NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-8 Indian Federal System

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-8 Indian Federal System. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-8 Indian Federal System

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-8 Indian Federal System

 Intext Questions & Answers

 Q. 1. Fill in the blanks: 

1. In a federation the powers are -. ……………,………(with the Centre/ with the State /Divided between the Centre and the States) 

Ans.: Divided between the center and the states

 2. Federation has a -……….…Constitution. (Written/ unwritten/evolved) 

Ans. : Wriiten

 3. In the Indian Constitution there are ………………….Lists. (2, 3, 4)

 Ans. :

4. 66 subjects are included in the ……………..List. (Union/State/Concurrent) 

Ans.: State

 5. The concurrent list consists of ……………-subjects. (97, 47, 66)

 Ans. : 47 

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks: 

1. The -……………may change the area of a State by law. (Parliament/State Legislature/Municipal Corporation) 

Ans. Parliament 

2. All Indian Services are under the control of ………,……….(Union Govt/State Govt/ District Govt.) 76

Ans.: Union Government 

3. In a federation there is ……………….representation in the upper house of Parliament. (unequal/equal/proportional) 

Ans. : Unequal 

Q. 3. Fill in the blanks: 

1. The Union List consists of………….. subjects. (97/66/47) 

Ans.: 97

 2. Post and Telegraph is subjects in the …………..?-List. (Union/State/Concurrent) 

Ans. : Union –

 3. The …………..subjects in the State List when there is President’s rule. (State Legislature/Parliament/Both of them) 

Ans.: Parliament 

4. Trade and Commerce is a subject with …………-List. (Union/State/ Concurrent) 

Ans.: State 

Q. 4. Fill in the blanks: 

1. Proposal for amendment to the Constitution can be initiated only by …………government. 

Ans.: Central 

2. The Indian Constitution is……….federal.

 Ans.: quasi 

3.States are demanding. ………autonomy. 

Ans.: Greater 

4. …………commission has submitted its report relating to centre-state relation. 

Ans. Sarkaria

Terminal Exercises 

1. Write a short note on the legislative relations between the center and the states.

 Ans. Regarding legislative relations, there is a threefold division of powers in the Constitution. We have followed a system in which there are two lists of legislative powers, one for the Centre and the other for the State, known as the Union List and the State List, respectively. An additional list called the Concurrent List has also been added. The Union List which consists of 97 subjects of national interest is the largest of the three lists. Some of the important subjects included in this list are: Defence, Railways, Post and Telegraph, Income Tax, Custom Duties, etc. The Parliament has the exclusive power to enact laws on the subjects included in the Union List for the entire country. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest. Some of the important subjects included in this List are Trade and Commerce within the State, Police, Fisheries, Forests, Industries, etc. The State Legislatures have been empowered to make laws on the subjects included in the State List.

The Concurrent List consists of 47 subjects of common interest to both the Union and the States. Some of the subjects included in this list are: Stamp Duties, Drugs and Poison, Electricity, Newspapers etc. Both the Parliament and the State Legislatures can make laws on the subjects included in this list. But in case of a conflict between the Union and the State law relating to the same subject, the Union law prevails over the State law. Power to legislate on all subjects not included in any of the three lists vests with the Parliament. Under certain circumstances, the Parliament can legislate on the subjects mentioned in the State List. 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

2. Describe the financial relations between the center and states.

 Ans. The distribution of financial resources is especially critical in determining the nature of the State’s relationship with the Centre. Both the Union and the State have been provided with independent sources of revenue by the Constitution. The Parliament can levy taxes on the subjects included in the Union List. The States can levy taxes on the subjects in the State List. By and large taxes that have an inter-state base are levied by the Centre and those with a local base by the State. The Union List consists of items of taxation which fall under the following categories: 

  1.  Taxes levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State such as stamp duties and duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations etc. 
  2. Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States viz. railways, sea or air etc..
  3. Taxes levied and collected by the Central and may be distributed between the Central and the states if the Parliament by law so provides, such as union excise duties, excise on toilet preparations etc. 
  4. Taxes levied and collected and retained by the Centre such as customs, surcharge on income tax etc.
  5. Taxes levied and collected by the Centre and distributed between the union and the states such as taxes other than agriculture etc.

 It is clear that in the financial sphere too the Centre is better equipped. The Centre can exercise control over the state finances and grants-in-aid both general and special to meet the expenditure on developmental schemes. During financial emergency, the President has the power to suspend the provisions regarding division of taxes between the Centre and the State. He can also impose other restrictions on the expenses of the State. 

State plans are framed within the priorities of the central plan and they are executed with the approval of the Planning Commission. Further, the States have to carry out the centre sponsored schemes for which the Centre gives grants and the conditions under which these are to be made. The Planning Commission has created an over-centralized planning system. No initiative is left to the states and the centrally formulated schemes have been inappropriately and unimaginatively imposed upon them.

 3. Explain that the Indian Constitution is federal in form but unitary in spirit.

 Ans.: The Centre appoints the Governors of the States and may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise. In other words, Governor is the agent of the Centre in the States. The working of Indian federal system clearly reveals that the Governor has acted more as centre’s representative than as the head of the State. This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration. The control of the Union over states after the imposition of National Emergency. 

The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament). However, this is not applicable in case of Indian States. They have unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha. In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. Senate. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. Besides, there is single citizenship. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states. The States cannot propose amendments to, the Constitution. As such amendments can only be made by the Union Parliament

 In order to ensure uniformity of the administrative system and to maintain minimum common administrative standards without impairing the federal system. All India Services such as IAS and IPS have been created which are kept under the control of the Union. In financial matters too, the States depend upon the Union to a great extent. The States do not possess adequate financial resources to meet their requirements. During the Financial Emergency, the Center exercises full control over the State’s finances.

 In case of disturbances in any State or part thereof, the Union Government is empowered to depute Central Force in the State or to the disturbed part of the State. Also, the Parliament, by law may increase or decrease the area of any State and may alter its name and boundaries.. The federal principle envisages a dual system of Courts. But, in India we have a unified Judiciary with the Supreme Court at the apex.

 The Constitution of India establishes a strong Centre by assigning all-important subjects to the Centre as per the Union List. The State Governments have very limited powers. Financially the States are dependent on the Centre From the above discussion, it is clear that there is a tilt in favour of the Centre at the cost of the States. The States have to work in close cooperation with the Centre. This has lent support to the contention that the Indian Constitution is federal in form but unitary in spirit. Constitutional experts have called it ‘semi federal’ of ‘quasi federal’ system.

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