NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-11|Development: Its nature

NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-11|Development: Its nature. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint .NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-11|Development: Its nature

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NIOS Psychology (328) Notes/Answer|Chapter-11|Development: Its nature

Intext Questions & Answers

Q. 1. Write True/False against each statement: 

(i) Maturation and learning are two separate processes and have no connection with each other.

Ans.: False

(ii) Genes decide the upper-limit of attaining development.

Ans.: True

(iii) All changes which occur as a result of development are of the same kind.

Ans.: False

(iv) According to the growth curve, growth is an ongoing process.

Ans.: True

(v) The two periods of maximum growth are early childhood and adolescence.

Ans.: True

(vi) Growth stops during the adult years.

Ans.: False

Q. 2. Put a mark (T/F) and check your answer. In case of more than five wrong answers, revise the unit again and recheck. 

1. Growth takes place in an erratic or whimsical manner.

Ans.: False

2. A child with below average intellectual development has superior health, sociability and physical structures.

Ans.: False

3. A child who is above average in one trait will be below average in others, because compensation is the general rule of development.

Ans.: False

4. The sequence of development in a child is fairly constant.

Ans.: True

5. Traits are age-specific and therefore develop accordingly.

Ans.: True 

6. Children show specific skills before they develop general ones 

Ans.: False

7. As children grow, they become more self reliant.

Ans.: True

8. The basic difference between children and adults is that while the former are ego centric, the latter are allocentric.

Ans.: True

9. The baby can see large objects before he can focus on small ones.

Ans.: True

10. Because development is continuous, what happens at one stage carries over and influences the subsequent stages.

Ans.: True

11. Every individual normally passes through each major stage of development.

Ans.: True

Q. 4. Read the problems given and mention the approach suitable for their study:

1. Will characteristics observed in infancy like aggression, and mistrust persist till childhood?

Ans.: Long

2. Do children at different ages show the same emotional response to viewing films on ghosts?

Ans.: Cross

3. Do children of 5 years of age belonging to different cultures show the same intellectual ability?

Ans.: Cross

4. At what age children should be observed to examine the pattern of eye-hand coordination.

Ans.: Cross

5. Studying the effect of early parental deprivation on adjustment during preadolescence.

Ans.: Long

6. Study of children’s social response from birth to five years of age.

Ans.: Long

Terminal Exercises

1. Explain the term development.

Ans.: In simple words, development is a process by which an individual grows and changes throughout its life span. This change may be defined as: a progressive series of changes which are orderly and coherent and which lead towards the goal of maturity.

The term “progressive” signifies that the changes are directional, leading forward, and not backward.

The terms “orderly” and “coherent” suggest that there is a definite relationship between different stages in the developmental sequence. Each change is dependent upon what preceded it, and it, in turn, will determine what will come after.

Development can therefore be summed up as:

  1.  Consisting of progressive, coherent and orderly changes; 
  2. Changes which have a definite direction and leading forward;
  3. Changes which are not haphazard but where there existsa definite relationship between what exists and what will come after (next stage).

It should be clear that the development results in new characteristics, and new abilities in an individual. There is a shift from lower stages of functioning to higher levels.

All changes which appear as a result of development, are not of the same kind. For example, changes in size (physical growth), changes in proportion (baby to adult), changes in features (disappearance of baby teeth) and acquiring new features are of different types. Such changes which are clearly definable or which can be identified specifically show growth. It is necessary here to differentiate between the terms growth and ‘development’. They are often used interchangeably, however, they are highly interrelated and there is a difference between them too. Growth refers to clearly measurable or specific change which is quantitative in nature such as “growing tall”, a girl’s hair becoming long and beautiful; and an old man growing a beard etc.

Development, on the other hand, refers to qualitative changes unfolding or increase in capacity. It is not as obvious as growth. Examples of development include remarks such as, “she has become a fine young woman”, “he has developed his talent in music very well”, “My father enjoys doing social work now because he has retired,” etc. All these illustrate changes in personality interests and abilities. Development thus is a broader term and includes growth’ as one of its aspects.

2. What are the two main processes which bring about development? 

Ans.: Development occurs through two main processes:

  1.  maturation, and
  2. learning.

(1) Maturation refers to the unfolding or gradual opening up of traits or potentials present in an individual because of genetic inheritance. It is the net result of what one possesses genetically.

(2) Learning takes place as a result of a child’s interaction with the environment which then brings about a change in his behaviour.

For example, when a baby begins to teeth or starts walking it is because of maturation. But, when a child acquires the skill of performing a specific dance or singing a particular song, it is an act of learning.

Both maturation and learning occur side by side, each one influencing the other. In fact, environmental learning often promotes maturation. For example, the development of cognitive abilities in a person is dependent on the experience and opportunities provided by the environment as well as maturation.

It may be concluded that maturation provides the raw material for learning, i.e. no amount of effort on the part of the individual can bring desired results if the inherited trait has limited potentialities for development. Thus all persons cannot become international athletes by effort alone, unless the genes in the person contain the potential for outstanding physical abilities.

3. State briefly the main principles of development. Give examples to illustrate any three of them.

Ans.: Although all individuals grow and develop in their own unique way and in their own contexts, there are some basic principles which underlie the process of development and can be observed in all human beings. These are called the principles of development. Let us now illustrate them.

(i) Development follows a pattern: 

In human beings, development takes place in an organised, orderly and patterned fashion. Every species has a specific pattern which all its members follow. The sequence of development is also the same. For example, all babies learn to turn over, crawl, stand, and then walk. They may skip a particular stage, but the order or pattern will remain the same.

While studying grammar, nouns are always learnt before verbs. In some children they may be learnt simultaneously but verbs cannot be learnt without knowing nouns. Further development, at each stage is a result of the one which precedes it and the one which follows it. For example, a child first learns to stand, then walk and has baby teeth before permanent teeth appear.

Whether it is physical, behavioural or speech related aspects, development takes place in an orderly manner. For example, early development proceeds cephalocaudally, i.e. from the cephalic or head region to the caudal or tail region. A second principle is that growth proceeds from the centre axis of the body to the extremities or more distal regions. The general pattern is not altered by the speed or development; all children pass through the same fundamental forms at approximately the same time.

(ii) Development proceeds from general to specific (global to analytical): 

The child’s responses in all phases of development, whether motor or mental, are first of a general sort before they become specific or differentiated. For example, the new born first moves his whole body at one time then learns to move a specific part of it. Thus if a toy is kept near an infant he will use his entire body to move close to it, and catch it. An older child will merely stretch out his hand knowing that this specific movement will serve the purpose.

In speech the child takes out sounds called babbles first, before saying words. Similarly, all playthings are “toys” before specific names are learnt and a vocabulary is acquired. Observation of children in our daily lives will show that they do simpler things first and the more complex ones later.

(iii) Development leads to integration : 

Once the child learns specific or differentiated responses, then, as development continues, she can synthesise or integrate these specific responses to form a whole. For example, the young child learns to speak single, discrete words in the beginning. Later, he can join together these sentences in the form of language. Similarly, a young child may have a specific concept of a car. Later, as she grows, her concept expands as she is able to synthesise new aspects into it.

(iv) Development is continuous: 

No development, whether physical, mental or speech, occurs suddenly. It takes place at a slow, regular pace. Growth starts from the time of conception of the baby and continues till maturity. Physical and mental traits continue to develop until they reach their maximum level of growth. Growth occurs at a continuous rate and does not take place in “jerks and stops”. It is the continuous nature of development which accounts for one stage of growth and development influencing the next. For example, if a child has not mastered a particular task at a specific age then this will affect his mastery over the developmental task of the next stage. The emotional tensions due to an unhealthy environment in early childhood can affect the personality of a child in later years. Similarly, lack of proper nutrition in early childhood can result in physical and psychological damage which can impede development in later years.

(v) Individuals differ with respect to the rate of development: 

Although all development is sequential and orderly, yet the pace at which development takes place may vary from person to person. For example, a 3 year old child may be able to recognise the English alphabet, whereas another 5 year old may not be able to do so. This does however mean that the 3 year old is exceptionally bright or the 5 year old is backward. It is just simply that the rate of acquisition or mastery of a skill may vary from child to child. In order to establish this fact, the concept of a ‘range of development’ has been introduced. The range for learning alphabets, for example, implies that children are expected to learn them anytime between 3 to 5½ years. All children falling within this limit are treated as normal. Differences in the rate of development can be seen in many areas-the acquisition of teeth, age at which the child sits, stands, walks, becomes pubescent, etc.

(vi) Development occurs at different rates for different parts of the body: 

Neither the growth of different parts of the body, nor the mental growth takes place at the same rate. The different aspects of physical or mental growth take place at different rates and reach maturity at different times. In some areas, the body growth maybe rapid, while in others relatively slow. Thus, the size of the organs of the body keep changing from time to time and because of these inequalities in growth the body attains adult proportions. 

4. How does knowledge of the principles of development help?

Ans.: 

  1.  It helps us to know what to expect and when to expect it. This provides an accurate picture of the child’s capability at a particular age.
  2. It gives information on when to stimulate and when not to stimulate growth in the child i.e., provide opportunities or wait for maturation.
  3. It helps parents, teachers and others who work with children, to prepare them beforehand for the bodily changes. Interests and behaviours that are to take place. It tells teachers what to teach, when to teach and how to teach.

The principles of development thus provide the base to understand the different stages of development which an individual grows through. However, the rate and pattern of development can be changed by certain conditions inside and outside the body. Certain factors like nutrition, sex. intelligence, injuries and diseases, race, culture etc. also contribute to these differences.

5. Differentiate between the following: 

(i) Maturation and Learning.

Ans.: (1) Maturation refers to the unfolding or gradual opening-up of traits or potentials present in an individual because of genetic inheritance. It is the net result of what one possesses genetically.

(2) Learning takes place as a result of a child’s interaction with the environment which then brings about a change in his behaviour.

For example, when a baby begins to teeth or starts walking it is because of maturation. But, when a child acquires the skill of performing a specific dance or singing a particular song, it is an act of learning.

Both maturation and learning occur side by side, each one influencing the other. In fact, environmental learning often promotes maturation. For example, the development of cognitive abilities in a person is dependent on the experience and opportunities provided by the environment as well as maturation.

It may be concluded that maturation provides the raw material for learning, i.e. no amount of effort on the part of the individual can bring desired results if the inherited trait has limited potentialities for development. Thus all persons cannot become international athletes by effort alone, unless the genes in the person contain the potential for outstanding physical abilities.

(ii) Longitudinal and Cross-sectional approach. 

Ans.: Longitudinal Approach: It is a length-wise study of development, as the name suggests, in contrast to the earlier approach. This approach emphasizes on the study of the same person over a period of time noting the stability and changes taking place during that time span. Thus if a set of new born babies constitute the sample, they are seen through infancy, early childhood, late childhood, etc. To understand the process of development, several methods are used. Case-Study is an example of one such method used for the study of behavior over a long period of time. Piaget’s study of eye-hand coordination on his daughter is one famous example of the longitudinal approach.

NIOS Class 12th Psychology (328) Notes/Question Answer

ChapterChapters NameLink
Chapter 1Psychology: understanding self and othersClick Here
Chapter 2How Psychologists Study?Click Here
Chapter 3Biological and Cultural Shaping of Mind and BehaviorClick Here
Chapter 4Becoming aware of the World around usClick Here
Chapter 5Attention and PerceptionClick Here
Chapter 6Learning Process and Acquiring SkillsClick Here
Chapter 7Remembering and ForgettingClick Here
Chapter 8Going beyond the Reality: Thinking and ReasoningClick Here
Chapter 9MotivationClick Here
Chapter 10EmotionsClick Here
Chapter 11Development: Its natureClick Here
Chapter 12Domains of DevelopmentClick Here
Chapter 13AdolescenceClick Here
Chapter 14Adulthood and AgingClick Here
Chapter 15Understanding Individual differences: the case of IntelligenceClick Here
Chapter 16What is Self?Click Here
Chapter 17Self and Psychological ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 18Personality TheoriesClick Here
Chapter 19Personality AssessmentClick Here
Chapter 20Psychological DisordersClick Here
Chapter 21Group ProcessesClick Here
Chapter 22Person Perception and Interpersonal AttractionClick Here
Chapter 23Man-environment InteractionClick Here
Chapter 24PsychotherapyClick Here
Chapter 25Health PsychologyClick Here
Chapter 26Developmental Patterns in Early ChildhoodClick Here
Chapter 27Play Centre: ObjectivesClick Here
Chapter 28Play Centre: Structural detailsClick Here
Chapter 29Planning and Conducting ProgrammersClick Here
Chapter 30Involvement of Parents and Community in a Play CentreClick Here

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