NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-19 National Political Parties

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-19 National Political Parties. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-19 National Political Parties

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-19 National Political Parties

Intext Questions & Answers 

Q. I. Fill in the blanks:

 a) A political party is an organised body of people whose main aim is to ___________  (acquire and retain power/ pressurise government) 

Ans.: get power 

b) Members of a political party___________ common principles, goals and philosophy (share/don’t share). 

Ans. : share

 c) Parties serve as a link between the ___________ and the government (citizens/institutions).

 Ans. : citizens

 Q. 2. Fill in the blanks: 

a) Erstwhile Soviet Union had ___________ party system/ multi-party system). 

Ans. : one-party system 

 b) Germany has a ___________ bi-partysystem/ multi-party system). 

Ans.: multi-party system

 c) Two main parties of the UK are ___________ (Conservative and Labour Parties/Democratic and Liberal parties). 

Ans. : conservative and labour parties

 Q. 3. Fill in the blanks: 

1. The phase 1952-1967 in the Indian Party System is known as ___________

Ans. tone-party dominance

 2. From 1975 to 1977 was known as the ___________ period.

 Ans. : authoritarian 

3. From 1977 to 1988 is known as the Janata Party phase of,___________ politics. 

Ans, coalitional politics 

4. The United Front government was a combination of___________ parties. 

Ans.: thirteen

 Intext Questions 19.4 

Q. 4. Fill in the blanks: 

a) National Party should have secured four percent valid votes in at least ___________ states,(four/five),

Ans. : four 

b) CPI is a___________ party,(national/ regional).  

Ans. : national 

c) DMK is a ___________ party (national/ regional). 

Ans. :regional 

d) National conference is a___________ party (national/regional). 

Ans.: regional

 Q. 5. Fill in the blanks:

 1. Indian National Congress was formed in the year___________ (1885/1895/1975).

 Ans.: 1885 

2. Under Mahatma Gandhi’s leadership Congress became an organisation of the ___________(common people/moderate/rich). 

AnS.: common people

 3. National emergency was declared in ___________ (1975/1976/1977).

 Ans.: 1975

 Q.6. Fill in the blanks: 

a) In the 1984 general elections BJP secured___________ seats (2, 3, 4).

 Ans.:

b) CPI formed its first state government in the state of ___________ (Kerala, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh). 

Ans.: Kerala

 c) BSP’s influence lies in the state of (Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal). 

Ans. : Uttar Pradesh

 Terminal Exercises

 1. Describe the essential features of a political party.

 Ans. The evolution of the Indian party system can be traced to the formation of the Congress, as a political platform in 1885. Other parties and groups originated later. The Indian National Congress was formed as a response to colonial rule and to achieve independence from British rule.

 After independence and with the adoption of a democratic Constitution, a new party system emerged in the wake of the first general elections based on universal adult franchise in 1952. In the preceding lesson you have learnt about the universal adult franchise in detail. During the post-independence period, the party system passed through various phases. The first phase is known as the phase of one-party dominance because with the exception of Kerala during 1956-59, the ruling party both at the Centre and in the states was the Congress. The second phase (1967-1975) saw the emergence of a multi-party system in India. In the Assembly elections in 1967, Congress was defeated in eight States. For the first time non-Congress parties formed governments in these states. These parties formed coalition governments. Then came the split in Congress into Congress (0) and Congress (N). However, the Congress again became a dominant force at the Centre after winning the 1971 mid term poll. Then came the emergency period (1975-77) which is known as the authoritarian period of Indian democracy. With the lifting of the emergency, the dominance of Congress ended. In the general elections of 1977 Congress was defeated by the Janata Party. Janata Party came into existence as a result of the merger of many opposition parties. But again in 1980 general elections Congress came back to power and remained in power till 1989. 

Janata Party emerged out of the merger of Congress (0) led by Morarji Desai, Bharatiya Lok Dal led by Ch.Charan Singh, Congress for Democracy (CFD) led by Jagjivan Ram and H.N Bahuguna, the socialists led by George Fernandes and Jana Sangh led by L.K. Advani. 

In the 1989 elections, the National Front joined the government with the support of BJP and the Left Front. But this formation could not last its tenure and elections for the tenth Lok Sabha were held in May-June, 1991. Congress again formed a government at the Centre. In 1996 general elections BJP emerged as the single largest party and was asked to form government at the Centre. Since it could not prove its majority within the given time it had to resign. The United Front, which was a combination of thirteen parties, formed the government at the Centre with the external support of the Congress and the CPI(M). But this government also could not last its full term. Although the coalition government formed under the leadership of BJP after 1998 elections was defeated in Lok Sabha, the 1999 elections again provided them the opportunity to form a government which lasted its full term under a multi-party coalition, known as National Democratic Alliance (NDA).

 In the 14th general elections held in 2004, Congress emerged as the single largest party. It formed alliances with like minded parties and formed a government at the Centre. The phase of Indian party system which began in 1989 and is still continuing has been aptly called a phase of coalition politics. No single party has been able to form government on its own at the Centre. 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

2. Discuss about the major National Political Parties of India. 

Ans. 1. Indian National Congress

 As you have already read, Indian National Congress was formed in the year 1885 in Bombay, W.C. Bonnarjee was the first President of the Indian National Congress. To begin with, Congress was an organisation of middle class intellectuals who were primarily concerned with political reforms in British colonial rule. In the twenties under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the Congress became a mass based organisation. The party started enjoying the support of the common people and played a very significant role in the freedom struggle. After independence Jawahar Lal Nehru became the Prime Minister and led the Congress till his death in 1964. As already mentioned in an earlier paragraph, this was known as the ‘Nehru era’. The Congress party won the first five general elections in 1952, 1957, 1962, 1967 and 1971. In 1975 a national emergency was declared which went on till 1977. In the elections of 1977, the Congress was defeated. However, in the 1980 general elections, the Congress Party led by Indira Gandhi came back to power. Indira Gandhi was assassinated in 1984 and during 1985 general elections, Rajiv Gandhi was the leader of the party. Congress won the 1985 general elections with a larger majority. In 1989 though Congress could not get an absolute majority, it was the single largest party. In the tenth general elections in 1991, Congress again emerged as the single largest party and formed the government at the Centre. In the 1996, general elections Congress could not form government at the Centre, In the 12th general elections in 1998, Congress could get only 140 Lok Sabha seats. In the 1999 general elections Congress’s strength was further reduced to 112. But in the 14th general elections Congress entered into alliance with other secular parties and secured the number of seats that provided it an opportunity to form a coalition government. 

2. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 

The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was formed in 1980. Since then it has extended its influence in the Hindi belt, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Since 1989, it has been trying to extend its base in South India also. 

Since its formation in 1980, the BJP has been increasing its number of seats in the Lok Sabha gradually. In the 1984, general elections it secured only two seats. In 1989 the number of seats increased to 88. In 1991 general elections BJP’s strength in the Lok Sabha increased to 122 which rose to 161 in the 1996 elections. In 1998 it won 180 seats and in 1999 its number in Lok Sabha increased to 182. In the 1999 general elections, BJP contested as an alliance partner in the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). In the recent 2004 general elections BJP as an alliance of NDA could not get the required majority. It is playing the role of the opposition party. The BJP has emerged as a significant national party but its support base as yet is limited to certain than spread all over India. areas, rather 

3. The Communist Parties 

The two communist parties are the Communist Party of India (CPD) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) [CPI(M)]. Next to the Congress, the Communist Party is the oldest in India. The communist movement began in the early twenties and the Communist Party was founded in 1925. The communists participated in the national movement, though often they had serious differences with the Congress. The communists assert that the people should be economically equal and the society should not be divided into classes of rich and poor. 

The workers and peasants and other toiling people who do most of the productive work for the society, should be given due recognition and power. The communists were the main opposition in the Lok Sabha throughout the Nehru Era. In the first Lok Sabha they had 26 members, in the second and the third Lok Sabha, they had 27 and 29 members respectively. In 1957, the CPI won absolute majority in the Kerala Assembly and formed the first Communist government in India. In the early sixties especially after the Chinese aggression of 1962 there were serious differences among the members of the Communist Party. As a result, the party split into two. Those who broke away from CPI, formed CPI(M) in 1964. The CPI(M)’s main support base has been concentrated in West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura, though it has registered its presence in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Orissa and Punjab. The CPI has its pockets of influence in states like Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, etc. Moreover CPI has been a part of the left front coalition in Kerala and West Bengal. In the Lok Sabha elections of 2004, both the CPI and the CPI (M) were alliance partners of the Congress. They are supporting the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government at the Centre from outside. 

4. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 

The BSP acquired the status of a national party in 1996. The BSP champions the cause of those sections which belong to low castes, deprived groups and minorities. In fact, these sections of Indian society (the Bahujan Samaj) form the majority of the Indian population. The BSP believes that this ‘samaj’ should be freed from the exploitation of the upper castes and by forming their own government. BSP’s influence lies in states like Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. In 1995 and 1997 BSP was a partner in the coalition governments in Uttar Pradesh.

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