NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-23|Man-environment Interaction

NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-23|Man-environment Interaction. Important questions for NIOS Psychology (328) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint .NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-23|Man-environment Interaction.

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-23|Man-environment Interaction

Intext Questions & Answers

Q.1. Give one term for the following:

1. Use of the environment by people in the course of social interaction _____________ 

Ans.: Environmental behaviour

2. Outcomes of people’s actions like dams, schools, houses _____________ 

Ans.: Products of behaviour 

3. Beliefs that people hold about the environment _____________ 

Ans.: Environmental orientations

4. All aspects of culture _____________ 

Ans.: Social cultural environment

5. Aspects of the natural environment _____________ 

Ans.: Physical environment

Q.2. Give any one suggestion for reducing water shortage. 

Ans.: Harvesting rainwater 

Q.3. What should be done to reduce air pollution?

Ans.: Introduction of CNG

Q.4. Give suggestions for treatment of waste

materials?

Ans.: pre treating sewage and recycling the waste.

Terminal Exercises

1. What are the various facts of human-environment interaction? Explain environmental effects on human behaviour.

Ans.: A brief description of major types of environment is given below.

Physical environment: 

It includes both physical reality and social-cultural phenomena that surround us. The noise, the temperature, the quality of air and water, and various objects and things constitute the physical world around us.

The social and cultural environment: 

It includes the aspects of social interaction including its products such as beliefs, attitudes, stereotypes, etc. The material and non material aspects of the environment are included in it.

Psychological Environment: 

It includes the perceptions and experiences pertaining to any environmental setting. Some environments may be stimulating and exciting while others may be dull and boring. Expression of psychological is often used in the organisational context.

Environment is a theme relevant to many other disciplines, such as geography architecture, urban planning, etc. It is indeed multidisciplinary in nature. It is labelled as Environmental Science.

The human-environment interaction has five major components. These components are briefly described below: 

  1. Physical Environment: It includes aspects of the natural environment such as climate, terrain, temperature, rainfall, flora, fauna, etc.
  1. Social-Cultural Environment: It includes all aspects of cultural environment such as norms, customs, process of socialisation, etc. It include all the aspects dealing with other people and their creations. 
  2. Environmental Orientations: It refers to the beliefs that people hold about their environment. For example, some people hold the environment equivalent to God and therefore they perceive all its aspects with respect and reverance and try to maintain it in a perfect form and do not degrade it.
  3. Environmental Behaviour: It refers to the use of the environment by people in the course of social interactions. For example, considering the environment as personal space, where the individual identifies himself with it..
  4. Products of Behaviour: These include the outcomes of people’s actions such as homes, cities, dams, schools, etc. That is, these are products or outcomes dealing with the environment. All the above aspects of environment depict the important constituents of the study of interaction between environment and the human beings. It is very important to understand that human beings are part of the environment and degrading the environment will result in extinction of human beings and other forms of life. Therefore, it is the prime responsibility of human beings to maintain the environment in trim condition, its destruction means destruction of human life.

Environment affects human behaviour and human behaviour affects the environment, the two interact. Environment has both nourishing as well as destructive effects on human beings.

Throughout human history, people have been threatened by floods, earthquakes, and other natural disasters. In Spite of enormous scientific development, we have not been able to control the effect of natural calamities and we have not been able to control natural disasters either. In recent times, technological innovations and advances have brought potential threats from the environment, which are man made. These threats are physically harmful and stressful. People have to cope with these stressors. Such man made environmental stressors are many. These stressor are called pollutants and basically there are four: air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and Crowding. us new

We find many natural disasters that affect human behaviour in many ways. These natural disasters include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wind storms, tornadoes, cyclones, famine, floods etc. The earthquakes at Latur and Bhuj (2001) and Super cyclone in Orissa (1999) not only caused extensive damage to property and physical environment (uprooting of trees etc) but also had long-term effect on the lives of the people.

There are various man-made disasters also. The technological disasters such as three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Bhopal Methy Iso Cyndie (MIC) Disaster (1984) etc. are some of the major man-made disasters that have intense and long-term adverse effects on the lives of the people. In the Bhopal disaster more than 8,000 people died and over 2,00,000 were physically affected. Thousands of gas victims are still suffering from mental and physical health problems. Research studies indicate that the survivors of such disasters suffer from anxiety, withdrawal symptoms, depression, stress, anger and nightmares. 

NIOS Class 12th Psychology (328) Notes/Question Answer

ChapterChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Psychology: understanding self and othersClick Here
Chapter 2How Psychologists Study?Click Here
Chapter 3Biological and Cultural Shaping of Mind and BehaviorClick Here
Chapter 4Becoming aware of the World around usClick Here
Chapter 5Attention and PerceptionClick Here
Chapter 6Learning Process and Acquiring SkillsClick Here
Chapter 7Remembering and ForgettingClick Here
Chapter 8Going beyond the Reality: Thinking and ReasoningClick Here
Chapter 9MotivationClick Here
Chapter 10EmotionsClick Here
Chapter 11Development: Its natureClick Here
Chapter 12Domains of DevelopmentClick Here
Chapter 13AdolescenceClick Here
Chapter 14Adulthood and AgingClick Here
Chapter 15Understanding Individual differences: the case of IntelligenceClick Here
Chapter 16What is Self?Click Here
Chapter 17Self and Psychological ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 18Personality TheoriesClick Here
Chapter 19Personality AssessmentClick Here
Chapter 20Psychological DisordersClick Here
Chapter 21Group ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 22Person Perception and Interpersonal AttractionClick Here
Chapter 23Man-environment InteractionClick Here
Chapter 24PsychotherapyClick Here
Chapter 25Health PsychologyClick Here
Chapter 26Developmental Patterns in Early ChildhoodClick Here
Chapter 27Play Centre: ObjectivesClick Here
Chapter 28Play Centre: Structural detailsClick Here
Chapter 29Planning and Conducting ProgrammersClick Here
Chapter 30Involvement of Parents and Community in a Play CentreClick Here

2. What are future threats to the environment? What should we do to remove these threats?

Ans.: As indicated earlier, human activities also affect the environment. In fact, almost every human being adds, through his activities, some effect that contributes cumuli actively and negatively to the environment we live in. Whenever, someone drives a scooter, motorcycle or car, uses hair spray, cooks food, etc. the environment is affected. We do not perceive the role our simple activities play in degrading our environment. Imagine that billions of people living on our planet in some way or the other affect the environment and the cumulative effect is tremendous. The effect of human activity (e.g. polluting air) is long-term and irreversible and will affect the lives of generations that follow.

Fortunately, after playing havoc with our environment, people all over the world have become conscious of this disaster that mankind has already made. Now, the efforts are being made to somehow control the onslaughts of the disaster.

As stated earlier, the United Nations is working seriously to control the harmful activities of people affecting our environment around the world. Environment is a naturally given capital having certain limits and we have to learn to use the resources judiciously. Air, water, food, fuel, etc. are all gifts of this environment to the human kind and we have to learn to judiciously use and conserve them. We have to pay greater attention to conserve water and air. Disposal of waste material we produce, ranging from sewage to garbage needs special attention.

Water: We are using natural resources that we are not replenishing, and water is one such resource. On our planet, there are now at least 80 countries having serious water shortages with serious threats to agriculture. India is one among these countries where water shortage is adversely affecting agriculture. The water shortage in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is an example. The water shortage is assuming a serious threat to the big cities also. For example, during the summer months there is a serious shortage of water in the Delhi region and due to population influx from the neighbouring cities the problem is getting worse day-by-day. The solution lies in harvesting rain water and efforts are being made to use rain water to augment water supply.

Air: The quality of air has been adversely affected by automobile and industrial emission. Large quantities of emissions from such sources have increased the presence of harmful and toxic gases like carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide etc. in the air that we breathe. Serious efforts are required in stemming the rot and saving public health. In this direction Delhi administration has taken serious steps in introducing CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) as a fuel for the public transport system and it has made a significant improvement in the quality of air in Delhi. Such innovative intervention is required to restore the quality of air.

Waste Material: Perhaps the most obvious by-product of human activity is waste material we produce. This waste product of our activity range from sewage to garbage. It is a very serious problem for municipalities, corporations, and local governments to manage them. So far, much of our sewage disposal is flushed untreated into the rivers. This has created a serious problem of water pollution. This makes our river water unfit for human consumption. There is now awareness of this serious problem and efforts are being made in pre-treating the sewage disposal before throwing it in the rivers and sea. Another serious problem emanates from the tremendous amount of garbage we produce. The disposal of the garbage, especially of non-bio-degradable material (e.g., plastic bags) is a serious problem. We must take care not to use such material, like plastic bags for daily use. Recycling the waste should be undertaken to save the land from the polluting effects of such garbage.

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