NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions

NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions. Important questions for NIOS Environmental Science (333) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-8(A)|Disaster Management: Responsibilities and Precautions

Second page

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

Very Short Questions: 

1. Fill in the blanks

(a) The National Disaster Management Authority was constituted in the year __________

Ans: 2005 

(b) About __________ % of the total land area of India is affected by natural calamities.

Ans: 85%

(c) The guidelines of the Assam state disaster management authority was framed in the year__________

Ans: 2010

(d) The total number of NDRF battalion are__________

Ans: 8

(e) The city Pompeii was destroyed by eruption of vesuvius in the year__________

Ans: 79 BC

(f) In the year 2009, cyclone Aila create disaster to the state __________

Ans: West Bengal.

Short Questions with Answers:

1. What are the two main types of disaster?

Ans: The two types of disaster are natural and manmade disasters. 

2. How were the Harappa and Mohenjo Daro cities destroyed?

Ans: The cities Harappa and Mohenjadaro were destroyed by natural calamities. 

3. Which countries were affected by the Tsunami that occurred in 2004?

Ans: Countries like Japan, Indonesia, India, Thailand, and 18 other countries were affected by the Tsunami in 2004. 

4. Before the disaster, which steps are to be taken in the disaster management programme? 

Ans: The steps precautions, mass awareness, prediction and preparation etc. are to be taken before the disaster in the disaster management programme.

5. What is the helpline number for Guwahati city police? 

Ans: A toll free number ‘100’ is the helpline number of Guwahati city police.

6. How recruitment of persons of NDRF is done?

Ans: The recruitment of persons of NDRF is selected from the central armed police forces. 

7. Why is a cyclone, generally, followed by floods?

Ans: Sea water floods the land and wash away human settlement, agriculture and other properties 

8. Name the form components of disaster management.

Ans: Preparedness, response, recovery, prevention

9. Why is community level disaster management important? 

Ans: Because community or neighbours respond first to disaster situation 

10. Define floo How does it affect human lives?

Ans: Flood is a body of water that covers normal dry lands. Consequences of most foods are as follows.  They – : 

  • destroy homes and valuable property.
  • carry top fertile soil, leaving the land barren.
  • destroy both food and cas ps.
  • cause huge losses to human lives and cattle.
  • cause landslides in the hilly-areas.
  • cause a dam burst.

11. List some preventive methods to overcome the miseries caused by flood.

Ans:

  1.  improper water, storage capacity. 
  2. Migrate people to safer places.
  3. Store enough tool and fodder in good times 
  4. Aggressive afforestation
  5. Effective /proper watershed/catchments area management

12. Name three major kinds of energy generating plants in our country. What are their relative contributions towards our electric energy needs?

Ans: Hydroelectric (21%), Thermal (75%), Nuclear (3%)

13. Define: Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone, Tsunami 

  1.  Floods – Are temporary inundation of a large region as a result of increase in level of river or reservoir. 
  2. Earthquake – Is a sudden release of energy accumulated in defamed rocks of earth crust causing the ground to tremble or shake.
  3. Cyclone – Are wild storms often of vast extent, characterised by strong and high winds rotating about a calm centre of low atmospheric pressure 
  4. Tsunami – Is a catastrophic ocean wave, caused by a submarine earthquake.

14. What are the repercussions of disasters?

Ans: Disasters both natural and man-made may have the following repercussions:

  • Complete disruption in the normal life of the people. 
  • Adverse impact on the emergency services.
  • Interruption and shortage in the fundamental needs like foodstuff, shelter, health and communication. 

15. How can a student take help of Helpline numbers in case of a disaster?

Ans: There are many government departments including police, which maintain ‘Helpline’ numbers. Guwahati City Police has the Toll-free number of ‘100’, Like-wise govt introduces toll-free helpline number during disasters and natural calamities. Therefore, if any irregular and dangerous matters or developments are noticed, those may immediately be informed to the concerned department. The student’s community can play an important role in this regard. Such types of instances are:

  1. Road accidents, unclaimed article/baggage/ packet (Police Deptt, 108 Ambulance Service) 
  2. Manhole on the footpaths (Municipality or Town Committee)
  3. Dangerously hanging electric wires/ electric posts and sparking in transformers (Electricity Deptt.) 
  4. Dangerous looking hanging trees or parts of buildings, etc. (Municipality or Town Committee)
  5. Defective railway track (Railways Deptt.)
  6. Imminent danger while travelling by trains (GRP/ Local Police.)

16. Name the NDRF Battalions in India.

Ans: NDRF Battalion Greater Noida, NDRF Battalion Bhatinda, NDRF Battalion Kolkata, NDRF Battalion Guwahati (Patgaon), NDRF Battalion Moondali, NDRF Battalion Marakkanam, NDRF Battalion Pune and NDRF Battalion Gandhi Nagar.

17. What are the steps to be taken after the disaster in the disaster management programme?

Ans: The primary steps to be taken after the disaster in the disaster management programmes are relief and rehabilitation of the affected people, health services, sanitation services, reconstruction of communications, etc.

18. What are the immediate effects of disaster? 

Ans: The immediate effects of disaster are the following.

  1.  Complete disruption in the normal life of the people. 
  2. Adverse impact on the emergency services. 
  3. Interruption and shortage in the fundamental needs like foodstuff, shelter, health and communication. 

19. What are the stages of disaster management where it has to take steps?

Ans: The stages of disaster management programmes are three- these are before the disaster, during the disaster and after the disaster, where it has to take steps.

20. Write a note on Assam state disaster response force?

Ans: In order to frame an effective mechanism to deal with disasters, the Assam state disaster response force was created in 2010 and recruitment to this organization is done since then

The headquarter is located at Sila, North Guwahati. It functions under the supervision of the Director, State fire and emergency services, Assam. It works in collaboration with fire services and rescue operations are held during disasters.

21. How can a disaster take the form of a monstrosity?

Ans: A disaster, on the other hand, has the propensity to take the form of its monstrosity on account of the following reasons:

  •  Unpredictability
  • Unfamiliarity
  • Speed
  • Urgency
  • Uncertainty
  • Huge loss of life and property.

22. What type of training is given to NDRF personnel? 

Ans: Training on chemical, organic, nuclear and atomic hazards, to rescue during both natural and man made disasters are given to the NDRF personnel.

Long Questions with Answers 

1. What is the contribution of the government in disaster management?

Ans: The Government of India has set up a National Committee on Disaster Management (NCDM) under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister. The recommendations of this National Committee would form the basis of national disaster risk management programme and strengthen the natural disaster management and response mechanisms. United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) has also been supporting various initiatives of the government to strengthen disaster management capacities.

The programme components would include the following 

  • Development of state and district disaster management plans
  • Development of disaster risk management and response plans at Village/Ward, Gram Panchayat, Block/Urban Local Body levels.
  • Constitutions of Disaster Management Teams and Committees at all levels with adequate representation of women in all committees and team. (Village/ Ward, Gram Panchayat, Block/Urban local body, District and State.)
  • Capacity Building of Disaster Management Teams at all levels. Special training for women in first aid, shelter management, water and sanitation, rescue and evacuation, etc. 
  • Capacity Building in cyclone and earthquake resistant features for houses in disaster prone districts, training in retrofitting, and construction of technology demonstration units.
  • Integration of disaster management plans with development plans of local self governments.

2.Discuss Natural and man-made disasters.

Ans: Disasters may be divided into two categories – 

  1.  Natural Disasters and 
  2. Manmade Disasters.

(a) Natural Disasters: 

Natural disasters are the outcome of various natural calamities and geophysical changes that take place in and around the earth which take a huge toll on the lives and properties of the people. Instances of natural disasters are earthquakes, floods, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, drought, heavy rains, hailstorms, forest fire, heavy snowfalls, Tsunamis, etc. Natural disasters, over the ages, have played a very critical role in the life of the people and other living beings as well. The experts believe that the Harappa Mohenjo-Daro civilization was mined by natural disasters. The ancient city of Pompeii was also destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuviyas in 79 BC The unprecedented havoc caused by Tsunami in Japan, Indonesia, Thailand and India including coastal areas of 18 other countries a few years back still haunts the memory of the people.

(b) Man-made Disasters: 

Industrial accidents, air crashes, train accidents, attack by terrorists, ethnic clashes, epidemics and fire related accidents are some of the man made disasters. The Union Carbide gas leakage tragedy in Bhopal, termed as the World’s worst man-made disaster, the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident and violent attacks perpetrated by terrorist groups in places like New York, London, Paris, and in Indian cities of Mumbai, Delhi and Guwahati are some of the terrible instances of man-made disasters. 

NIOS Class 12th Environmental Science (333) Notes/Question Answer

ChaptersChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Basic Concept of EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 2Ecological ConceptClick Here
Chapter 3Biodiversity and its conservationClick Here
Chapter 4Natural ResourcesClick Here
Chapter 5Environmental PollutionClick Here
Chapter 6Social Issues and EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 8 (A)Disaster Management: Responsibilities and PrecautionsClick Here
Chapter 8 (B)Road SafetyClick Here

3. Write a note on disaster Management Initiatives in India.

Ans: Considering the various factors like vast coastal area, geographical location, population size and unpredictable monsoon flows, India has been under the scourge of plethora of disasters at different times. At least twenty seven of Indian states are prone to natural disasters/ calamities like floods, drought, cyclone, excessive rainfalls, landslide/ erosion, earthquake, etc. About 85% of the total land area of India is affected by such natural calamities. Out of the total geographical area of India, 60% is affected by earthquake, 68% by drought, 12% by floods and 8% by cyclones.

In order to mitigate disasters, the Govt. of India constituted a High Power Committee in 1999 at district, state and national level on the issue of Disaster Management and Development. The Super Cyclone of 29/30th October, 1999 in Odisha and the earthquake of 26th January, 2001 in Gujarat exposed the weaknesses, lack of awareness and emergency services of the Government in dealing with natural disasters. Some important proposals on the basis of surveys conducted, were put forward by the High Power Committee constituted by the Govt. of India in its report. Following this, step was taken to transfer the primary responsibilities of disasters from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Home Affairs.

After the Tsunami that occurred on 26th of December, 2004 causing large scale devastation and loss of lives in the coastal areas, the Govt. of India laid paramount importance on Disaster management. Soon the Disaster Management Bill was passed by both Houses of the Parliament unanimously. Steps were taken as per the Disaster Management Act, 2005 to monitor situations before, during and after disasters with due importance. As per the Disaster Management Act, 2005, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) and District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) were constituted under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister of India, Chief Ministers of the States and the Deputy Commissioners of the districts concerned respectively.

4. Write a note on Assam State Disaster Response Force (SDRF)

Ans: In order to frame an effective mechanism to deal with disasters, the Assam State Disaster Response Force was created in the year 2010 and recruitment to this organization has been done ever since. It was constituted on the line of the National Disaster Response Force and its headquarters is located at Sila, North Guwahati. The ASDRF functions under the supervision of the Director, State Fire and Emergency Services, Assam. The ASDRF works in collaboration with the Fire Services in search and rescue operations during disasters.

Natural disasters apart, this Force is pressed into service in the instances of drowning of individual or fire accidents and such other catastrophes.

5. Write about what not to do during a disaster. 

Ans: The instructions about what not to do during disaster are

  1.  Don’t press the panic button immediately.
  2. Rescue operations should not be done without proper assessment and equipment. 
  3. Materials from the damaged site should not be taken out in a haphazard manner to evade further damage. 
  4. No carless movement around the accident site be made. which may further endanger the lives of the victims.
  5. If not emergent, no movement around over the accident site should be done. 
  6.  Care should be taken not to come in contact with live electric wires.
  7. The rescuers should not violate the safety measures. 

6. Write a brief note on Assam state disaster management authority.

Ans: The state of Assam has taken special steps to address disaster under the national disaster management act 2005 as this state has to face natural disaster like flood very frequently.

The guide line of Assam state disaster management authority was framed in 2010. It is a nodal agency in the state. It has the primary duty of creating awareness among the people and streamlining precautionary measures to be taken during disasters. The headquarters of this authority is located at the capital complex (Dispur). An IAS officer is posted as the chief executive officer and an officer of the rank of joint secretary to the govt. of Assam works as project officer to look after the functioning of the authority. The Assam state disaster responses force was also formed in the same year.

7. What steps are to be taken during a search and rescue operation during a disaster? 

Ans: The different steps are to be taken during search and rescue operation during disaster are as follows

  1.  The rescuers should be clam, composed but firm 
  2. A thorough assessment should be made before executing a search and rescue operation.
  3. A safe distance should be maintained from the damaged site.
  4. Need to examine the damaged site thoroughly
  5. First aids to be kept ready round the clock for primary treatment.
  6. Help the injured first.
  7. The victims of the accident should be covered with blankets/tarpaulins so that the injury is not increased.
  8. Sharp equipment for the rescue operations should be used very carefully.
  9. Clothes of the victims should be loosened and such persons should be kept at a safe place.
  10. If required, steps must be taken for artificial breathing of the victims. In case of bleeding, efforts should be made to stop it or bring it under control.

8. How can the student community play an important role in providing information about different instances? 

Ans: The student community can play an important role in providing information to the concerned authorities like 

  1. Road accidents, unclaimed article (police and ambulance)
  2. Manhole on the food path (Municipality or town committee)
  3. Unwanted happenings in electricity deptt.) 
  4. Dangerous looking hanging trees or buildings. (municipality or town committee)
  5. Defective railway track (Railway deppt.) 
  6. Imminent danger while travelling by train(GRP/police)

9. What role may be played by the student community during an earthquake? 

Ans: The student community is an obligatory and very sensitive part of the society. Today students are tomorrow’s citizens. So students can play a vital role in disaster management especially during earthquakes.

Earthquake is the most devastating of all the natural disasters as it is quite unpredictable and it occurs all of a sudden without any advance warming. So in case of an earthquake, students should take the following things and ask others to do the same.

  1.  During an earthquake, one should take shelter under the hand frames of the doors, corner of the house, strong table or bed or in open space.
  2. One should never take shelter under electric wire/posts, tall trees, water tanks, windows or furniture with glasses, kitchen or bathrooms.
  3. The almirah, rack and furniture in the bedrooms or living rooms should be fixed properly.
  4. A bag containing emergency items like drinking water, food items, first aids, whistle, torch light should be kept near to the main entrance of the house for use in an emergency situation.
  5. The updated telephone numbers of fire brigade, district administration, civil defence etc. should be kept readily available or at least ‘Dial 100’ should be remembered.

10. What are the initiatives taken by the Government of India regarding disaster management?

Ans: India is facing various disasters of different types both natural and manmade from time to time. Various factors are responsible for occurrence of such disasters like vast coastal area, geographical location, population size and unpredictable monsoon. As many as 27 states are facing different types of disasters. In order to mitigate disasters, govt. of India constituted a high power committee in 1999 at district, state and national level on the issue of disaster management and development After the cyclone in 1991 and earthquake in 2001, some important proposals were put forwarded by the high power committee to the Govt. of India. Following this, the responsibilities of disaster management were shifted to the home department. In 2005 the disaster management act was passed in parliament. According to this act National Disaster Management Authority, State Disaster Management Authority and District Disaster Management authority were formed likewise national disaster response force and state disaster together at the eve of any disaster in the country.

11. What are the advantages of involving the community in disaster management?

Ans: At the time of disaster, various agencies such as government, NGOs and community play an important role for disaster management. These are preparedness, response, recovery and prevention details are on follows:

Disaster management has four basic components:

  1.  Preparedness: Measure to ensure that communities and services are capable of coping with the effect of disaster. It has the following main elements:
  • Community awareness and education,
  • Preparation of disaster management plans for community, school, individual;
  • Mock drill, training and practice;
  1. Response: Measures taken in anticipation of, during and immediately after a disaster for minimizing its adverse impact. It has following main elements:
  • Activate the emergency operation centres (control room); 
  • Deployment of search and rescue teams. .
  • Issuing updated warning. 

© Recovery: Measures are initiated to undertake reconstruction of the physical infrastructure and restoration of economic and emotional well being. The main elements are as follows:

  • Community awareness on health and safety measures; 
  • Counselling programme for those who have lost the near and dear ones;
  • Restoring the essential services -roads, communication links, electricity etc.;
  • Providing shelters; 

(d) Prevention: Measures to eliminate or reduce the incidence of severity.

  • Land use planning.
  • Preventing habitation in risk zones; 
  • Disaster resistant buildings;

The aim of community level management is to train the individuals and the members of local community to deal with emergency situation effectively. Trained community members are life saving assets in such situations. Thus community level management involves people’s participation.

12. Write a note on fire mitigation measures.

Ans: Fire mitigation measures are: 

  • Obey fire safety rules and remember the evacuation route in case of fire.
  • Keep and handle inflammable materials with utmost care. 
  • Keep a fire extinguisher in the house and learn how to use it.
  • When you leave home, make sure to shut off all electrical and gas appliances.
  • Do not plug several devices into one socket.
  • Keep matches away from children 
  • Do not block access routes by cupboards or any furniture.
  • In the event of a fire, call the fire department immediately. 
  • In the smoke filled corridor, crawl on all floors or on your belly as the smoke is less on the floor.
  • Find at least two ways to escape from your home. 
  • Make sure that you remove all the waste material from the workplace and home on a regular basis.
  • Hazardous materials such as paints, solvents, adhesives, chemicals or gas cylinders should be kept in separate storage, well away from fire.
  • Fire crackers on Diwali are a major cause of fire in our country. Use them carefully under the supervision of elders.

13. Discuss in details about the role of Students in Disaster Management.

Ans: Students are the obligatory and highly sensitive part of the society. Today’s students are tomorrow’s citizens. So students can play a vital role in disaster management. Like

  1. The advice given by the experts in the Disaster Management awareness campaign held in the schools, colleges and other social functions should be shared with the senior members of the family and students should take initiative in maintaining the precautions. Further we should always remain prepared to face any situation caused by disasters.
  2.  Earthquake is the most devastating of all the natural disasters as it is quite unpredictable and it occurs all of a sudden without any advance warning. One should not be nervous and panicky in such a situation and scrupulously follow the advice and precautions suggested by the experts.
  3. During an earthquake, one should take shelter under the hard frames of the doors, comer of the house, strong table/ beds or in open spaces.
  4. One should never take shelter under electric wire/posts, tall trees, water tanks, windows or furniture with glasses, kitchen, bathrooms.
  5. The Almirah, rack and furniture in the bedrooms or living rooms should be fixed properly.
  6. A bag containing emergency items like drinking water, foods, first aid, whistle, torch lights should be kept near the main entrance of the house for use in an emergency situation.
  7. The updated telephone numbers of Fire Brigade, district administration, Civil Defence, etc., should be kept readily available for use in emergencies. Nowadays, the Administration has provided helpline numbers like “Dial-100.”
  8. Food items, first aids, torch, drinking water, etc. should be kept ready in the flood affected areas. Rafts made of banana tree or wooden planks should also be kept ready. 
  9. If you regularly listen to radio and TV. news, you may get advance information against floods, hailstorms, Tsunami, heavy rains, etc. and take precautionary steps accordingly.
  10. Precautionary and prohibitory measures imposed by the administration in such situations should strictly be followed. 
  11. There are frequent discussions in the electronic media and write-up published in the newspapers regarding preliminary steps to be taken in case of burning, snake bite, attack of honey bees, heat stroke, electrocution, poisoning, dog-bite, excessive bleeding etc. Important points from those discussions and write up may be noted down and necessary action may be taken accordingly.

14. Write a note on disaster management. 

Ans: Though disasters are unpredictable, yet it will be imprudent on the part of human civilization to make themselves silent victims without any efforts to meet such challenges. Most countries of the world have taken steps to mitigate the effects of disasters. Japan, for example, is one of the most earthquake-devastated countries in the world but despite such havocs by Nature, Japan has proved itself to be one of the most developed and rich countries of the world. For this, responsibilities and precautions on the part of the citizens are a must. Though we cannot prevent natural disasters, precautionary measures can help us mitigate the adverse effects of natural disasters to a great extent and, on the other hand, our sense of responsibility can considerably prevent man-made disasters.

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