NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-20| Psychological Disorders

NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-20| Psychological Disorders. Important questions for NIOS Psychology (328) Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint .NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-20| Psychological Disorders

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NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-20| Psychological Disorders

Intext Questions & Answers

Q. 1. Explain irrationality as a property of abnormal behaviour.

Ans.: As the name itself suggests, any disorder, which presents a person to function effectively in the social domain, is termed as a psychological disorder. Psychological disorders can be defined as a pattern of behavioural or psychological symptoms that causes significant distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more areas of life or both.

The important feature is that the symptoms which a person is showing must represent a serious departure from the prevalent social and cultural norms. Cultural and social norms are being emphasised here because the traditions in each culture differ. Some actions which may form an essential part of one culture may be a serious disturbance in others. For example tribal societies have different norms and culture. Their way of living and habits will be considered abnormal in the urban context.

To determine any behaviour as away from normal, seven considerations are used as the distinguishing criteria. They are:

  1.  Suffering-experiencing distress and discomfort in one’s own life.
  2. Maladaptiveness – engaging in behaviour or thought patterns which makes it more difficult to lead one’s life.
  3. Irrationality-unable to communicate in a reasonable manner with others. 
  4. Unpredictability – acting in ways which are entirely unexpected.
  5. Vividness and intensity-experience sensations which are far more vivid and intense than those of other people. 
  6. Observer discomfort – acting in ways which others find embarrassing.
  7. Violation of moral and ideal standards-habitual breaking of norms. 

As we have read earlier, normality and abnormality are not very rigid concepts. As states of mind, they lie in a continuum, and, most of us experience them in different phases of life.

It can be said that abnormality is a matter of the degree to which a set of behaviours of an individual are considered inappropriate as against accepted norms of the society, and which are problematic for the person in his/her social functioning and adjustment. Now let us study about the various causes of abnormal behaviour.

Q. 2. What are the causes of abnormal behaviour?

Ans.: There are many factors which contribute to the causes of abnormal behaviour. Some of them are:

(a) Biological factors: 

The biological factors which give rise to abnormal behavior include the genetic factors, chromosomal dysfunctions, brain or endocrine dysfunctions that may cause the development of abnormal behaviour.

(b) Psychological factors: 

The psychological factors causing abnormal behaviour are difficult to identify and measure as they work indirectly. The effect is not very predictable but if one tries to analyze the various processes adopted during

childhood like over-protection or over-indulgence, inconsistent rewards and punishments, these factors significantly contribute in the development of maladaptive behaviour.

Q. 3. What is an anxiety disorder?

Ans.: All of us have experienced anxiety in our life in some way or the other. Whether it is during examinations or waiting for interview results or maybe due to the death of aloved one, anxiety is experienced by us. We also have our own way of coping with it but anxiety can take the form of a disorder if not treated properly at the correct time. Anxiety disorders are disorders which decrease the performance or social functioning of an individual due to hyper-anxiety. Anxiety disorder can be of many types. Some of the anxiety disorders are: 

  1. generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)
  2. panic disorder 
  3. phobias
  4. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  5. somatoform disorder
  6. post traumatic stress. 

Let us look at the features of these disorders as described below:

(a) Generalised Anxiety Disorder: 

It is the most common form of anxiety disorder. The chief symptom of this disorder is unrealistic or excessive worry. The various symptoms of GAD are nervousness, dizziness, sweating, trembling, tension, difficulty in concentration etc.

(b) Panic Disorder: 

Intense anxiety along with marked physiological symptoms such as increased palpitation, breathing difficulty, and a sense of helplessness are seen in the case of panic disorder. Before and after the release of anxiety calmness prevails. The person suffering from this disorder may not always remain anxious.

(c) Phobia: 

Phobia means an irrational fear of some object or situation. Most of us have a fear about something or the other but when this fear reaches a level when it disrupts normal functioning, then it is termed as phobia. One type of phobia is known as social phobia – when one is afraid of speaking on stage, or talking to strangers and ther are some specific phobias, like fear of rats or cats.

(d) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: 

Persistent thoughts or wishes that intrude into one’s consciousness and cannot be stopped are obsessions. Compulsion is an act which a person feels compelled to carry out despite knowing that it is unnecessary. Obsessive thinking often leads to compulsive acts.

(e) Somatoform disorder: 

Somatoform disorders refer to physical problems which have no organic basis, for example, fatigue, headaches, vague body pains etc. The person suffering from this disease remains preoccupied with symptoms. 

NIOS Class 12th Psychology (328) Notes/Question Answer

ChapterChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Psychology: understanding self and othersClick Here
Chapter 2How Psychologists Study?Click Here
Chapter 3Biological and Cultural Shaping of Mind and BehaviorClick Here
Chapter 4Becoming aware of the World around usClick Here
Chapter 5Attention and PerceptionClick Here
Chapter 6Learning Process and Acquiring SkillsClick Here
Chapter 7Remembering and ForgettingClick Here
Chapter 8Going beyond the Reality: Thinking and ReasoningClick Here
Chapter 9MotivationClick Here
Chapter 10EmotionsClick Here
Chapter 11Development: Its natureClick Here
Chapter 12Domains of DevelopmentClick Here
Chapter 13AdolescenceClick Here
Chapter 14Adulthood and AgingClick Here
Chapter 15Understanding Individual differences: the case of IntelligenceClick Here
Chapter 16What is Self?Click Here
Chapter 17Self and Psychological ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 18Personality TheoriesClick Here
Chapter 19Personality AssessmentClick Here
Chapter 20Psychological DisordersClick Here
Chapter 21Group ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 22Person Perception and Interpersonal AttractionClick Here
Chapter 23Man-environment InteractionClick Here
Chapter 24PsychotherapyClick Here
Chapter 25Health PsychologyClick Here
Chapter 26Developmental Patterns in Early ChildhoodClick Here
Chapter 27Play Centre: ObjectivesClick Here
Chapter 28Play Centre: Structural detailsClick Here
Chapter 29Planning and Conducting ProgrammersClick Here
Chapter 30Involvement of Parents and Community in a Play CentreClick Here

Q. 4. List any two types of anxiety disorder.

Ans.: (a) Phobia: 

Phobia means an irrational fear of some object or situation. Most of us have a fear about something or the other but when this fear reaches a level when it disrupts normal functioning, then it is termed as phobia. One type of phobia is known as social phobia – when one is afraid of speaking on stage, or talking to strangers and there are some specific phobias, like fear of rats or cats.

(b) Somatoform disorder: 

Somatoform disorders refer to physical problems which have no organic basis, for example, fatigue, headaches, vague body pains etc. The person suffering from this disease remains preoccupied with symptoms.

Q. 5. List any two steps to be followed for helping a person with substance related disorder.

Ans.:Rammohan is a clerk in a company. As a clerk he was able to do work that was assigned to him. But whenever any situation comes up when he has to make a decision, he is not able to do so. He has a good rapport with his seniors because he was highly submissive, but when his promotion was due, his officers were not sure about his capability for that position.

This is an acute case of dependent personality disorder where the individual always shows a need to be taken care of and is not able to show any decision-making skill. Another form of personality disorder is antisocial personality disorder in which individuals show irresponsible and socially disruptive behaviour like destroying property, stealing etc.

Personality disorder is characterised by a maladaptive style of thinking, feeling and behaving which disturbs the normal functioning of an individual.

Q. 6. State any two symptoms of schizophrenia.

Ans.:

TypeSymptoms
1. CatatonicUnusual patterns of motor activity, speech disturbances such as repetitive chatter or rigid postures.
2. DisorganisedVerbal asymmetry, poorly developed ideas

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