NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-4 Major Political Theories

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-4 Major Political Theories. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-4 Major Political Theories

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-4 Major Political Theories

 Intext Questions & Answers 

Q. 1. Fill in the blank 

1. The Enlightenment had refused to accept the moral goals as…………truths.

 Ans.: Absolute 

2. The French Revolution declared ………….equality and fraternity as great political values. 

Ans.: Liberty 

3. The 17th-18th century………was also known as negative liberalism.

 Ans.: Liberalism 

 4. McGovern said liberalism is composed of two elements: democracy and ………..

Ans. Individualism

 5. Liberal economy is….. ……….economy.

Ans. : Capitalistic

 6. The liberal state is a social……………State.

 Ans. : Service. 

7. Liberalism is the political philosophy of the ……………..class.

 Ans.: Capitalist 

Q. 2. Fill in the blanks: 

1.. Marxism is a reaction against …………………(feudalise capitalism) 

Ans.: Capitalism 

2. Marxism is regarded as the political philosophy of the …………….class. (working, capitalist)

Ans. : Working 

3. For the Marxists, the …………..factor is the decisive factor in individual/social life. (political, cultural, material)

 Ans. Material 

 4. In Marxian scheme, the relations of production give birth  to ………..of……………(forces, production, antithesis, synthesis) of 

Ans.: Forces, Production 

 5. From each according to his abilities to each according to his …………… It is the essence of socialism. (work, needs) 

Ans. Work 

 6. From each according to his work to each according to his……. .. It is the essence of communication (work, needs) 

Ans.: Needs 

7. For Marx, revolutions are …………of history (engines, ends).

 Ans. Engines 

Q. 3. Answer the following questions. Give one word only

 1. What type of state Gandhiji had advocated?

 Ans.: Ramrajya 

2. What strategy did Gandhiji suggest for employer employee cordial relationships? 

Ans.: Trusteeship 

3. With what name did Gandhiji address the people of the scheduled castes? 

Ans. : Harijans

 4. Which of the two ends and means, Gandhism advocated. 

Ans. : Means

 5. What did Gandhiji call the greatest good of all the individuals, especially of the poor, the poorest of the poor’?

 Ans. : Sarvodya 

Terminal Exercises

 1. What is meant by liberalism? 

Ans. : Harold Laski, an English scholar of Political Science once wrote: “It (liberalism) is not easy to describe, much less to define, for it is hardly less a habit of mind than a body of doctrine”. What it means is that liberalism is too dynamic and too flexible a concept to give it a precise meaning. And yet the scholars have made attempts to define it. Sartori says, “Very simply, liberalism is the theory and practice of individual liberty, juridical defense and the constitutional state.” According to Koemer, “Liberalism begins and ends with the ideals of individual freedom, individual human rights and individual human happiness”. Encyclopaedia Britannica defines liberalism “as an idea committed to freedom, as a method and policy in government, as an organising principle in society and as a way of life for the individual and the community.” 

Liberalism is a theory of reforms, for it has stood for reforms in economic, social and political fields. It is a theory of liberty, individual liberty, individual autonomy, for it has argued in favour of the development of human personality. It is a theory of democracy, for it has favoured constitutional government, government based on the consent of the people, rule of law, decentralisation, free and fair elections. To conclude, we may highlight three aspects of liberalism which clearly help us in understanding its meanings: in social sphere, liberalism stands for secularism and a society that opposes, all kinds of social discrimination; in economic sphere, it favours a capitalistic economy, individual ownership of the means of production and maximum profit-earning motive, in political sphere, it stands for a democratic polity, individual rights and liberties, responsive and responsible government, free and impartial judiciary and the like.

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

 2. What do you mean by ‘withering away’ of the state? 

Ans.: Withering away of the state, according to the Marxists, means disappearing of the state, Le, slowly and gradually the state apparatus would go the whole way. 

3. Discuss dialectical materialism as a feature of Marxism

Ans.: Dialectical materialism is the sum total of the general principles which explain as to why and how social changes take place. The social changes take place because of the material factors and through the dialectical materialistic method. The dialectical materialistic method is a triple method. According to Marx.

 Relations of Productions constitute the basis of the society at any given point of time. What are called the social relations among the people are, for the Marxists, the relations of production. Productive Forces constitute those elements which originate from the relations of production, but which, though opposite to the latter, promise more production through newer methods/ devices. In very simple words, the Marxian theory states that all development takes place through struggle between opposites and because of factors which are economic. 

4. Is Marxism relevant today? Explain

Ans.: Marxism, both as a philosophy and also as a practice, has attained a position unparalleled in social and political thought. Its appeal crosses all boundaries, and in fact, all limits. Its adversaries are as much convinced of its strength as are its admirers. And yet its shortcomings are obvious. Changes do not occur simply because of the clashes between the opposing classes. History is indebted to class cooperation as well for its development. Material factor, though important and dominating it may be, is not the sole factor in explaining the whole complex of society’s intricacies. Indeed, man does not live by bread alone, but it is also true that he can not live without it. Marxism has underestimated the worth and strength of national/ patriotic sentiments. To say that the workers have no fatherland of their own, as Marx used to say, is to make them parentless. Marxism also underestimated the importance of the state. To say that the State is a class institution and therefore, an oppressive and exploitative one is to oversimplify things. 

The Marxian formulations, in practice, have been really disappointing. Marxism, as a practice, has failed, whatever be the reasons. One chief reason has been its centralizing tendency: the dictatorship of the proletariat becomes the dictatorship of the communist party, the party’s dictatorship becomes, ultimately, the dictatorship of one man: be that a Stalin or a Mao. In the Soviet Union, reform movement (Glasnost, especially) initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev marked the beginning of the end of the communist movement not only in Europe but almost the world over. The communist China has introduced numerous liberalization measures in its economy and polity. The relevance of Marxism as an alternative ideology before the world is no more unquestioned.

 5. Do you agree with the view that Gandhism is a critique of the western civilization? 

Ans. : Gandhiji was a critic of Western Civilization. His complaint against western materialism is that it destroys the very essence of spiritualism. He regarded the western type of man as an atomistic individual, with all flesh and no soul. 6. What was Gandhiji’s concept of Ramrajya? Ans.: As against the state that existed in the West, Gandhiji advocated what he called, the Ramrajya; as against the western style of managing things through the centralizing forces, he stood for a decentralized polity. As against materialism, industrialization and capitalism, he made a strong plea for Swadeshi, cottage industries and the theory of Trusteeship. 

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