NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-17|Self and Psychological Processes

NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-17|Self and Psychological Processes. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint .NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-17|Self and Psychological Processes.

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NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-17|Self and Psychological Processes

Intext Questions & Answers

Q. 1. What do you mean by self control?

Ans.: Self control is a process of learning to regulate one’s own behaviour in such a way that it maximally rewards or satisfies the individual concerned.

Q. 2. Describe briefly any two conditions in which self control will be effective?

Ans.: Stage One: Moral judgement is based on obedience and punishment. Actions which demonstrate obedience to authority and allow the individual to avoid punishment are viewed as “good”.

Stage Two: Actions which satisfy the individual’s needs are viewed as “good” while those which do not, are viewed as “bad”.

Conventional Level:

Stage Three: Actions which are approved of by others are viewed as “good” and those which are disapproved of are labelled as “bad”.

Stage Four: Actions through which an individual “does his or duty” or which shows respect for law and authority are viewed as “good”. Actions which violate this sense of duty are viewed as “bad”.

Postconventional Level:

Stage Five: Actions which are consistent with the community’s well fare are viewed as “good”. Actions which do not abide by the laws of the community are viewed as “bad”. 

Stage Six: Actions which are consistent with an individual’s self-chosen standards of justice are viewed as “good. Actions which are not consistent with such standards are viewed as

“bad”.

Q. 3. Trace the developmental nature of moral orientation. 

Ans.: Resolution of inner conflicts

Q. 4. How many levels does moral reasoning pass through according to Kohlberg?

Ans.: Three main levels

Q. 5. Give two examples of prosocial behaviour.

Ans.: Cooperation

Q. 6. Mention any two techniques with the help of which pro-social behaviours can be strengthened.

Ans.: Role playing and modelling.

Q. 7. Give any three examples of antisocial behaviour. 

Ans.: Stealing, promiscuity, delinquency.

NIOS Class 12th Psychology (328) Notes/Question Answer

ChapterChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Psychology: understanding self and othersClick Here
Chapter 2How Psychologists Study?Click Here
Chapter 3Biological and Cultural Shaping of Mind and BehaviorClick Here
Chapter 4Becoming aware of the World around usClick Here
Chapter 5Attention and PerceptionClick Here
Chapter 6Learning Process and Acquiring SkillsClick Here
Chapter 7Remembering and ForgettingClick Here
Chapter 8Going beyond the Reality: Thinking and ReasoningClick Here
Chapter 9MotivationClick Here
Chapter 10EmotionsClick Here
Chapter 11Development: Its natureClick Here
Chapter 12Domains of DevelopmentClick Here
Chapter 13AdolescenceClick Here
Chapter 14Adulthood and AgingClick Here
Chapter 15Understanding Individual differences: the case of IntelligenceClick Here
Chapter 16What is Self?Click Here
Chapter 17Self and Psychological ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 18Personality TheoriesClick Here
Chapter 19Personality AssessmentClick Here
Chapter 20Psychological DisordersClick Here
Chapter 21Group ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 22Person Perception and Interpersonal AttractionClick Here
Chapter 23Man-environment InteractionClick Here
Chapter 24PsychotherapyClick Here
Chapter 25Health PsychologyClick Here
Chapter 26Developmental Patterns in Early ChildhoodClick Here
Chapter 27Play Centre: ObjectivesClick Here
Chapter 28Play Centre: Structural detailsClick Here
Chapter 29Planning and Conducting ProgrammersClick Here
Chapter 30Involvement of Parents and Community in a Play CentreClick Here

Terminal Exercises

1. will you apply the procedure of self control to any problem condition? Illustrate with an example. 

Ans.: Self control is a process of learning to regulate one’s own behaviour in a manner maximally rewarding or satisfying. To this end, people use a number of self control strategies. For instance, an obese person is taught to use self-control methods to lose weight, a chain smoker to decrease smoking and an extremely tense person to reduce tension.

Steps in Self control: Following are the major steps in developing self-control.

  1.  Performing a task: This refers to the action taken to solve a specific problem.
  2. Self-monitoring of performance and outcome: It means actual observation and recording of the action taken.
  3. Self-evaluation: This involves revising one’s beliefs about his or her competence. 
  4. Self reinforcement: This means recognizing and approving of the accomplishment that may lead to a tangiblereward or a positive self-statement.

Following is an example where a child is taught to remain calm and to take control of a difficult situation and not get provoked to react.

  1. Prepare for provocation: Teach the child to anticipate difficult situations and tell her not to get provoked. 
  2. Confront the difficulty: Through imagination, play acting or rehearsal, the child is taught to confront the provocation but at the same time be in control so that a desirable response follows.
  3. Cope with the provocation: The child is made aware of the physical response to confrontation like tightening of the muscles and rising fear or anger and that this will be followed by teaching simple coping skills.
  4. Reflect on the consequences: The child is taught to think about the outcome of handling the provocation, whether positive or negative. The child is also encouraged to become more reflective about herself, others’ responses and other consequences by keeping a diary, talking to friends, parents and generally becoming more aware of the possibilities.

Self Instructional Training (SIT): 

This kind of instruction focuses on the development of major skill areas emphasising “self-talking” responses. The steps of self instruction are as follows:

  1. Teaching problem identification.
  2. Teaching self interrogation skills.
  3. Teaching attention-focusing and appropriate responding skills. 
  4. Teaching self-reinforcement skills so that the youngster evaluates his own responses and rewards the adaptive ones.
  5. Self correction and coping options enable the youngster continuously to monitor his behaviour, evaluate alternatives and arrive at optional solutions. 
  1. Problem Identification: You cannot sit to read for a considerable length of time.
  2. Interrogation Skills: Since when have you had this difficulty?

At what times of the day does this happen to you? Is it related to any subject?

3.  Attention: (i) Sit for only 30 mins at a time;

(ii) take rest for five minutes by going away from the books and doing what you like (e;g; chatting with your mother, listening to the radio, etc.),

(iii) return to reading and voluntarily draw your wandering attention to the reading.

(4) Self Reinforcement : 

(i) Reward yourself when you have achieved undistracted reading for some time with “I could do this for ten minutes. I can do it for twenty minutes now” or reward yourself with what you like to do most when you achieve the goal after a few days. On the other hand, if you get distracted even after your efforts, punish yourself by denying what you like doing most (e.g., watching your favourite TV serial).

(5) Self correction and coping option : Correct yourself when you do what is not desired. In this case, when you get distracted,attempt focusing back on your work. Cope with the distractions by perhaps changing your place of reading e.g. go to a quieter place like the library.

Thus, self-control procedures can be used for self improvement.

2. How does morality develop?

Ans.: Development of the notions of “right” and “wrong” is an important aspect of social development. These notions help a person to balance the self interest and well being of others. In other words acquiring such rules facilitates morality or the normative standards that are helpful in organising social lives of the people. Development of morality occurs through stages. The development of the idea of other persons and perspective taking play important role in its development. During infancy children start recognizing social interaction as a reciprocal process. It’s a great achievement to realise that people’s actions depend on one’s own. Initially children, up to the age of 8 years children focus on simple and concrete attributes of others and have difficulty in appreciating others. They only gradually learn to understand others point of view. This ability starts during childhood and continues during adolescence.

Researchers trying to explain the pattern of cognitive development have tried to see how moral reasoning develops.

Piaget found that younger children up to 9-10 years show morality of constraint. of age

During this stage children think in terms of conformity to social rules. Such rules focus on one aspect of the event and ignore others. For example, if child is asked to decide who needs to be punished, a child who went to kitchen to get her favourite dish by stealing and broke cups while reaching the jar in which the dish was kept or another child who did not know and accidentally opened the door and broke five cups which were kept near the door.

The younger children tend to recommend greater punishment for the second child who broke 5 cups than for the first one. Older children follow a different type of reasoning. They think about the intentions and do not consider rules as unchangeable. The moral rules can be changed if there is need. This is known as morality of cooperation. If we compare the reasoning of children we notice that young children’s morality is autonomous.

In the process of socialisation, the ethical beliefs are internalised and provide the foundation for moral development. Moral concepts start developing in a child from an early age. The first stage of morality is based on consequences, that is, before the age of about seven, the child tends to view or categorise acts which yield positive outcomes as “good” and those which yield negative outcomes as “bad”. This pattern is called objective moral orientation. After the age of seven years, we focus our attention on the intentions behind various actions.

Moral reasoning passes through three different levels, namely pre-conventional stage, conventional stage and post conventional stage. In the preconventional stages, the reasoning is somewhat self-centered and focuses on the personal consequences of an individual’s behavior’s. Then in the conventional stage, reasoning focuses on what is considered as acceptable moral rules. Later during adolescence, the individuals enter the post conventional stage in which they rely on abstract principles. A brief description of the stages of moral development as envisaged by Kohlberg.

Preconventional Level:

Stage One: Moral judgement is based on obedience and punishment. Actions which demonstrate obedience to authority and allow the individual to avoid punishment are viewed as “good”.

Stage Two: Actions which satisfy the individual’s needs are viewed as “good” while those which do not, are viewed as “bad”.

Conventional Level 

Stage Three: Actions which are approved of by others are viewed as “good” and those which are disapproved of are labeled as “bad”.

Stage Four: Actions through which an individual “does his or duty” or which shows respect for law and authority are viewed as “good”. Actions which violate this sense of duty are viewed as “bad”.

Postconventional Level:

Stage Five: Actions which are consistent with the community’s well fare are viewed as “good”. Actions which do not abide by the laws of the community are viewed as “bad”. 

Stage Six: Actions which are consistent with an individual’s self-chosen standards of justice are viewed as “good. Actions which are not consistent with such standards are viewed as “bad”.

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