drainage systems like small tributaries and distributaries or lakes free from encroachment.

The government should concentrate on long-term implications when they approve or pass “development” projects to list in election manifestos.

5. Mention about the measures which should be taken before and after a disaster.

Ans: Steps to be taken during Search and Rescue Operation: 

  1. The Rescuers should be calm, composed but firm.
  2. A thorough assessment should be made before executing search and rescue operations.
  3. A safe distance be maintained from the damaged site.
  4. Need to examine the damaged sites thoroughly. 
  5. First aids to be kept ready round the clock for primary treatment.
  6. Help the injured first.
  7. The victims of accident should be covered with blankets/tarpaulins so that the injury is not further aggravated 
  8. Sharp equipment for the rescue operations should be used very carefully. 
  9. Clothes of the victims should be loosened and such persons should be kept at a safe place.
  10. If required, steps may be taken for artificial breathing of the victims. In case of haemorrhage, efforts should be made to stop it or bring it under control.

6. What are the major and genuine causes of increasing numbers of disasters during the last two decades?

Ans: The major and genuine causes of increasing number of disasters during the last two decades are

  1.  Global warming. 
  2. Deforestation.
  3. Increasing numbers of factories, industries etc.
  4. Air, water, land etc are polluted by humans.
  5. Improper use of technology. 

7. What were the biggest earthquakes on earth and when and where they occurred? 

Ans: The world’s largest earthquake with an instrumentally documented magnitude occurred on May 22, 1960 near Valdivia, in southern Chile. It was assigned a magnitude of 9.5 by the United States Geological Survey. It is referred to as the “Great Chilean Earthquake” and the “1960 Valdivia Earthquake.”

The Chilean earthquake produced a powerful tsunami that travelled at a speed of about 200 miles per hour across the Pacific Ocean. The wave killed 61 people in Hawaii, 138 in Japan, and 32 in the Philippines.

Another major earthquake occured in Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011 at a richer scale of 9.0. So far the official death toll stands at several thousand from the combined effect of the powerful earthquake, aftershocks and the tsunami. However, the total is expected to rise, with some estimates of a final toll of over 10,000. Economic impacts are expected to be huge, with the shutting down of nuclear reactors which many industries rely on for power.

8. What are the reasons for frequent floods in Assam ?

Ans: Main Reasons of frequent flood in Assam are 

  1.  Heavy Rainfall in some year or some continuous spell of heavy rain either in Assam or in the upstream region of it’s main rivers. 
  2. Rainfall upstream also contributes to flooding, as the water flow increases downstream.
  3. Physiology of the region is still young and the lesser Himalaya regions are still in the process of forming. The soft rocks, in the absence of green top cover, easily give way to gushing waters.
  4. Brahmaputra valley carries huge amounts of water and is one of the most hazard prone areas. Sediment load of Brahmaputra is highest in the world and thus it makes 40% of Assam’s land as flood prone.
  5. Human-induced problems like destruction of wetlands, deforestation, and encroachments on river banks. 
  6. Most cities and towns suffer due to poor planning.
  7. The Organized system of flood-related data logging is fairly new and inexperienced in the State. Also, the State Disaster Management came into being only in 2010.
  8. Explosive population growth in the state which led to encroachment of riverine areas, char areas, natural water reservoir areas etc. which alter and degrade the natural drainage system.

9. Write about five probable problems related to earthquakes.

Ans: Five probable problems related to earthquake are 

  1.  The effects of an earthquake are terrible and devastating. Many building, hospitals, schools, etc are destroyed due to it.
  2. A lot of people get killed and injured.
  3. Many people lose their money and property.
  4.  It affects the mental health and emotional health of people.
  5. The environmental effects of it are that including surface faulting, tectonic uplift and subsidence, tsunamis, soil liquefaction, ground resonance, landslides and ground failure, either directly linked to a quake source or provoked by the ground shaking. 

NIOS Class 12th Environmental Science (333) Notes/Question Answer

ChaptersChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Basic Concept of EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 2Ecological ConceptClick Here
Chapter 3Biodiversity and its conservationClick Here
Chapter 4Natural ResourcesClick Here
Chapter 5Environmental PollutionClick Here
Chapter 6Social Issues and EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 8 (A)Disaster Management: Responsibilities and PrecautionsClick Here
Chapter 8 (B)Road SafetyClick Here

10. What are the purposes and functions of the Assam State Disaster Management department? 

Ans: The State of Assam has taken special steps to address disasters under the National Disaster Management Act, 2005. The Guidelines of the Assam State Disaster Management Authority was framed in the year 2010. The Assam State Disaster Management Authority is the nodal agency in the State. It has the primary duty of creating awareness among the people and streamlining precautionary measures to be taken during disasters. Its Headquarters is located at the Assam Civil Secretariat (Capital Complex), Dispur. An IAS officer is posted as the Chief Executive Officer and an officer of the rank of Joint Secretary to the Government of Assam works as the Project Officer to look after the functioning of the Authority. Apart from this central agency, there are also other disaster management agencies at the district, block and panchayat levels to carry out the guidelines of disaster management. 

The main function of these agencies are:

  1.  Planning 
  2. Preparedness 
  3. Operation 
  4. Coordination. 
  5. Community participation. 

11. What type of disaster is the “Guwahati Serial Blast” which occurred in the year 2008? 

Ans: Man-made disaster

12. Write a note on the disasters in Mines in India. 

Ans: India is enriched with mine. Sometimes during mining. unexpected accidents take many lives. Some of such accidents and its causes listed below:

Date Place of OccurrencePersons diedCause
March, 1973Nunidin48Explosion
August, 1975Kesurrgardh11Roof collapse
December, 1975Chachnla375Flooding
October, 1976Sudamdih Shaft43Explosion
January, 1979Boragulai16Explosion
June, 1981Jagannath10Fire
July, 1982Dhaupa16Roof collapse
November, 1993Tipong09Explosion
January, 1974New Kenda55Fire
September 1995Gechlitend64Flooding

13. What are the stages of disaster Management? What steps can be taken in each stage? 

Ans: Steps for Disaster Management can be taken in three stages:

  1. Before the Disaster (Precautions, Mass Awareness, Prediction, Preparation, etc.)
  2. During the occurrence of Disasters (Special steps to be taken as per type of disaster, search and rescue operation, etc.) 
  3. After the Disaster (Relief and Rehabilitation of the affected, health services, reconstruction of communication systems, etc)

14. Suggest five steps which you can take as a student in disaster management.

Ans: Students are the obligatory and highly sensitive part of the society. Today’s students are tomorrow’s citizens. So students can play a vital role in disaster management. Like

  1.  The advice given by the experts in the Disaster Management awareness campaign held in the schools, colleges and other social functions should be shared with the senior members of the family and students should take initiative in maintaining the precautions. Further we should always remain prepared to face any situation caused by disasters.
  2. Earthquake is the most devastating of all the natural disasters as it is quite unpredictable and it occurs all of a sudden without any advance warning. One should not be nervous and panicky in such a situation and scrupulously follow the advice and precautions suggested by the experts.
  3. During an earthquake, one should take shelter under the hard frames of the doors, comer of the house, strong table/ beds or in open spaces.
  4. One should never take shelter under electric wire/ posts, tall trees, water tanks, windows or furniture with glasses, kitchen, bathrooms.
  5. The Almirah, rack and furniture in the bedrooms or living rooms should be fixed properly. 

15. What should not be done during a disaster?

Ans: 

  1.  Don’t press the panic button unnecessarily. 
  2. Rescue operations should not be carried out without proper assessment and equipment. 
  3. Materials from the damage site should not be taken out in a haphazard manner to evade further damage.
  4. No careless movement around the accident site be made, which may further endanger the lives of the victims. 
  5. If not emergent, no movement around/ over the accident site should be done.
  6. Care should be taken not to come in contact with live electric Wires.
  7. The Rescuers should not violate the Safety Measures. 

16. Write briefly about the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).

Ans: A special unit called National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), which is a dedicated force to deal with such a situation was constituted. Its members are recruited from the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF). Eight battalions of NDRF have been created and they are placed in strategic locations of the country. Training in chemical, organic, nuclear and atomic hands and emergency services are imparted to the members of the NDRF to deal with any emergent situation during disasters. During natural disasters, they are engaged to help the local administration. The National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) an elite institution of disaster management, was also established at New Delhi in 2003.

17. What do you know about Assam State Disaster Management Agency?

Ans: The State of Assam has taken special steps to address disasters under the National Disaster Management Act, 2005. The Guidelines of the Assam State Disaster Management

Authority was framed in the year 2010. The Assam State Disaster Management Authority is the nodal agency in the State. It has the prim. duty of creating awareness among the people and stream precautionary measures to be taken during disasters. It’s The quarter is located at the Assam Civil Secretariat (Capital Complex), Lur. An IAS officer is posted as the Chief Executive Officer an officer of the rank of Joint Secretary to the Government of Assam works as the Project Officer to look after the functioning of the Authority Apart from this central agency, there are also other disaster management agencies at the district, block and panchayat levels to carry out the guidelines of disaster management. 

The main function of these agencies are: 

  1. Flaming
  2. Preparedness 
  3. Operation 
  4. Coordination.
  5. Community participation.

18. There are frequent instances of landslides in Guwahati city. What are the reasons of it? Suggest some measures from your views to prevent such landslides. 

Ans: There are various reasons behind why Guwahati suffers from landslides.

One geological reason is Earthquake. Since Assam and all other North-east states fall under Zone-5 of seismic zones, which is the highest zone that is prone to have earthquakes with high magnitude.

We also have heavy rainfalls and soil erosion in the state which is another cause for a landslide. Also, we know that Guwahati does not have a uniform land, there are slopes, hills, which adds to the reasons for landslides.

Also, the nature of the soil in Guwahati of Assam is very fertile and fine to coarse in texture which is why most part of the land is used for agriculture. And I see, despite the city being prone to earthquakes and its soil being fertile, there are a number of skyscrapers built and continuing to build. As a result of which there are deforestation and groundwater issues in Guwahati

The soil in the state is basically meant for agriculture and should not be used to put heavy loads on it without stronger foundations for buildings, etc. With the increase in population in the city, there are countless constructions happening throughout Guwahati.

We cannot combat nature, but we can surely put an end to the ways we are living to save the State because it is enriched with flora and fauna that we must be proud of.

Road widening is one of the several win our country, traffic is a huge problem. Some people say that it is inevitable due to the growing population but there are various remedies to resolve this issue. Road widening is one of the several ways to diminish traffic congestion. It increases the flow of traffic because more vehicles can be accommodated particularly buses and trucks which require additional space that sometimes makes the road narrower.

Hills lying near roads or highways are often cut and severed to provide extra space for addition of extra lanes. The part of road cross-section at Jorabat in Guwahati has been widened to make way for a 4-lane highway due to which the hill slopes near the road has been cleared and excavated. Even though the exposed cut slopes look unwavering at first sight, it might not be the case during intense rainfall conditions. The rainfall data of the first 11 days of the month of May, 2013 indicates the direct relationship between rainfall and landslide.

Moreover the hills in question also have a history of being affected by landslides. The area records many landslide

activities during the rainy seasons leading to loss of lives and damage to property. The failure of a mass of soil located beneath a slope is called a slide. It involves a downward and outward movement of the entire mass of soil that participates in the failure. The action gravitational forces and seepage forces within the soil are the main causes of landslides. The slopes under study fail suddenly without any prior warning. However, continuous drizzles are more dangerous than heavy rainfall. As in heavy rainfall, most of the rainwater becomes runoff compared to that of drizzle, where the rain water seeps into the soil mass making it saturated and weak.

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