NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-1|Basic Concept of Environment

NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-1|Basic Concept of Environment. Important questions for NIOS Environmental Science (333) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-1|Basic Concept of Environment

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Environmental Science (333) Notes/Answer| Chapter-1|Basic Concept of Environment

INTEXT QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 

1. What is environment ? 

Ans: The term environment means surroundings. It comes from the French word environner (to encircle or to surround). It is a composite term for the conditions in which organisms live and thus consists of air, water, soil and sunlight which are the basic needs of all living beings and plant life to carry on their life functions. The environment also includes temperature, wind, energy etc. Thus it consists of both biotic and abiotic components. Environment creates favourable conditions for the existence and development of living things.

Environment may be defined in a number of ways

  • It can be defined as the circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or a group of organisms.
  • Environment is the sum of all social, economical, biological, physical or chemical factors which constitute the surroundings of man, who is both the creator and molder of his environment. 

2. What are the different components of the environment?

Ans: Components of Environment: Environment consists of the following three components 

  1. Abiotic component or non-living component
  2. Biotic component or living component 
  3. Energy component 

The abiotic or physical environment is subdivided into three categories —

  1.  Lithosphere (solid) 
  2. Hydrosphere (liquid)
  3. Atmosphere (gas) 

The biotic component consists of flora and fauna including man. 

The energy component includes solar energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectrical energy, atomic energy etc. 

3. What are the different segments of the environment?

 Ans: There are four segments of the envimnmont. —

  1. Atmosphere
  2. Hydrosphere 
  3. Lithosphere 
  4. Biosphere 

4 Mention the major components of the atmosphere.

Ans: Major components Nitrogen, N2, (78.09 %) Oxygen, 02, (20.94%) 

5. What is the role of ozone present in the stratosphere? 

Ans: The ozone (03,) present in the stratosphere plays an important role for us. It acts as a protective shield for life on earth from the injurious effects of the sun’s ultra violet radiations.

6. What do you mean by environmental education?

 Ans: In short, it can be said that environmental education is education through environment, about environment and for the environment,

Environmental education is the educational process dealing with man’s relationship with his natural and man-made surroundings and includes the relation of population, pollution, resource allocation and depletion, conservation, transportation technology and urban and rural planning to the total human environment. Environmental education is the process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts in order to develop skills and attitudes necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatedness among man, his culture and his biophysical surroundings.

7. What are the broad guidelines of environmental education ? 

Ans: The report of the first intergovernmental conference of environmental education held at Tbilisi (USSR, 1977) is the single most important document which provides broad guidelines for environmental education. The declaration decreed that environmental education should:

  • be interdisciplinary in its approach 
  •  consider the holistic environment 
  •  be continuous, beginning at preschool level and continuing through all the formal and non formal stages 
  • examine the major environmental issues critically from the local, regional, national and international points of view 
  •  dwell on the current and future environmental trends and scenario
  • help learners discover the symptoms and real causes of environmental problems and plan accordingly 

finally strive to promote the value and necessity of local national and international cooperation in solving environmental problems.

8. Mention the basic principles of environmental education. 

Ans: The objectives and the guiding principles for environmental education are 

  1. Awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges
  2. Knowledge and understanding of the environment and environmental challenges 
  3. Attitude of concern for the environment and motivation to improve or maintain environmental quality 
  4. Skills to identify and help resolve environmental challenges 
  5. Participation in activities that lead to the resolution 0 environmental challenges. 

9. Discuss the multidisciplinary nature of environmental education. 

Ans: Environmental education is a multidisciplinary subject. In order to know the environment and its different complex phenomena, one requires knowledge from various disciplines. Subjects like botany, zoology, biotechnology, bioengineering, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry etc. help in understanding biotic components and their interactions. The basic knowledge of physics, chemistry, mathematics, statistics help in understanding the different phenomena in the environment. Computer science and information technology is a part and parcel of environmental education. Similarly, for control of pollution, environmental engineering is essential. Other branches of engineering e.g. chemical, civil, mechanical including new innovative technologies have been involved in protecting the environment. Green chemistry finds its distinct and well specific role in protecting the degraded environment. Subjects like sociology, economics, education, philosophy are involved in a number of ways. Environmental laws are always enacted for the protection of the environment, So environmental education carries the multidisciplinary nature where different aspects are dealt with a holistic approach. 

10. How do environmental awareness help to protect our environment ?

 Ans: The world today is confronted with the great problem of environmental degradation and pollution. Different types of pollution, fast depleting forest resources, rapid population explosion, expanding industrialization, unplanned urbanization, mining, soil erosion etc. have created ecological imbalances in recent years. Man’s quest for economic development has been mainly responsible for the ruthless exploitation of natural resources. Moreover highly materialistic, greedy and luxurious life style attitude of human race indiscriminately exploited or imprudently destroyed the natural resources. All these activities have become a threat to the very existence of a number of living organisms. So creation of public awareness is must to protect the environment from further deterioration. Environmental problems can be best addressed if the people become environmentally aware. No Government can solve these problems by simply implementing certain environmental protection rules if people are not co-operating. People are to be environmentally educated. They should be able to learn that if we degrade our environment today, we will have to suffer tomorrow and our future generation will be in great danger. We are a part of the environment and it is our duty to protect it.

Very Short Questions: 

1. Fill in the blanks :

(a) The Ozone gas is present in the ____________ region of atmosphere.

 Ans: Stratosphere

(b) The available water for man is only  ____________ % of total water available on the earth. 

Ans: 1%

(c) The term environment is derived from the French word____________

 Ans: Environner

(d) The biosphere ranges from ____________ in the atmosphere.

Ans: 6-8 Km.

(e) The Stockholm conference was held in the year ____________

Ans: 1972

(f) The components of environment may be categorized in to two types. One is living and the other is ____________

Ans: Non-living.

NIOS Class 12th Environmental Science (333) Notes/Question Answer

ChaptersChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Basic Concept of EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 2Ecological ConceptClick Here
Chapter 3Biodiversity and its conservationClick Here
Chapter 4Natural ResourcesClick Here
Chapter 5Environmental PollutionClick Here
Chapter 6Social Issues and EnvironmentClick Here
Chapter 8 (A)Disaster Management: Responsibilities and PrecautionsClick Here
Chapter 8 (B)Road SafetyClick Here

 Short Questions with Answers: 

1. What is the range of the biosphere?

 Ans: The biosphere extends from 6-8 Km into the atmosphere to 8-10 Km below the depth of sea.

2. What is the importance of ozone layer? 

Ans: The ozone layer acts as a protective shield for life on earth from the injurious effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. 

3. What are the two types of environmental problems? 

Ans: The two types of environmental problems are natural and man-made. 

4. What are the different types of energy components of environment? 

Ans: The different types of energy components of environment are solar energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectrical energy and atomic energy. 

5. Name the environmental problems created nature?

Ans: The environmental problems created by the nature are earthquake, volcanic eruption, excessive rainfall causing flood, drought, land slides, storms, Tsunami etc. 

6. What is Biosphere?

Ans: Biosphere is the layer on the earth in which life can exist. The layer extends about 6-8 km up into the atmosphere and as much as 8-10 km below into the depth of the sea. Thus it denotes the realm of living organisms and their interactions with the environment i.e. atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The biosphere and the environment are influenced considerably by each other. 

7. Describe Lithosphere. 

Ans: This is the outer mantle of the solid earth consisting of minerals and soil. Soil comprises a complex mixture of minerals, organic matters, air and water. The soil is the most important part of the lithosphere. The soil is a storehouse of minerals, reservoir of water, conserver of soil fertility, producer of crops, home of wildlife and livestock. 

8. What are the objectives and principles of environmental education?

 Ans: The objectives and principles of environmental education are-

  1. Awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges.
  2. Knowledge and understanding of the environment and environmental challenges. 
  3. Attitude of concern for the environment and motivation to improve or maintain environmental quality.
  4. Skills to identify and help resolve environmental challenges.
  5. Participation in activities that lead to the resolution of environmental challenges.

 9. Describe Hydrosphere.

Ans: The hydrosphere includes all types of water resources oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, polar icecaps and ground water (water below the earth’s surface). Earth is flooded with water, a total volume of about 1400 million cubic kilometres cover 71% of earth’s surface. Yet, in many locations, it is still difficult to obtain desired amount of water of suitable quality. About 97% of the earth’s water supply is in the ocean, which is unfit for human consumption and other uses because of its salinity. Only 3% is fresh water. 79% of this 3% is locked in the polar icecaps and glaciers, 20% is locked as underground water and only 1% is readily available water (found in rivers. lakes, streams, reservoirs) for direct human use. 

10. Why Environmental Education is regarded as multidisciplinary subject?

 Ans: In order to know the environment and its phenomena, we have to acquire knowledge from various subjects like botany, zoology, biotechnology, bioengineering, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry etc. The knowledge of these subject will let us know about the biotic components of the environment and their interactions. The basic knowledge of physics, chemistry mathematics and statistics help in understanding the differe phenomena occurring in the environment. The branches of engineering like environmental engineering helps to control the pollution, Branches like civil, mechanical, chemical etc. help in bringing technologies for protection of the environment. Subjects like sociology, economics, education, philosophy, law etc, are also helpful in a number of ways Therefore, Environmental Education is regarded as a multidisciplinary subject but the holistic approach should be made out of knowledge of these subjects. 

11. According to first convention on environmental education how it should be imparted?

Ans: According to first convention on Environmental education it should be imparted through the following ways

  1.  Be interdisciplinary in its approach.
  2. Consider the holistic environment. 
  3. Be continuous, beginning at preschool level and continuing through all the formal and non-formal stages. 
  4. Examine the major environmental issues critically from the local, regional, national, international points of view.
  5. Dwell on the current and future environmental trends and scenario.
  6. Help learners to discover the symptoms and real causes of environmental problems and plan accordingly.
  7. Strive to promote the value and necessity of local, national, and international cooperation in solving environmental problems.

Long Questions with Answers

1. Describe atmosphere and its composition. 

Ans: The earth is the only planet in the solar system capable of supporting life. The supporting property of our planet is due to its unique atmosphere. It is the protective blanket of gases surrounding the earth which sustains life on earth and saves it from the hostile environment of the outer space. It abson most of the cosmic rays from the outer space and a major portion of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun. It filter out tissue damaging ultraviolet radiations. The atmosphere plays a key role in maintaining the heat balance of the earth through absorption of infra-red radiation emitted by the sun and re emitted from the earth. Composition of the atmosphere: 

Major components Nitrogen, N2, (78.09%) Oxygen,02,(20 94%) Minor components Argon, Ar (9.34 x 101%) Carbon dioxide, CO2, (3.25 x 102%) 

Trace gases Neon, helium, methane, water vapour, krypton, nitrous oxide, xenon, hydrogen, sulphur dioxide, ozone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide etc. The atmosphere is the source of oxygen, essential for life on earth. The atmosphere is the source of carbon dioxide, essential for plant photosynthesis. The atmosphere also supplies nitrogen to yield chemically bound nitrogen (protein) essential for life. The atmosphere may be broadly classified into four regions, Region Altitude Temp. Important range (Km) range (°C) chemical species Region Altitude range (Km) Temp. range (C) Important chemical species Troposphere 0-11 15 to-56 Stratosphere 11-50 -56 to-2 NO,COHO Mesosphere 50-85 -2 to-92 Thermosphere 85-500 -92 to 1200 O, NO* 0,0, NO 16

2. Explain Environmental Education.

 Ans: There was a time when everything around on was pure and safe. The air, water and soil were in balanced condition The nature itself was very much enjoyable. In primitive days, the limited needs of man did not disturb the harmony with nature. Because population was less. Thit in subsequent yeste the population has increased manifold. Science and technological advancement accelerated and the environmental degradation started. With the increase in population, the attempts to make life more and more comfortable, man destroys the forests thoughtlessly, pollutes air and water recklessly, spoils the nature ruthlessly, Environmental problems have attracted the attention of a wide section of people all over the world during the last few decades. People are becoming increasingly conscious of the variety of environmental problems today, Nature’s precious resources are getting depleted because of indiscriminate and unplanned activities of man. 

World educators and the environmental specialists have repeatedly pointed out that any solution to the environmental crisis will require environmental awareness and clear understanding of the problem and hence the answer of all these is the Environmental Education.

Education always plays a vital role for creating healthy attitude, skills and dissemination of knowledge. That is why the Stockholm conference on human environment in 1972 emphasized the need for environmentally oriented education. It is not a new discipline and should not be treated as new discipline rather a new dimension in education system. 

3. How consciousness about environment can help to protect the environment? 

Ans: The World is confronted with the great problem of environmental degradation and pollution. Various types of pollution, depleting forest resources, rapid industrialization and urbanization, rampant mining, soil degradation etc. are creating ecological imbalances in recent years. Natural resources are ruthlessly exploited to meet the greed of human beings. At present, people are in search of sophisticated life style, which definitely affect the balance of nature due to misuse and disuse of natural resources by the greedy people. These activities have become a threat to the existence of nature and its other biotic components so, creation of public awareness is must to protect the environment from further decoration. Various man made environmental problems can be best addressed if the people become environmentally aware. By passing laws, no government can solve the problems. But the cooperation of people only can bring a great success in this regard. People should learn today that the present day degradation of environment will not only create problems to us but also to the next generations. As there is no place for us to live in except this green earth so we have to be very careful to protect the environment for which awareness about environment is of utmost importance. 

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