NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-5|Making Statistical Data Meaningful

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-5|Making Statistical Data Meaningful. Important questions for NIOS Economics (318) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-5|Making Statistical Data Meaningful

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Economics (318) Notes/Answer| Chapter-5|Making Statistical Data Meaningful

Intext Question

1. Fill in the blanks with suitable words given in

bracket against each:

a) _________ data are original. (Primary, Secondary)

Ans. Primary

b) Primary data are collected by the __________himself. (respondent, investigator)

Ans. investigator

c) C.S.O publishes data on _________ (national income, population)

Ans. national income

2. State whether the following statements are true or false:

a) Secondary data are collected by the investigator himself.

Ans. False

b) Reserve Bank of India Bulletin represents an unpublished source of data.

Ans. False

c) A person from whom an investigator tries to get information is called respondent.

Ans. True

3. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word from the brackets:

a) A simple array is an arrangement of data in _______ (only ascending order, only descending order, both ascending and descending).

Ans. both ascending and descending

b) Organising data is simple array is convenient if number of item are _________ (large, small)

Ans. small

c) Arranging the data in the form of ________ array is more convenient if the number of items are large. (simple, frequency).

Ans. frequency

d) Frequency array________the idea of characteristics of a group. (gives, does not give)

Ans. does not give

4. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the brackets. 

a) Frequency distribution________data into groups. (classifies, does not classify)

Ans. classifies

b) The difference between two limits of a class is called________ (class limit, class interval).

Ans. class interval

c) In the exclusive type frequency distribution an item having value equal to the upper limit is counted in the________ class. (same, next)

Ans. next

d) In the inclusive type frequency distribution an item having value equal to the upper limit is counted in the________ class. (same, next)

Ans. same

e) Preparing a frequency distribution by taking successive totals of frequencies is called________frequency distribution. (open-end, cumulative) Ans. cumulative

Terminal Exercise

1. Distinguish between primary and secondary data. Describe the methods for collecting primary data.

Ans. Data can be collected in two different ways. One way is to collect data directly from the respondent. The person who answers the questions of the investigator is called respondent. Statistical information thus collected is called primary data and the source of such information is called primary source. This data is original because it is collected for the first time by the investigator himself. For example, if the investigator collects the information about the salaries of National Institute of Open Schooling employees by approaching them, then it is primary data for him. Another way is to adopt the data already collected by someone else. The investigator only adopts the data. Statistical information thus obtained is called secondary data. The source of such information is called secondary source. For example, if the investigator collects the information about the salaries of employees of National Institute of Open Schooling from the salary register maintained by its accounts branch, then it is secondary data for him.

There are several methods for collecting primary data. Some of which are:

  1.  Direct personal interview: In this method investigator (also called interviewer) has to be face-to-face with the person from whom he wants information. The person from whom this information is collected to called respondent.
  2. Indirect oral investigation: Under this method data are collected through indirect sources. Under this method questions relating to the inquiry are put to different persons and their answers are recorded. This method is most suitable when the person from whom the information is sought is either unavailable or unwilling.
  3. Questionnaire method:  In this method a list of questions called questionnaire is prepared and sent to respondents either through post or given personally to them. This method is suitable where the field of inquiry is wide. There are some advantages of using primary data. The investigator can collect the data according to his requirement. It is reliable and sufficient for the purpose of investigation. However, it suffers from disadvantages also in that it involves a lot of cost in terms of money, time and energy. This make unsuitable when field of enquiry is very very large. Many a times with some modifications, same purpose may be served by using data collected by other persons or agencies. 

2. What is secondary data? Name some of its sources in India.

Ans. Secondary data are data collected from other sources including published and online resources. For example, Reserve Bank of India Bulletin and National Accounts Statistics are published data i.e. Secondary data.

Secondary data are not collected by the investigator himself but they are obtained by him from other sources. Broadly, there are two sources:

  1. Published data and
  2. Unpublished data. 
  3. Published Sources

There are certain agencies which collect the data and publish them in the form of either regular journals or reports. These agencies/sources are known as published sources of data.

In India some of the published sources are:

  1. Central Statistical Organisation (CSO): It publishes data on national income, savings, capital formation etc., in a publication called National Accounts Statistics. 
  2. National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO): This organisation which is under the Ministry of Finance provides data on all aspects of national economy, such as agriculture, industry, employment and poverty etc.
  3. Reserve Bank of India (RBI): It publishes financial statistics. Its publications are Report on Currency and Finance, Reserve Bank of India Bulletin and Statistical Tables Relating to Banks in India etc.
  4. Labour Bureau: Its publications are Indian Labour Statistics, Indian Labour Year Book and Indian Labour Journal. 
  5. Population Census: It is undertaken by the office of the Registrar General, Census of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. It provides us statistics on population, per capita income, literacy rate etc.
  6. Papers and Magazines: Journals like ‘Capital’, ‘Commerce’, Economic and Political Weekly’, and newspapers likes ‘The Economic Times’ etc. also publish important statistical data.

(b) Unpublished Sources 

Secondary data are also available from unpublished sources,because all statistical data is not always published. For example, information recorded in various government and private offices, studies made by research scholars etc. can be important sources of secondary data.

3. Distinguish between simple array and frequency array with examples.

Ans. Difference between simple array and frequency are as follows:

  1. A simple array is an arrangement of data in ascending or descending order whereas a Frequency array is a series formed on the basis of frequency with which each item is repeated in series.
  1.  Let us construct simple arrays of data about the marks of 40 students. The data in table I is arranged in ascending order and in table 2 in descending order.

Table 1: Ascending Array of the Marks obtained by 40 students in class

20
25
27
28
30
31
32
33
34
35
35
36
37
38
38
39
40
40
40
42
42
43
43
43
43
43
45
46
46
47
47
48
48
49
50
51
53
54
56
58

Table 2: Descending Array of the Marks obtained by 40 students in class

58
56
54
53
51
50
49
48
48
47
47
46
46
45
43
43
43
43
43
42
42
40
40
40
39
38
38
37
36
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
28
27
20

Let us now explain the construction of a frequency array of the marks obtained by 40 students. In table 3 data about the marks is arranged in an ascending order in first column. It helps to find not only the maximum and minimum values but also makes

it easy to draw bars. Now for each mark level make one bar (/ in the second column and cross the item from the data. Table 3 Frequency array of marks obtained by 40 students The main limitation of frequency array is that it does not

give the idea of the characteristics of a group. For example, it does not tell us how many students have obtained marks between 40 and 45. Therefore it is not possible to compare characteristics of different groups. This limitation is removed by frequency distribution.

4. On the basis of the following data about the wages of 20 workers in a factory, prepare a frequency array. 450, 580, 600 480, 540, 620, 400, 475, 500, 480, 620, 480, 570, 600, 650, 410, 550, 600, 650, 450.

Ans:

Frequency array of wages of 20 workers in a factory

Income (rs.)TalliesFrequency (f)
400
410
450
475
480
500
540
550
570
580
600
620
650
/
/
//
/
///
/
/
/
/
/
///
//
//
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
Total frequency=20

5. Explain the concept of ‘frequency distribution’. How it is different from ‘frequency array’?

Ans. Data in a frequency array is ungrouped data. To group the data we need to make a ‘frequency distribution’. A frequency distribution classifies the data into groups. For example, it tells us how many students have secured marks between 40 and 45. Before constructing frequency distribution, it is necessary to learn the following important concepts.

1. Class:

Class is a group of magnitudes having two ends called class limits. For example, 20-25, 25-30 etc. or 20-24, 25-29 etc. as the case may be, each represents a class.

2. Class Limits:

Every class has two boundaries or limits called lower limit (LI) and upper limit (L2). For example in the class (20-30) LI =20 and L2=30.

3. Class Interval:

The difference between two limits of a class is called class interval. It is equal to upper limit minus lower limit. It is also called class width. Class interval = L2-L1. For 30-20-10. 

4. Class Frequency:

Total number of items falling in a class that is having the value within L1 and L2 is class frequency. For example in table 6.4 class frequency in class (40-45) is 10. Similarly in class (50-55) the frequency is 4. 

5. Mid-Point/Mid-Value (M.V.):

The class interval of a class also called as mid-point is obtained by dividing the sum of lower limit and upper limit of the class by 2. It is the average value of two limits of a class.

NIOS Class 12th Economics (318) Notes/Question Answer

Chapter Chapters NameLink
Chapter 1Economy and Its ProcessClick Here
Chapter 2Basic Problems of an EconomyClick Here
Chapter 3Economic Development and Indian EconomyClick Here
Chapter 4Statistics: Meaning and ScopeClick Here
Chapter 5Making Statistical Data MeaningfulClick Here
Chapter 6Presentation of Statistical DataClick Here
Chapter 7Statistical MethodsClick Here
Chapter 8Index Numbers (Meanings and Its Construction)Click Here
Chapter 9Index Numbers (Problem and Uses)Click Here
Chapter 10Income FlowsClick Here
Chapter 11National Income: ConceptsClick Here
Chapter 12National Income: MeasurementClick Here
Chapter 13Uses of National Income EstimatesClick Here
Chapter 14What micro EconomicsClick Here
Chapter 15What affects demandClick Here
Chapter 16What affects supplyClick Here
Chapter 17Price determinationClick Here
Chapter 18CostClick Here
Chapter 19RevenueClick Here
Chapter 20Profit maximizationClick Here
Chapter 21Government budgetingClick Here
Chapter 22Money supply and its regulationClick Here
Chapter 23Need for planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 24Achievements of planning in IndiaClick Here
Chapter 25Recent economic reforms and the role of planningClick Here

Optical Module – I

Chapter 26AgricultureClick Here
Chapter 27IndustryClick Here
Chapter 28Independence of Agriculture and IndustryClick Here
Chapter 29Transport and CommunicationClick Here
Chapter 30EnergyClick Here
Chapter 31Financial InstitutionsClick Here
Chapter 32Social Infrastructure (Housing, Health and Education)Click Here

Optical Module – II

Chapter 33Direction and composition of India’s Foreign tradeClick Here
Chapter 34Foreign exchange rateClick Here
Chapter 35Balance of trade and balance of paymentsClick Here
Chapter 36Inflow of capital (Foreign Capital and Foreign Aid)Click Here
Chapter 37New trade policy and its implicationsClick Here
Chapter 38Population and economic developmentClick Here
Chapter 39Population of IndiaClick Here

6. On the basis of data in question 4, prepare a frequency distribution by exclusive method. 

Ans Frequency array of wages of 20 workers in a factory

Income (rs.)TalliesFrequency (f)
400
410
450
475
480
500
540
550
570
580
600
620
650
/
/
//
/
///
/
/
/
/
/
///
//
//
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
Total frequency=20

7. Distinguish between ‘exclusive method’ and ‘inclusive method’ of frequency distribution with examples.

Income group (\)Frequency (f) 
400-450
450-500
500-550
550-600
600-650
650-700
2
6
2
3
5
2
Total frequency = 20

Ans. Distinguish between ‘exclusive method’ and ‘inclusive method’ of frequency distribution are:

  1.  In an exclusive method one of the class limits (generally upper limit L2) is excluded while making a tally sheet. Any item having the value equal to the upper limit of a class is counted in the next class whereas in an inclusive method the lower limit of the next class is increased by one over the upper limit of the previous class. Both the items having value equal to the lower and upper limit of a class are counted or included in the same class. That is why such a frequency distribution is called inclusive type.
  1.  Example of exclusive method: In this method in a class of (30-35) all items having the value of 30 and more but less than 35 will be counted in this class. Items having the value of 35 will be counted in the next class of (35-40).

Example of inclusive method:

In this method in the class (30-34) both 30 and 34 will be included in the same class. Similarly, in the class (50-54) both 50 and 54 will be included.

8. Write a short note:

a) Open-end frequency distribution.

Ans. Open-end frequency distribution is one which has at least one of its ends open. You will observe that either lower limit of first class or upper limit of last class or both are not given in such series. In the table given below the first class and the last class i.e. below 25 and 55 and above are open-end classes.

Open-end Classes Frequency Distribution

b) Frequency distribution with unequal classes. 

Ans. In case of unequal classes frequency distribution, the width of different classes (i.e. L2-L1) need not be the same. In table 6.7, the class (30-40 has width 10 while the class (40 55) has width 15.

c) Cumulative frequency distribution. 

Ans. A ‘Cumulative Frequency Distribution’ is formed by taking.

Unequal Classes Frequency Distribution

successive totals of given frequencies. This can be done in two ways: 

  1. From above, such as 1, 4 (i.e. 1+3), 9(i.e. 4+5), 16 (i.e. 9+7), and so on.

Such a distribution is called ‘Less-than’ cumulative frequency distribution. It shows the total numbers of observations (frequencies) having less than a particular value of the variable (here marks). For example, there are 4 (i.e. 1+3) students who got marks less than 30; 9 (i.e. 4+5) students who got marks less than 35 and so on. Table given below gives the less-than cumulative frequency distribution.

Less-than’ Cumulative Frequency Distribution

MarksCumulative Frequency (cf)
Less than 25 
Less than 30
Less than 35
Less than 40
Less than 45
Less than 50
Less than 55
Less than 60
1
4(1+3)
9 (4+5)
16(9+7)
26 (16+10) 
34 (26+8)
38 (34+4) 
40 (38+2)
  1.  From below, such as 2,6 (i.e. 2+ 4), 14 (i.e. 6+8), 24 (i.e. 14+10) and so on. Such a distribution is called ‘More-than cumulative frequency distribution. It shows the total number of observations (frequencies) having more than a particular value of the variable (here marks). For example there are 6 (i.e. 2+4) students who got marks more than 50, 14 (i.e. 2+4+8) students who got marks more than 45 etc. See table given below.

‘More-than’ Cumulative Frequency Distribution

MarksCumulative Frequency (cf)
More than 20
More than 25
More than 30
More than35 
More than 40
More than 45
More than 50
More than 55
40
39 (40-1)
36 (39-3)
31 (36-5)
24 (31-7)
14 (24-10)
6(14-8)
55 2 (6-4)

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