NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-6|Presentation of Statistical Data

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-6|Presentation of Statistical Data. Important questions for NIOS Economics (318) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-6|Presentation of Statistical Data

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-6|Presentation of Statistical Data

Intext Questions

1. State whether the following statements are true or false: 

(a) Satisfactory collection of data must be followed by its good presentation.

Ans. True

(b) Tabulation is the only way of presenting data.

Ans. False

(c) Tables help in intelligent use of statistical data.

Ans. True

(d) The title of a table should be brief and to the point. 

Ans. True

2. Fill in the blanks using suitable words given in the bracket. 

(a) A __________ is a systematic arrangement of statistical data in columns and rows. (table, graph) 

Ans, table

(b) Head note is written below the__________ of the table. (title, footnote)

Ans. title

(c) The__________consists of stub head and stub entries. (stub, note)

Ans, stub

(d) A foot-note is placed at the __________ of a table. (top,main body, bottom)

Ans. bottom

3. State whether the following statements are true or false: 

(a) The width of a bar diagram is important.

Ans. False

(b) In the bar diagram, the height of bars shows the value of the variable. 

Ans. True

(c) We have vertical as well as horizontal bars to present some data having one variable.

Ans. True

(d) When a breakdown of data is to be represented we use multiple bar diagrams.

Ans. False

2. Fill in the blanks with suitable word out of those given in the

(a) A pie chart is also called__________ diagram. (a bar, an angular, a multiple bar)

Ans. an angular

(b) (Value of the component)/(Total of all components) x 360°=__________ (area, radius, degree for a component).

Ans. degree for a component

3.. Fill in the blanks: 

(a) A__________graph shows the relationship between two variables

Ans.line

(b) If one of the variables on a line graph is_________it is called time series line graph.

Ans. time

(c) In a time series line graph________is an independent variable.

Ans, time

(d) In a time series line graph_________ variable is represented on the Y-axis.

Ans, dependent

TERMINAL EXERCISE

1. What is a statistical table? List its various parts. 

Ans. A table is a systematic arrangement of related statistical data in columns and rows with some predetermined aim or purpose.

Various parts of statistical data are

  1.  Table Numbers
  2. Title
  3. Head note (or prefatory note)
  4. Stub
  5. Main Body or Field
  6. Footnote
  7. Source of Data

2. What is the purpose of preparing a table? In this context distinguish between reference table and text table. 

Ans. The purpose of a table is to simplify presentation of related data and make comparisons easy. The reader can easily locate the desired information. For example, the purpose of the table given below might be to show the imports and exports of country ‘A’ vis-à-vis other countries B, C, D and E.

CountryImportsExports
1
2
3
4
B
C
D
E
70
72
74
85
73
80
85
80

From table 7.2 on exports and imports, we can easily locate the country which has the highest exports. The data given in rows is read from left to right. For example, row 1 shows that country A imports 70 from B and exports 73 to B. The data given in column B read from above to downwards. For example, column 2 shows that country A imports 70, 72, 74, 85 respectively from countries B, C, D and E. 

3. What is a bar chart? Explain briefly its various types. 

Ans. A bar can be defined as a thick ‘line’, often made thicker to draw attention of the reader. The height of this bar shows the quantity of the variable we want to present. It is also called a one dimensional diagram because only the height of the bar is important and its base or width is not taken into account. To make them look more beautiful, bars are either coloured or shaded in different ways.

There are two types of bar charts (a) simple and (b) components.

(a) Simple bar charts

Simple bar charts can be

  1.  Single bar charts, and 
  2. Multiple bar charts.

(i) Single bar charts

We can either have vertical bars or horizontal bars. Normally vertical bars are often used. Let us now explain how a bar diagram can be prepared from given data in the table. 

Number of cars registered in three States

States No. of Cars

A
B
C
8000
10000
4000

In the case of vertical bars. States are represented on the X axis and number of cars on the Y axis. As per the data given in table each bar (rectangle with same base) is raised accordingly to the value of the variable (here the number of cars registered). For example, rectangle representing State A

is raised upto 8,000, for State B upto 10,000 and for State C upto 4,000 (see Fig.).

In case we prefer to use horizontal bars, we represent States on the Y-axis. Here the bars (rectangles) are drawn horizontally upto 8,000, 10,000 and 4,000 cars respectively for the three States A, B and C.

(ii) Multiple bar charts

Sometimes it is desired to represent more than one interrelated series of data on a bar diagram. In such cases a simple bar diagram is not suitable. We have to use what is known as a multiple bar diagram. Here the number of bars for each year of region or zone is equal to the number of variables (data) to be represented. For example, imports and exports will be represented by two bars; selling price, cost price and profits by three bars and so on. Normally we do not take more than three bars because it becomes complicated. The method of drawing bars is same as explained for simple bar diagrams. Two examples of multiple bar diagrams are presented below (figure-1 based on table land figure 2 based on Table 2).

YearImportsExports
2099-1029552523
2010-1145193329
2011-1252654049
2012-1352655143
Table 2: Result of Class XII during 2010-2012 Year First Division Second Division Third
YearFirst DivisionSecond DivisionThird Division
20105015050
20116014070
20125025060
Table1: Imports and Exports of Country ‘X’ during 2009 to 2013(. Crores)

(b) Component Bar Chart 

A simple bar diagram explained above is used to present only one variable. But when a breakdown of total or a series of totals is to be represented, we have to use what are called subdivided or component bar diagrams. Here we use subdivided or component bar diagrams as shown in Fig. given below. It is based on imaginary (or hypothetical) data shown in the table.

StreamUniversity AUniversity BUniversity C
Art’s800060003000
Science400020001000
Commerce700050004000
Law100020002000
Total200001500010000

Number of Students appearing in Examinations in Various Universities

Step 1. The order of various components in different bars should be same so as to facilitate comparison.

Step 2. The number of components in a bar, in no case should exceed 10.

Step 3. Index or key showing various components must be shown through different shades or colours. 

NIOS Class 12th Economics (318) Notes/Question Answer

Chapter Chapters NameLink
Chapter 1Economy and Its ProcessClick Here
Chapter 2Basic Problems of an EconomyClick Here
Chapter 3Economic Development and Indian EconomyClick Here
Chapter 4Statistics: Meaning and ScopeClick Here
Chapter 5Making Statistical Data MeaningfulClick Here
Chapter 6Presentation of Statistical DataClick Here
Chapter 7Statistical MethodsClick Here
Chapter 8Index Numbers (Meanings and Its Construction)Click Here
Chapter 9Index Numbers (Problem and Uses)Click Here
Chapter 10Income FlowsClick Here
Chapter 11National Income: ConceptsClick Here
Chapter 12National Income: MeasurementClick Here
Chapter 13Uses of National Income EstimatesClick Here
Chapter 14What micro EconomicsClick Here
Chapter 15What affects demandClick Here
Chapter 16What affects supplyClick Here
Chapter 17Price determinationClick Here
Chapter 18CostClick Here
Chapter 19RevenueClick Here
Chapter 20Profit maximizationClick Here
Chapter 21Government budgetingClick Here
Chapter 22Money supply and its regulationClick Here
Chapter 23Need for planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 24Achievements of planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 25Recent economic reforms and the role of planningClick Here

Optical Module – I

Chapter 26AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 27IndustryClick Here
Chapter 28Independence of Agriculture and IndustryClick Here
Chapter 29Transport and CommunicationClick Here
Chapter 30EnergyClick Here
Chapter 31Financial InstitutionsClick Here
Chapter 32Social Infrastructure (Housing, Health and Education)Click Here

Optical Module – II

Chapter 33Direction and composition of India’s Foreign tradeClick Here
Chapter 34Foreign exchange rateClick Here
Chapter 35Balance of trade and balance of paymentsClick Here
Chapter 36Inflow of capital (Foreign Capital and Foreign Aid)Click Here
Chapter 37New trade policy and its implicationsClick Here
Chapter 38Population and economic developmentClick Here
Chapter 39Population of IndiaClick Here

4. What is the difference between a simple bar diagram, subdivided or component bar diagram and multiple bar diagram?

Ans. A simple bar chart shows a single bar for each data point, while a multiple bar chart stacked bars next to (clustered) or on top of (stacked) each other. See related links for examples and pictures.

A compound bar chart stacks the results of different data points on top of the same bar. A multiple bar chart displays bars next to each other to compare multiple data points.

5. Explain the meaning and uses of a pie diagram. Prepare a pie diagram of family expenditure from the following data:

SL.NO.ItemsExpenditure (\)
1Food480
2Clothing300
3Education and entertainment330
4Rent450
5Miscellaneous240
6Total expenditure1800

Ans. A pie diagram is a circle subdivided into component sectors to present the proportion of different constituent parts to the total. As such a pie diagram is shown in percentage terms.

Pie diagrams of family expenditure are given below. 

6. Explain the meaning of time series line graph with the help of an example.

Ans. Statistical data can also be presented in the form of line graphs. A line graph records the relationship between two variables. If one of the two variables is time in days, weeks, months or years we get a time series line graph. For example,

YearProduction (million tons)
2009-1077.22
2010-1178.17
2011-1288.42
2012-1399.80
2013-14103.50

let us draw a line graph on the basis of the following data on production of coal in country ‘X’ from 2009-10 to 2013-14.

The above graph is a time series line graph. Time is represented on the X axis and production on the Y axis. Time and production are two variables in this graph. It is production which changes with time. In other words as time passes production is affected and it increases or decreases or may remain constant. Since production changes with time, it is said to be dependent on time. Production is, therefore, treated as a dependent variable. Time is not influenced by production and therefore taken as an independent variable.

7. Draw a time series line graph on the basis of following data

YearProfit ( in thousands)
1990-9168
1991-9278
1992-9381
1993-9461
1994-9578
1995-9695

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