NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-22 Communalism Caste and Reservations

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-22 Communalism Caste and Reservations. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-22 Communalism Caste and Reservations

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-22 Communalism Caste and Reservations

Intext Questions & Answers

 Q. 1. The growth of Communalism in India can be traced to

  1. ‘divide and rule’ of British
  2. Freedom Struggle
  3. India’s secular ideals

 Ans.: (a) ‘divide and rule’ of British 

2. The chief characteristics of communalism are 

__________ and __________.

Ans. Intolerance and extremism.

 3. The nexus between political class and __________has,often fanned communal violence. 

Ans.: Criminals.

 4. Economic problems of common people are through communalism. (True/False) 

Ans.: False.

 Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

 1) _________ are at the base of India’s social structure.

 Ans. : Castes 

2) In the caste system, castes are ………………arranged.

 Ans. Hierarchically 

3) The caste system also known as_________ was, based on the_________ division of labor. 

Ans.: Varna-Vyvastha, social 

4) In the caste system, the choice of occupation is not _________but is determined on the basis of one’s_________.

 Ans: Open, caste 

Q.3. Fill in the blanks: 

1. The constitution provides_________ and _________ percentage of jobs to Schedule Caste and Schedules tribes.

 Ans: 15 and 7.5

 2. The constitution does not identify other backward classes. (True/False) 

Ans: True

 3. Name the commission that recommended reservations to OBCS

  1. Sarkaria Commission
  2. Mandal Commission 
  3. Ramanand Prasad Committee. 

Ans : (b) Mandal Commission 

4. As per the Supreme Court_________ is not eligible for OBC reservation. 

Ans: Creamy layer. 

Terminal Exercises

 1) What is communalism?

 Ans. :India is a land of multiple faiths and religions leading often to violence and hatred among the people. Those who th this religious violence do not consider religion as a moral order but use it as a means and weapon to pursue their political ambitions. Communalism essentially leads to violence as it is bas on mutual religious hatred. This phenomenon leads to distinction between a communal organisation and a religious organisation Communalism essentially has following main features 

  1.  It is based on orthodoxy. 
  2. It is exclusive in outlook, a communalist considers his own religion to be superior to other religions.
  3. It is based on intolerance. 
  4. It also propagates intense dislike of other religions.
  5. It stands for the elimination of other religions and its values. 
  6. It adopts extremist tactics including use of violence against other people.

 2) Briefly discuss the role of caste in Indian Society?

 Ans.: The political process of any society is influenced by the nature of the society. To understand the nature of the society we study its social structure. India’s social structure is best understood in terms of caste system wherein the cast is hierarchically arranged. Over the years, the caste system developed into an elaborate system to maintain socio-economic inequalities in the society. Individuals born in and belonging to the lower castes and the out-castes suffered from many disadvantages and were oppressed and exploited by the upper castes. The conditions of the outcasts (Dalits) was particularly pathetic. The practice of untouchability epitomised their conditions.

  1. In the typical Varna-Vyvastha there are four Varnas: Brahmin (the priest and the intellectual class), Kshatriya (warrior and the ruling class), Vaisyas (the producing class-peasants and artisaas) and Shudra (those who performed menial and ‘polluting’ jobs. 

One must note here that the ‘varna-vyvastha’ provides more theory than the actuality of the caste. In reality, there are not four but thousands of castes and jatis, in which the caste system is organised. It is possible, nevertheless, to classify most of the jatis in accordance with the Varna distinctions, although it is easier to be done at the extreme ends of the social spectrum than at the middle ranges. In other words, Varna system is related to jati in that it gives a holistic frame-work to which any jati will fit.

  1. Caste is a localized group having a traditional association with an occupation. The principle of birth forms the exclusive basis of membership in a caste group. Accordingly, the choice of occupation is not open but is determined on the basis of one’s birth in a caste. In addition caste groups have rules governing food and marriage. The group defines rules of behaviour for its members and exercise some degree of authority over them including the right to expel those who defy its authority.

 Caste as group identity, however, got strengthened in the new context of modern ideas and institutions. This happened because it became one of the bases of political mobilization among the many castes and classes before, during the freedom struggle and afterwards.

 The socio-religious movements of the 19th century had made the lower castes conscious of their backward conditions and also of their rights that had been denied to them over the centuries. As a result, many amongst them were no longer prepared to accept their inferior status as divinely ordained. In the backdrop of this awakening, the introduction of democratic principle of governance, the emergence of party-centred politics and the attempt of the British rulers to mobilise the lower and the out castes along with the Muslims in its support to thwart the growing national movement all combined to prepare the ground for the politicisation of the castes. By the time India gained Independence, the Backward classes, because of politicisation, had become a force to reckon with. Their claims and demands could no longer be ignored. At the same time the nationalist leaders were also committed to the task of improving their conditions.

 In light of the above, the constitution makers enjoined upo the new state to take positive measures for bringing the backward classes at par with the rest of the society. They realized that without the positive intervention by the state it would not be possible to remove their historically accumulated backwardness. The policy of reservation for the backward classes needs to be understood in this context. Backward classes refer to three categories of the people the scheduled castes, scheduled inber and the other backward classes (OBC) 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

3) Discuss about the Reservation Policy in India?

 Ans. Rationale 

Keeping in mind the backward conditions of the backward classes, the constitution makers also made special provisions for the upliftment of the backward classes. The special provisions are in the form of protective discrimination. The polley of reservation is an instance of protective discrimination Before we discuss the policy of reservation and its constitutional provisions, let us briefly look at the constitutional provisions relating to the backward classes. 

Articles 38 and 46 in the chapter of Directive principles, enjoin upon the state the duty to strive for the welfare of the people in general and the backward classes in particular Article 38 states 

  1. the state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and promoting as effectively as it may a social order in which Justice social, economic and political shall form all institutions of national life; 
  2. the state shall in particular, strive to minimize the inequalities in income, and endeavour to eliminate the inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities not only amongst individuals but also amongst group of people residing in different areas and engaged in different vocations 

Article 46 stipulates: “The state shall promote with special care the educational and the economic interest of the weaker sections of the people and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes and shall protect them from injustices and all forms of exploitation.” 

The policy of reservation is based on the principle of protective discrimination. Protective discrimination in favour of the backward classes was felt necessary by the constitution makers because of the realization that equality of opportunity alone would not suffice to bring the backward classes at par with the rest of the society. Equality of opportunity in absence of equality of conditions would result in deepening of inequality instead of promoting equality. One must note here that the provision of protective discrimination is not an exception to but integral to the Right to Equality. 

Reservations for SCs and STs

 The constitution recognizes three categories of people as backward classes. In this section we will deal with the provisions relating to the SCs and STS. 

The constitution provides for three types of reservations for the SCs and STs. These are 

  1. reservation of jobs in government services and in public sector,
  2. reservation in educational institutions, and 
  3. reservations in legislative representations. Under Articles 16(A), 320(4) and 333, 15% and 7% of the jobs are reserved at all levels in the public services for the SCs and STs respectively. This reservation however, must as far as it may be, consistent with the maintenance of efficiency of the administration (Article 35). 

Article 15(4) deals with the reservation of seats in the educational institutions. Article 15(4) states: “Nothing in Article 15 or clause (2) of Article 29 shall prevent the state from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.” Accordingly, the Union and the State governments have reserved 20% of the seats in all educational institutions maintained by public money. Moreover, qualifications for admission have also been relaxed for the SCs and STS so that they can get access to educational opportunities, Articles 330 and 332 provide for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. 78 seats for the SC’s and 38 seats for the STS are reserved in the Lok Sabha. In State Legislative Assemblies 540 and 282 seats are reserved for SCs and STs respectively. Moreover seats are also reserved in the Panchayati Raj institutions. 

Reservations for the OBCS 

As we have already noted, the task of specifying and identifying other Backwars Classes (OBCS) was left to the union and state government. 

In many States where the backward classes movement was strong, such as in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat, Bihar, to name a few, the state governments have reserved jobs at all levels in the public services and seats in educational institutions. The Union government, however, took a very long time in deciding to provide reservation to the OBCs in the central services. The Union government had as early as 1953 appointed Kalelkar Commission under Article 340. The Commission submitted its report in 1956, but its recommendations were not implemented by the Union government. The second Commission under Article 340 was appointed by the Janta Party Government in 1978. This Commission known as Mandal Commission submitted its report in 1982. It identified 3943 castes as OBC and recommended 27% reservation in government and semi government jobs and admission to educational institutions.

On 13th August 1990 the Union Government headed by V.P. Singh issued an office memorandum extending reservation to the OBCs on the lines recommended by the Mandal Commission. Soon thereafter, widespread protests were staged. Writ petitions were filed in the Supreme Court and many High Courts questioning  this measure. The Supreme Court examined the issue in November 1992 and permitted the Union Government to reserve 27% of the jobs for the OBCs subject to the exclusion of the ‘creamy layer’ among the OBCs. The Ramanand Prasad committee was set up by the Union government to identify the “creamy layer”. Once it had done its job, the government executed the order of 13th August 1990 in September 1993.

Thus, we can see that it took nearly forty years for the union government to provide the benefits of reservations to the OBC It also took as much time to accept caste as a valid basis for the identification of socially and educationally backward classes. We must also note that benefits of reservation to the OBC apply only to government jobs but no seats have been reserved for the OBC in Lok Sabha, and State Legislative Assemblies-a benefit which has been given to the SCs and STs. 

Importance of Women’s Reservation 

Women constitute nearly half of the entire Indian population. But the condition of women in India is miserable, due to illiteracy, poverty and backward social values. Keeping in view the prevalent circumstances, reservation for the women was started to emancipate the women from the drudgery of household. A debate has been going on to ensure women’s reservation at every level of the representative system of Indian Democracy and even in the state administrative services. Under the Panchayati Raj system women’s seats have been reserved at both the Panchayat level, and the block & district levels. Some political parties are also debating the issue of giving at least 30% tickets to women candidates for contesting elections of state legislative assembly and also for the parliamentary elections but women’s reservation bill is still pending in the parliament. 

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