NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-29|Contemporary World Order

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-29|Contemporary World Order. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-29|Contemporary World Order

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-29|Contemporary World Order

 Intext Questions & Answers

 Q.1. Who are the main players in world affairs?

 Ans.: States, commonly known as countries.

 Q.2. Are states equal in their size and strength? 

Ans. : No. 

Q.3. Name the victorious countries in the Second World War.

 Ans.: The United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain 

Q.4. Is it true that the importance of Europe declined after the Second World War? 

Ans.: Yes. 

Q.5. Which two countries were known as the super powers? 

Ans.: The US and the Former Soviet Union.

 Q.6. Identify two military alliances formed during Cold War era

. Ans. : NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organisation.

 Q.7. Did the super powers attempt reconciliation? What was that process called?

 Ans.: Yes, it was known as Détente. 

Q.8. Which country suffered defeat in the Cold War

 Ans.: The Soviet Union. 

Q.9. Name the leader of the Soviet Union when the Cell War was declared over. 

Ans.: Mikhail Gorbachov. 

Q.10. Which country emerged as the most powerful country after the end of the Cold War? 

Ans. The United States

 Q.11. Did the emergence of the unipolar world help functioning of the United Nations?

 Ans. : No.

 Q.12. Did unipolar era spell stability in the world order? 

Ans.: Yes. 

Q.13. Name some of the countries that were divided territorially. 

Ans.: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, etc. 

Q.14. Give examples of countries under the spell of civil wars. 

Ans. Afghanistan, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Yugoslavia, etc. 

Q.15. Innocent population remained unaffected by wars and violence. True or False? 

Ans. : False

. Q.16. Globalisation is confined to economic areas alone. (True or False)? 

Ans.: False

 Q.17. Private companies in the West benefited most from globalisation. (True or False)?

 Ans.: True

 Q.18.Globalisation is aided by revolution in information and communication technology. (True or Falsey? 


Q.19. Income gaps between and within countries  increased. (Yes or No)?

 Ans. : Yes 

Terminal Exercises 

Q. 1. Outline the meaning and basic features of world order. 

Ans.: ‘Order’ indicates a condition in which everything is in its correct place. It also refers to respect for and enforcement of rules. Day-to-day activities would be normal and peaceful if order exists. In the world affairs, order brings a certain method in the way one country conducts its affairs with other states. The method can be noticed in the form of a set of rules and principles, which are commonly accepted and respected by governments. These rules and principles include equality of all countries, that one country should not interfere in the internal affairs of another state, that force should not be used or even threatened in the bilateral relations, that prisoners of wars and refugees should be treated humanely, etc. 

For assisting countries to make and implement these rules, they often establish common institutions like the United Nations. They are meant to assist in sorting out differences and problems between countries through dialogue and diplomacy. 

The phrase ‘world order’ may sound strange in the light of opposite realities. Though the states are supposedly equal in a formal sense, there are gross inequalities among them. And some of these inequalities have been recognised in the form of veto power conferred on five permanent members in the UN Security Council. Countries often compete for resources and influence, they suspect each other’s intentions and ambitions, and they quarrel about borders, trade and several other issues. In fact, right now a dozen wars are going on in counties of Asia, Africa and Europe causing death to millions and destruction of valuable property. Moreover, problems arise not just between states but also within those states. Many states are fighting civil wars. Civil war is a prolonged situation of brutal war between state military and certain groups of people wanting to remove a government from seat of power or form their own separate state. Sri Lanka is a good example of countries fighting a civil war. Linked to this aspect is the spread of terrorism, which causes fear among common people through indiscriminate violence and inhumane killings. Besides, additional commercial and social pressure groups have emerged to make heavy demands on state policies. Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in America and Europe have become powerful enough to dictate the economic policies of many poor states, whereas the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on official policies. is growing very fast. 

Q. 2. How did United States and the Soviet Union fight the Cold War?

 Ans.: Relations between East and West were never cordial. Short of going to war directly, the two camps indulged constantly in political and military competition. This state of affairs was widely called as the “Cold War”. The Cold War was marked by a great deal of competition in forming military alliances, viz. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Treaty Organization and the arms race through sophistication of nuclear weapons. 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

Q. 3. Elaborate how the bipolar world gradually gave place to multipolarity?

 Ans. : There were also some positive effects of the bipolar world order. Foremost, movements for independence from European colonial rule gained great momentum in Africa and Asia, as both Cold War blocs feverishly encouraged the trend in order to gain goodwill of the native people. Beginning in 1960 nearly 100 new countries were born. However, these countries did not want to compromise on their newly won political freedom by joining this or that military bloc. Hence they launched the “Non Aligned Movement” which tirelessly advocated world peace, nuclear disarmament, and economic advancement of the less developed countries. (India played leadership role in this effort) Their collective voice and influence could not be missed in the working of world forums like the United Nations, Great many initiatives were undertaken to pressurise the super powers for disarmament, and also calling for creating just and equitable economic order. Side by side, the clout of the oil-rich countries (in West Asia and elsewhere) asserted their importance by manipulating production and price levels. 

Q. 4. Describe civil wars and terrorism as features of the unipolar world.

 Ans.: The civil wars are being fought in the most brutal and uncivil fashion. Reports are available about reckless use of small arms (like AK-47s), hand grenades, and landmines, which have brought misery to the millions of unconnected and innocent men, worfen and children. Nearly 20 million lives were lost in violent clashes in the past 15 years. According to estimates 95 out of a hundred deaths in these wars are innocent civilians. Clearing a city or town of ethnic minority groups through mass killings, forcible use of children as soldiers, gang rapes of women are key and inhumane features of the civil wars. Human rights violations by the official troops or rebels have now become a central concern for those interested in security and stability as components of the post-Cold War global order. The focus clearly shifted from the state security during the Cold War era to human security.

It is these linkages that made international terrorism the most dangerous aspect threatening security of not just one or the other state, but the world order at large. Al Qaeda under the leadership of Osama bin Laden is one of the most feared terrorist organizations in the world today. We all are familiar with the daredevil attacks planned and organized allegedly by Osama bin Laden’s followers against the World Trade Centre in New York and other locations in the United States on 11 September 2001 Although torsion as a menace existed much before 11 September 2001, the incident demonstrated on the television screens how the mightiest power on earth was so easily shaken. In South Asia, India and Sri Lanka bave been fighting terrorists for more than a decade. And now terrorism has spread to other countries like Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan in South Asia Malaysia and Indonesia in Southeast Asia, Palestine, Lebanon and Egypt In West Asia, Kenya, Somalia, Sandam in Africa and so forth. In a shocking incident in September 2004, Chechaya-associated terrorists seized a school in southern Russia and in an unfortunate showdown with Russian commandos caused death to 350 young school children

 Q. 5. Discuss the negative effects of globalisation. 

Ans: The bulk of the world community- the developing countries – has become part of globalization with great hope Let us look at India’s experience. With strengths like well developed and highly competitive computer software industry the availability of technical and skilled work force and its potential as a very large middle class market, India has hopes to benefit in the era of globalization Since 1991, India changed the orientation of its economic policy by injecting pronounced features of privatization, liberalization of rules for foreign investment, and disinvestment of public sector companies Customers are flooded with an amazing choice of goods in the market – from motor cars to food products, India’s exports have gone up especially in service sector, investments have come into the country, and our foreign exchange reserves are extremely comfortable. Overall India during globalization has emerged as one of the fastest growing economies in the world. 

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