NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-17 Universal adult franchise and the methods of representation

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-17 Universal adult franchise and the methods of representation. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-17 Universal adult franchise and the methods of representation

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-17 Universal adult franchise and the methods of representation

 Intext Questions & Answers 

1. Universal Adult Franchise means the enjoyment of the right to vote by: 

  1.  all adults – both men and women 
  2. only men 
  3. only women 
  4. minors

 Ans.: (a) all adults – both men and women 

2. Who among the following do not have the right to vote?

  1. minors
  2. aliens
  3. persons who are of unsound mind/lunatics 
  4. all the above

 Ans.: (d) all the above

 3. The minimum age for voting in India is 

  1. 16 years
  2. 18 years
  3. 21 years
  4. 25 years

Ans. (b) 18 years

 4. Switzerland introduced Universal Adult Franchise in the year

  1. 1914
  2. 1945 
  3. 1928 
  4. 1971

 Ans.: (d) 1971 

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks:

 1. The first-past-the-post system is commonly known as _________ .

 Ans.: Simple Majority System 

2. The multi-member constituency is also known as the _________ system. 

Ans.: General Ticket System

 3. In India, the elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies are held on the basis of_________ system.

 Ans. : Territorial 

4. The methods by which proportional representation secured are_________and_________.

 Ans.: Single Transferable Vote System and List System

 5. Electoral methods to ensure adequate representation to the minority groups in the legislature are called _________ and _________.

 Ans.: Cumulative vote system and Limited vote plan. 

Terminal Exercises

 Q. 1. Explain the meaning and significance of Universal Adult Franchise. 

Ans. The right of the people to vote and elect their representatives is called franchise. The word franchise is derived from the French word ‘franc’ which means ‘free’. It means free exercise of the right to choose one’s representatives. Adult franchise means that the right to vote should be given to all adull citizens without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or sex.

It is based on equality which is a basic principle of democracy It demands that the right to vote should be equally available among all To deny any class of persons from exercising this right is to violate their right to equality In fact, the spirit of democracy can be maintained only if the people are given the right to vote without any discrimination. The exercise of the right to vote adds to the individual’s self-respect, dignity, sense of responsibility, and political and civic education. In other words, the system of adult franchise is the bedrock of a democratic system. People are called political sovereign because they possess the right to vote a government into power, or to vote a government out of power. That is why democracy has sometimes been described as a mode of appointing, controlling and dismissing governments by the people. 

As provided for, in the Constitution of the land, the citizens cast their votes at regular intervals to elect their representatives to the Parliament, to the Legislative Assemblies, and such other institutions as are essential organs of political power in a democracy. These institutions are called representative institutions precisely because they represent the will of the peoples. 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

Q.2. What is a simple majority system? Explain.

 Ans.: Simple majority system means that in case of a single member constituency, the person or the candidate getting the highest number of votes is declared elected. The result is decided by the majority of votes secured by a candidate. Many a time in this system, there is a multi-cornered contest, as the number of candidates is more than two. There are cases where four or five or even more than five candidates contest. In such a situation, a candidate with even less than 50 percent of the total votes gets elected. Such cases are very often found in India, and elsewhere. The simple majority system is prevalent in Britain, USA, Canada and some other countries. 

This simple majority system is also called the first past the post system. Members of our Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies are elected by this system. 

Q.3. Describe the system of proportional representation What are the two methods of ensuring proportional representation? 

Ans. : The system of proportional representation is an electoral system device to ensure representation of all sections of the people more or less in proportion to their voting strength. Under this any group, whether it is a political party or interest group will secure representation in proportion to the popular votes it obtained J.S. Mill was an ardent advocate of proportional representation. He said, “In any really equal democracy every or any section would be represented not disproportionately, but proportionately. A majority of the electors would always have a majority of representatives; but a minority of electors would always have a minority of representatives.” This system ensures that the number of seats a political party gets in the legislature should be in proportion to the support of the popular votes. Sometimes in the simple majority system it is seen that a party gets more seats in the legislature even though it receives less percentage of votes or a candidate with even less than 50 percent of votes is declared elected. For instance, in India, in 1971 Lok Sabha elections, Congress polled only 46 percent votes yet it managed 351 seats out of 522. That is, even with less than 50 percent votes, Congress won 68 percent of the seats in the Lok Sabha. This limitation of the first-past-the-post system may be removed through a proportional representation system. There are two methods by which proportional representation is secured. 

Q. 4. Explain the methods of securing minority representation other than the proportional representation. 

Ans.: Apart from proportional representation, some other electoral methods have also been devised to ensure adequate representation to the minority groups in the legislature. These systems of minority representation are as follows: 

  1. Cumulative Vote System: According to this system a voter has as many votes as the number of seats in the constituency. The voters has options. He or she can cast vote for all the candidates or concentrate all his or her votes for just one candidate For example, if 5 members are to be elected, the voter may give his or her vote to only one candidate or distribute it among a few or all candidates. This system, therefore, may provide an opportunity to a well organised minority to elect its representative by cumulating all its votes in favour of its own candidate.
  1. Limited Vote Plan: This system is adopted in a multi member constituency from where a minimum of 3 candidates are to be elected. Under this system every voter can vote for more than one candidate, but he or she cannot vote for all the candidates. That is why, it is known as the limited vote system. For example, if there are 6 seats in a constituency, every voter will have right to vote only for 4 candidates. The voter has to vote for different candidates of his or her choice, but he or she cannot vote for more than 4 candidates. 

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