NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-31|United Nations’ Peace Activities

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-31|United Nations’ Peace Activities. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-31|United Nations’ Peace Activities

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes|Chapter-31|United Nations’ Peace Activities

 Intext Questions & Answers 

Q. 1. True or False: 

1. United Nations is today the most important organisation dedicated to world peace. (True/False) 

Ans.: True

 2. United Nations declarations and resolutions, urging the member countries to solve the dispute by peaceful means have binding effect. (True/False) 

Ans.: False 

3. The UN mediator can expect to have little success unless he enjoys the confidence of all parties. (True/ False) 

Ans. : True

 4. In 2003 the International Court of Justice ruled against Israel’s construction of a wall in occupied Palestinian territories as illegal and provocative. (True/ False) 

Ans.: True

 5. The ‘non-military sanctions’ imposed by the Security Council are not compulsorily implemented by all member countries of the United Nations. (True/False) 

Ans.: False 

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks

1. For maintenance of peace and security, United Nations was to be equipped with a  ____________ contributed by member countries, 

Ans.  Standing army 

2. The United Nations authorised the____________ to act military against North Korea. 

Ans. : United States

 3. The United Nations____________ to grant US request for permission to wage another war against Iraq in 2003.

 Ans. : Iraq 

4. There have been around____________peacekeeping operations dispatched by the United Nations to restore or maintain peace in various countries in the world.

 Ans.: 60 

5. In 1993, a big operation took over administration of ____________.

Ans.: Cambodia

 Q. 3. Fill in the blanks:

 1. The ____________arms have made the earth a dangerous place to live in. 

Ans.: Nuclear 

2. The preservation of life on the planet is the first and foremost reason behind the need for____________arms race means diversion of ____________ which could be used for economic development.

 Ans. Resources 

3. Discriminated between nuclear and non-nuclear weapon countries, 

Ans. Non-proliferation Treaty 

4. General Assembly held ____________ special,setting,disarmament. special 

Ans. : Three

 5.UN General Assembly approved The Compre behensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in____________

 Ans.: 1996

 Terminal Exercises 

Q. 1. What are the four main aspects of the United Nations activities which have made our world peaceful?

 Ans.: The United Nations role towards world peace had many sides to it. Its organs work to prevent wars from happening. This is done by advising or encouraging countries to maintain friendliest relations without interfering in each other’s affairs and to settle differences without using force. For this purpose United Nations has passed several Declarations and Resolutions. They are not of course binding on member countries, yet they have moral weight. However, regrettably, countries went to wars. On such occasions the United Nations worked hard to stop such wars as quickly as possible. For example, when India and Pakistan fought a war over Jammu and Kashmir in 1947, United Nations successfully persuaded both countries to stop that war. On the other hand, United Nations activities recognised need to strengthen conditions of peace through control or elimination of dangerous weapons. There are four main aspects of the United Nations activities which have made our world somewhat peaceful. They are: 

  1. mediation activities to help countries to reach an agreement, without using armed forces; 
  2. Peacekeeping activities to keep warring nations apart and restore peace without firing a shot; 
  3. Permitting some member countries to forcibly intervene in a troubled area and restore peace in an  area, 
  4. Disarmament activities aimed at reducing or totally prohibiting tools of war like landmines, chemical weapons enc It is important to learn more about each of these four peace activities of the United Nations,

 Q. 2. Discuss few of the examples of the United Nations mediation. 

Ans.: The United Nations has played the role of mediator in dozens of conflicts, sometimes successfully and at other times not so successfully. Mediation is an activity undertaken by a country or an organisation or individual to help resolve a problem. The mediator is not directly connected to the dispute or problem. The mediator has to be friendly and impartial with the quarrelling countries. The mediation starts only when parties to a problem agree. The mediator aims to bring parties face to face for talks or help them in identifying areas of agreement. It is a painstaking and skilled job for which the United Nations has gained much experience. 

The UN Security Council sent mediators in 1950s to solve the Kashmir problem amicably but the efforts were not fruitful The Cuban Missile crisis of 1962 is a good example where the Secretary General U Thant’s mediation helped to avoid direct military confrontation between the United States and the former Soviet Union. In 1987, the United Nations successfully mediated to get an accord signed for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Similar mediation was undertaken successfully on the Cambodia problem in 1991. There are nearly two dozen UN mediators presently helping resolution of problems in Somalia, Cyprus, Western Sahara etc. The United Nations also helped in fact finding or impartial investigations into border violations, use of banned weapons, and other complaints. With regards to Arab-Israeli conflict, United Nations suggested in 1967 an outline for a settlement that recognised the rights of both Israel and Palestine to live in secure boundaries. At times, the judicial organ, the World Court also contributed to peace through its judgements on complaints brought before it by countries. For example in 2003 the Court ruled against Israel’s construction of a wall in occupied Palestinian territories as illegal and provocative. The General Assembly later called upon Israel to adhere to the Court’s opinion. 

Q. 3. What are the different types of non-military sanctions which are imposed by the United Nations? 

Ans. : The United Nations has always preferred to try first non-binding persuasive methods to keep peace among nations. It does not mean that the United Nations cannot do, or has not done, anything in case countries ignore the advice of the United Nations and become a threat to world peace. As you have already learnt in lesson 30, the Security Council has the power to impose ‘sanctions’ against a threatening country or government so that peace is restored without the need for armed/military action. These ‘non-military sanctions’, when decided by the Security Council, are to be compulsorily implemented by all member countries of the United Nations. 

‘Sanctions’ are strong steps taken to isolate and punish a country that becomes a menace to peace. Sanctions do not mean use of military force. Security Council’s non-military sanctions could mean cutting off diplomatic relations between the targeted country and the rest of the world, curbing sale of arms and ammunition, banning imports and exports of any and all items like oil, medicines etc., and freezing bank deposits in foreign countries.

These steps are aimed to ensure that the target country stops its objectionable activity. The United Nations has imposed the binding non-military sanctions some 25 times so far. One of the first cases of such sanctions occurred against South Africa South Africa refused to abide by the repeated advice of the international community to end its policy of racial discrimination against the Blacks, the Indians and coloured people residing in that country. 

A compulsory ban on supply of weapons was imposed in 1977 to compel South Africa to end its policy of racial discrimination. Other methods like banning from international sports were also used. South Africa finally had to bow to the wishes of the world when it ended its racial discrimination apartheid – in 1994. In one of the remarkable instances, United Nations imposed wide ranging sanctions against Iraq which attacked and occupied neighbouring Kuwait in 1990. Sale and purchase of oil was prohibited, food and other essential needs were denied, communication and transport links were cut and accounts in foreign banks were sealed. These actions had a major impact on Iraq and its people for a very long time. Similarly United Nations launched sanctions against masy terrorist organisations to deny them any funding. This step was taken after the terrorist attacks against the United States of American in September 11, 2001. Let us however, remember that United Nations sanctions against wrong doers have not achieved the desired results always. It seems terrorists continue to get funds secretly inspite of sanctions. 

Q. 4. Why does the United Nations not have its own military force to carry out its military action? 

Ans. : The goal of world peace is so important for the United Nations that the founders did not hesitate to empower this organisation to use military force to stop and reverse invasions by one country against another country. For this purpose, United Nations was to be equipped with a standing army consisting of troops, contributed by member countries This army designed to fight aggressor countries under the control of the United Nations and its Secretary General-could not become a reality. The strong countries like United States and the then Soviet Union had serious disagreements on the matter Hence, even after more than five decades of its existence, the United Nations does not have its own military force to take military action against an aggressor country Because of this limitation United Nations could not take military action against invading countries independently or automatically 

Moreover due to the cold war between the United States and the former Soviet Union, the members of the United Nations could not reach to an agreement on identifying the aggressor. Often, the two cold war rivals which are permanent members of the Security Council supported the parties to the dispute and prevented action against their allies with the help of veto power. Thus the Security Council remained deadlocked most of the time during the cold war. And yet the UN authorised or permitted one or groups of member countries to take military action on its behalf. Though less than satisfactory, this was a practical option exercised on occasions such as Korea in 1950.

United Nations authorised military action happened in 1950 after North Korea armed forces crossed over to South Korea and refused to go back. The United States was willing and prepared to get militarily involved, along with its allies to defend South Korea, for its own reasons. The United Nations simply endorsed the American intention and authorised a military action to push back North Korea from the territory of South Korea The United States, using the UN flag, somehow succeeded in restoring South Korea’s freedom from North Korean invasion. 

Nearly forty years later, the United Nations got another opportunity to give similar authorisation to the United States and its allies to use military force to push the Iraqi army out of Kuwait. Thus followed the first Gulf war in 1991. It ended with the defeat of Iraq. It is important to remember that the US led Gulf war was the first major war in the new era after the cold war ended. 

The end of the US-Soviet cold war was widely expected to help positively the United Nations activities for peace Unfortunately, those activities came completely under the shadow of the United States. United Nations could not act ignoring the preferences and prejudices of the US which became militarily the strongest country after the cold war. In the midst of new threats to peace like civil or ethnic wars in Liberia, Somalia, Former Yugoslavia, United Nations turned to United States or its allies to send troops. On ten occasions, UN authorised use of force after the first Gulf war. United States was permitted to lead multinational military forces in Somalia (1992), Bosnia (1993), Haiti (1994) and Liberia (2003) Besides, Australia and France also got UN permission to send forces to restore order in East Timor and Rwanda respectively Nevertheless, many questions have come up about the wisdom of such military activities. Indeed the fair name of the United Nations has been affected. Therefore, United Nations is more cautious to allow military action under its name. The United Nations refused to grant US request for permission to wage another war against Iraq in 2003. It is different matter that United States went ahead with its war plans without having the benefit of UN permission. 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

Q. 5. What is peacekeeping? What for these operations have been sent?

 Ans.: Compared to the military authorisations, peacekeeping is a remarkable contribution of the United Nations towards world peace. This important activity, in fact, was not anticipated when the United Nations was founded. However, the UN tried this technique right from its early years. The first UN peacekeeping activity started in 1948 when UN dispatched a small team of military observers to ensure peace after the first Arab-Israeli war. Since then, in all there have been 60 peacekeeping operations dispatched by United Nations to restore or maintain peace in countries located in four continents-Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. Two such operations restored peace between India and Pakistan. United Nations Military Observer Groups in India and Pakistan (UNOGIP) was established in January 1949 after the major conflict between the two countries over Kashmir issue The observers are continuing to the present time. United Nations India Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM) was established in September 1965 after the war between India and Pakistan and continued until March 1966. In UN peacekeeping activity there are some notable turning points. For example, in 1956, a 6,000 strong force called United Nations Emergency Force could arrange, without firing a shot, withdrawal of foreign troops from Egypt. In 1960 a much larger peacekeeping force ensured that a newly independent country remained secure from foreign intervention and internal disintegration. In 1993, an equally big operation took over administration of Cambodia and installed a democratically elected government there. The end of the cold war in 1990 witnessed a rapid rise in the number of peacekeeping activities launched. Some were very successful, while others faced difficulties. The examples of failed peacekeeping operations were in former Yugoslavia, Somalia and Rwanda. The overall worth of the UN peacekeeping was demonstrated when in 1988 this activity received the Nobel peace prize. 

United Nations Peacekeeping operations consist of impartial military and civilian personnel from different countries working under the UN command. Their main job is to nonviolently stop the warring countries from fighting and help them observe the cease-fire agreement reached between them. They create an atmosphere for the warring nations could resolve their differences. Usually they are sent to help control and resolve conflict between hostile states and sometimes between hostile communities within a single state. The UN peacekeeping forces carry light arms and are allowed to use minimum force only if they are attacked.

 Q. 6. Discuss some of the aspects in regard to UN disarmament efforts. 

Ans.: It was thought that the production and stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction would ensure peace by deterring the opponent. Far from securing peace these weapons have made the world a dangerous place to live in. Nuclear and other dangerous weapons threaten the very survival of mankind. If full-fledged nuclear war breaks out, it is not only the population of the warring countries that would die but also the rest of the population spread over the globe would suffer. Those who survive the nuclear war would die a slow and painful death. Thus, the preservation of life on the planet is the first and foremost consideration for disarmament. Equally important, disarmament offers the possibility of diverting huge funds from the arms production for improving the living conditions of the poor and needy people of the world. 

Right from the inception, the United Nations has taken active interest in disarmament. Several disarmament treaties resulted from UN efforts. Some of them are no doubt controversial. For example, the Treaty on the Non-proliferation (NPT) of Nuclear Weapons of 1968. This treaty required non-nuclear states not To o acquire nuclear weapons, while leaving the nuclear weapon powers free to increase their stocks. Many countries like India efused to sign the treaty to protest against the discrimination. 

The UN General Assembly convened three special sessions to focus world attention on the need for disarmament. Those sessions mobilised world opinion to press for the reduction of nuclear and conventional weapons. But no concrete results were evident, because of cold war tensions.

The ending of the Cold War raised hopes of serious moves to control and reduce nuclear and other weapons of mass destructions (WMDs). The General Assembly adopted a text of resolution of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in September 1996. The chances of CTBT coming into force are considered remote because many countries, including India, described it a defective treaty and refused to sign it until the five nuclear powers had disarmed.

On the positive side, UN efforts in disarmament led to banning of landmines (1997) and prohibition and destruction of existing stocks of chemical weapons under international supervision (1993). UN also made progress in actually removing several lakhs of landmines in Asia and Africa, supervising elimination of existing stocks of chemical weapons. Also the UN played its part in the destruction of chemical and biological weapons of Iraq in the 1990s.

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