NIOS Political Science Chapter-7 Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties

NIOS Political Science Chapter-7 Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science Chapter-7 Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science Chapter-7 Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties

Intext Questions & Answers 

Q. 1. Identify and place the given Directive Principles in various categories – Gandhian, Economic and Social, International Peace and Miscellaneous: 

 (i) to promote cottage industries,

Ans.: Gandhian

 (ii) to provide adequate means of livelihood for both men livelihood for both men and women.

 Ans.: social and economic 

(iii) to provide living wages for working sections.

 Ans. : social and economic 

(iv) to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years.

 Ans.: social and economic

 (v) to protect historical monuments. 

Ans.: miscellaneous 

(vi) to bring about reforms to save the environment from pollution and protect wildlife.

 Ans.: miscellaneous 

Q.2. Choose the correct answers from the alternatives given below:

 (a) What was the percentage of literate people at the time of independence?

  1.  12% 
  2. 14% 
  3. 16%
  4. 18% 

Ans.:  (ii) 14%

(b) When was the National Educational Policy started? 

  1. 1984 
  2. 1986 
  3. 1988 
  4. 1989 

Ans. :b. 1986 

(c) In which part of the Constitution is the Provision against Exploitation of Children made? 

  1. Fundamental Rights 
  2. Fundamental Duties
  3. Directive Principles of State Policy 

Ans.: A. Fundamental Rights

 (d) In which of the following Equal Pay for Equal Work for both men and women provide?

  1. Fundamental Rights 
  2. Fundamental Duties 
  3. Directive Principles of State Policy 

Ans.: C.  Directive Principles of State Policy 

(e) When was the department of women and child Development set up in India?

  1. 1978 
  2. 1985 
  3. 1992 
  4. 1995 

Ans. B.  1985

Q. 3. Fill in the blanks with the correct answers:

 (1) A __________ state takes the responsibility of providing goods and services to the weaker sections in society. (socialist, charitable, welfare)

 Ans.: welfare

 (ii) Government has tried to bring about __________ distribution of wealth (equal, unequal, equitable) 

Ans. : equitable

 (iii) The__________  system has been abolished all over India. (capitalist, zamindari, caste) 

Ans.: zamindari

(iv) Khadi and village Industries Board has been set up to promote __________ industries (small, medium, cottage)

Ans. small 

 (v) Panchayati Raj institutions were given constitutional status by__________  Amendment Act. (72nd, 73rd, 71st) 

Ans.: 73rd 

Q..4. Fill in the blanks: 

(a) The Directive Principles are__________in nature. (negative, positive, natural)

 Ans.: positive 

 (b) The Fundamental Rights aim at the development of every__________ (family, group, individual)

 Ans.: individual

 (c) The Directive Principles are meant to establish democracy. (political, cultural, socio-economic)

 Ans.: economic 

(d) The Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles have __________ relationship with each other. (close, indirect) 

Ans. : close 

2.5. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’. 

(i) The Rights and Duties are the two sides of the same coin. (True/False) 

Ans.: Yes 

(ii) The Fundamental Rights were there in the original Constitution. (True/False)

 Ans. : No

 (iii) The Fundamental Duties have been mentioned along with the Fundamental Rights. (True/False) 

Ans.: Yes

 (iv) There are ten Fundamental Duties now. (True/False

Ans. : No

 Q. 6. Choose the right answer:

 (i) The Fundamental Duties are justiciable/non justiciable.

 Ans. : non-justiciable

 (ii) These Duties are clear/ambiguous. 

Ans.: ambiguous 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

Terminal Exercises

Q.1 Examine the nature of Directive Principles of State Policy. What is the sanction behind them? 

Ans: Directive Principles of State Policy are in the forms of instructions/guidelines to the governments at the centre as well as states. Though these principles are non-justiciable, they are fundamental in the governance of the country. The idea of Directive Principles of State Policy has been taken from the Irish Republic. They were incorporated in our 

Constitution in order to provide economic justice and to avoid concentration of wealth in the hands of a few people. Therefore, no government can afford to ignore them. They are infact, the directives to the future governments to incorporate them in the decisions and policies to be formulated by them. 

Q.2 Discuss the classification of Directive Principles of State Policy.

 Ans.: Directive Principles of State Policy have been grouped into four categories. These are:

  1. the economic and social principles,
  2. the Gandhian principles,
  3. Principles and Policies relating to international peace and security and 
  4. miscellaneous

 (A) The economic and social Principles 

The state shall endeavour to achieve Social and Economic welfare of the people by: 

  1. providing adequate means of livelihood for both men and women.
  2. reorganising the economic system in a way to avoid concentration of wealth in few hands.
  3. securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
  4. securing suitable employment and healthy working conditions for men, women and children. 
  5. guarding the children against exploitation and moral degradation.
  6. making effective provisions for securing the right to work, education and public assistance in case unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement. 
  7. making provisions for securing just and humane 1 conditions of work and for maternity relief. 
  8. taking steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings etc.
  9. promoting education and economic interests of working sections of the people especially the SCs and STS. 
  10. securing for all the workers reasonable leisure and cultural opportunities.
  11. making efforts to raise the standard of living and public health
  12. providing early childhood care and education to all children until they complete the age of 6 years. 

B. The Gandhian Principles 

There are certain principles, based on the ideals advocated by Mahatma Gandhi. These Principles are as follows:

  1.  To organise village Panchayats. 
  2. To promote cottage industries in rural areas.
  3. To prohibit intoxicating drinks and drugs that are injurious to health. 
  4. To preserve and improve the breeds of the cattle and prohibit slaughter of cows, calves and other milch and drought animals. 

C.  Directive Principles of State Policy Relating To International Peace And Security :

 India should render active cooperation for world peace and security and for that the slate shall endeavour to : 

  1. promote international peace and security.
  2. maintain just and honourable relations between nations
  3. foster respect for international laws and treaty obligations
  4. encourage settlements of international disputes by mutual agreement. 

(iv) Miscellaneous

 The Directive Principles in this category call upon the state:

  1.  To secure for all Indians a uniform civil code.
  2. To protect historical monuments.
  3. To save the environment from pollution and protect wildlife.
  4. To make arrangements for disbursement of free legal justice through suitable legislation.

 Q.3 Analyse how the Directive Principles of state Policy of Universalisation of education has been implemented?

 Ans. The percentage of literate people at the time of independence was only 14%. Our government realised the importance of education and laid stress on the spread of literacy among the masses. Efforts have been made by the governments to raise this level. But a large section of our population is still illiterate. The foremost effort which is required in this field-is the spread of elementary education and its universalisation. Due to the increased number of drop outs at the primary stage, the number of illiterates between 15 to 35 years of age has constantly increased. 

According to the National Policy on Education, 1986, the government has launched the National Literacy Mission, and ‘Operation Blackboard’ for the spread of mass literacy at primary stage. For those who were deprived of the benefits of education in their childhood, the government and many voluntary agencies are making special efforts to educate them by opening night schools and adult literacy centres. 

Many distance education Though much has been achieved but still there is a long way correspondence courses, distance education and open learning programmed have been started in different states. The National Institute of Open Schooling and several Open Universities have been set up to attain the goal of universalization of education. The Directive Principles providing free and compulsory education for children upto the age of 14 years has been included through the 86th Amendment Act, 2002 in the list of Fundamental Rights under Article 21A.  to go to accomplish this objective of a welfare state

 Q.4 Evaluate the Directive Principles of State Policy on 

  1. Child Labour and
  2. Status of Women.

 Ans.: (a) Child Labour

 You have already read that one of the Directive Principles provides opportunities and facilities to children to develop in a healthy manner. You have also read about the Fundamental Right against Exploitation of children. Employment of children below the age of 14 years in mines and industries which are hazardous to their health is prohibited.

 Inspite of these provisions, the desired results have not been reached. In most of the cases, the parents attitude is not conducive to the elimination of child labour. They force their children to do some sort of work to earn money and contribute to the family income. Poverty and social stigma are certain constraints on the path of eradication of this problem apart from the lack of will. All efforts by governments at various levels would prove futile unless the willingness and awareness to get rid of the social challenge comes from within. Dr. Abdul Kalam’s ‘dream of developed India 2020’ can be achieved only when the children who are the future of the country are secured and protected from being exploited. The children should not be deprived of their right to enjoy childhood and right to education. 

(b) Status of Women

 Indian society basically is a male dominated society in which father has been head of the family and mother’s position has been subordinated to him. The position of a woman in such a system is naturally weak. Women have been suffering a great deal on account of cruel social customs and religious practices like, pardah and dowry etc. 

Women as an integral part, account for 495.74 million and represent 48.3% of the country’s total population as per 2001 census. Necessity of raising the status and education of women has already been stressed in our Constitution through Fundamental Rights and various Directive Principles of State Policy. They have been provided with the right to an adequate means of livelihood and equal pay with that of men for their work. Women workers have also been provided for health-care and maternity relief. Even in the Fundamental Duties stress has been laid on the duty of every citizen of India to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.

 Many laws and judicial decisions have restored the dignity of women. To protect their rights, measures have been taken to give them share in the family property. For their emancipation from cruel practices like bride burning for dowry, wife beating, sati etc. laws have been enacted. Prohibition of female infanticide, foetouscide, discrimination against girl child and child-marriage are some of the other measures that will help in improving the status of women. To empower women, reservation of one third of seats through the 73rd and 74th Amendment Act, 1991,1992 for them has been made in the Panchayats and Municipalities. There is a similar proposal for reservation of seats for them in the Parliament and in the state Legislatures. 

Q.6 Explain Briefly the interrelationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy. 

Ans. : In Spite of the differences, there is a close relationship between the two. Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles are complementary and supplementary to each other. Whereas the Fundamental Rights establish political democracy, the Directive Principles establish economic and social democracy, No government can afford to ignore them while formulating its plans and policies as it is responsible for all its actions to the people in general. Although there is no legal sanction behind these principles, the ultimate sanction lies with the people. The people with their opinion will never let the ruling party to acquire power again if it fails to adhere to these guiding principles. Thus, our Constitution aims at bringing about a synthesis between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of state policy. Together, they form the core of the Constitution. 

Q.7 Recall the Fundamental Duties in our Constitution.

 Ans.: Fundamental Duties for citizens are in the nature of a code of conduct. A few of these duties are even vague and unrealistic. The non-justiciable character of these duties make them less interesting. Moreover, their ambiguous language is another hindrance in their being obeyed e.g. a citizen does not know how to maintain sovereignty, integrity and glorious heritage of the country. There is a lot of truth in the argument of the critics, yet, it would not be proper to call these duties only pious declarations.

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