NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-24 Good Governance

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-24 Good Governance. Important questions for NIOS Political Science 317 Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers SOS . Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint . NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-24 Good Governance

HS 2nd years Solutions (English Medium)

NIOS Political Science (317) Notes| Chapter-24 Good Governance

Intext Questions & Answers 

Q. Fill in blanks

1. Governance is concerned with formulation of. …….to improve ……of life of the people (strategy/ Revenue Collection Scheme; Quality/ Family 

Ans.: strategy, Quality administration. (People caring/ Authoritarian and arbitrary). Relations) 

2. Kautilya’s scheme of good governance is based on ………administration. (People caring/ Authoritarian and arbitrary).

Ans. People caring 

3. The concept of good governance became popular in administrative discussion with the publication of ………..(World Bank Report 1989 & 1992/ Mechiavali’s the Prince). 

Ans.: World Bank Report 1989 & 1992 

4. Governance is good if it based on ………. (People’s consent/Guardian Like behaviour of the civil servants). 

Ans. People’s consent 

Q. Fill in the blanks: 

1. Corruption is an…….. use of authority for personal benefits (legal/ illegal). 

Ans. : Illegal 

2. Corruption is concerned with life (secrecy/ probity) 

Ans. Probity 

3. Corruption can be reduced by………. (simplification/ reviving of Rules and Regulations) 

Ans.: Simplification 

4. Population has been stabilized in…….(Uttar Pradesh/ Kerala) 

Ans. Review 

5. Violence is the greatest threat to ……  of Law/ Police). (Rule 

Ans.: Rule of Law 

Q. Fill in the blanks: 

1. Good governance can be secured through ….. …..(people’s involvement/ Civil Service alone). 

Ans.: People’s involvement 

2. Use of the computer makes the delivery of the services ……..(costly/cheap). 

Ans. : Cheap 

3. Madhya Pradesh in India provides a number of (Gyandoot services to the people through…….. Programme/ Gyan Darshan) 

Ans.: Gyandoot Programme 

Terminal Exercises 

1. Discuss the meaning and the concept of good governance, 

Ans.: In order to understand the concept of good governance we shall first have to know the meaning of governance. What is governance? It has been defined as the use of power and authority by those in government to provide goods and services to the. people to uphold the common good and fulfill the aspirations and needs of the common man. Governance, therefore, is concerned with power, strategies, policies, plans and projects that aim at improving the substance or quality of life. The people expect their government to proceed with its tasks in a way that maximum government results follow with minimum cost or investment. Governance becomes good when the decisions and actions of the are based on peoples’ consent, legitimacy and accountability. Thus good governance is concerned with high quality in governance. All sections of the society today judge their government by their governance. Earlier, coercive state was considered to be most effective instrument of good governance. In ancient and medieval India a king, though authoritarian, was supposed to be conscientious and responsive to the needs of the subjects. 

In modern times, good governance implies enlightened citizenship as well as accountable and constitutional government. Good governance is also a key developmental concept today. The debate only relates to the question of how to bring about development. It is a concept that is inclusive and positive in nature. It is inclusive in so far as it aims at involvement of people in the process of development. Thus development is not merely people oriented but people-centered. It is positive to the extent of building up new levels of skills, knowledge and support for development. Let us now discuss some of the features or characteristics of good governance. 

2. Identify three features of good governance. Explain the importance of accountability in good governance. 

Ans. :The next important question in the discussion on good governance is: what are the basic features or elements of good governance? A number of, reports and studies have sought to identify a number of features. In the scheme of Kautilya, for instance, the following features formed part of good governance. 

  •  Law and order 
  • People caring administration 
  • Justice and rationality as the basis of decision 
  • Corruption free governance 

The World Bank in its reports of 1989 and 1992, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Commission on Global Governance (1995), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 1997 have all dealt with the attributes of good governance extensively. 

These concerns of good governance have been very clearly voiced in Asian Development Basic report in the shape of the following questions: 

  • Do people fully participate in governance? 
  • Are people fully informed? 
  • Do people make decisions or can they at least hold the decision makers accountable? 
  • Are the women equal partners with men in Governance? 
  • Are the needs of the poor and disadvantaged met? 
  • Are peoples’ human rights guaranteed?
  • Are the needs of the future generation taken into account in current policies?
  • Do people own their structures of governance? 

It has been emphasised almost unanimously that governance has to be based on the principle of accountability of those who are responsible for it. Accountability, in fact, implies that the bureaucracy should be answerable for what they do or don’t do? This is sought to be administered in a parliamentary system through questions, debates, discussions, budgetary approvals, committees and such other methods by parliament. The executive is to be responsive to the people through their representatives. It is, however, also true that this mechanism has increasingly proved to be ineffective for reasons of decline in the quality and character of debates and the representatives, transformation of parliamentary system into a cabinet system of government, criminalization of politics and fragmentation of society and politics. Secondly, accountability is also ensured through judicial review of governmental decisions or laws. The citizens are also seeking judicial intervention through Public Interest Litigation (PIL) for prompt action on certain issues affecting the common life. Such practices are in vogue, directly or indirectly in several countries like New Zeeland, Canada, Australia and India. Recently a more effective mode of public accountability is the system f citizens’ charter. The idea is to change the bureaucratic culture to include people friendly attitudes instead of patriarchal indifferent, casual and callous behaviour to citizens. The old feudal values must give place to modern democratic values in bureaucracy. 

In every country a number of institutional and lega arrangements have been made to secure the prevalence of the characteristics of an accountable administration. For example in India setting up of institutions like Central Vigilance Commission and national commissions for Women, Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Castes, Minorities and Backward Classes, Nation Labour Commission, National Commissions for Human Right and Minorities, and Comptroller and Auditor General of India an some such efforts or steps to administer social, legal constitution and systemic commitments in bureaucracy. It seeks to remove the tendencies of administrative bias, corruption, alienation and secrecy. The aim is to make administration poor-sensitive, gender sensitive, and more sensitive to the demands and grievances of the public. The purpose is to prevent undesirable acts or behavior and to promote efficiency and integrity of public servants. The Governments have also initiated a number of other measures to see the actual operations of accountability in administration. 

SL. No.Chapters Link
1Meaning and Scope of Political ScienceClick Here
2Nation and StateClick Here
3Distinction Between Society, Nation, State and GovernmentClick Here
4Major Political TheoriesClick Here
5Preamble and The Salient Features of The Constitution of IndiaClick Here
6Fundamental RightsClick Here
7Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental DutiesClick Here
8Indian Federal SystemClick Here
9Emergency ProvisionsClick Here
10Union ExecutiveClick Here
11Parliament of IndiaClick Here
12Supreme Court of IndiaClick Here
13Executive in the StatesClick Here
14State LegislatureClick Here
15High Courts and Subordinate CourtsClick Here
16Local Government: Urban and RuralClick Here
17Universal adult franchise and the methods of representationClick Here
18Electoral System in IndiaClick Here
19National Political PartiesClick Here
20Regionalism and Regional PartiesClick Here
21Public Opinion and Pressure GroupsClick Here
22Communalism, Caste and ReservationsClick Here
23Environmental AwarenessClick Here
24Good GovernanceClick Here
25Human RightsClick Here
26India’s Foreign PolicyClick Here
27India’s Relations with USA and RussiaClick Here
28India and its Neighbors : China, Pakistan And Sri LankaClick Here
29Contemporary World OrderClick Here
30The United NationsClick Here
31United Nations’ Peace ActivitiesClick Here
32United Nations and Economic and Social DevelopmentClick Here
33Public Service CommissionsClick Here
34Administrative Machinery at the Centre, States and District LevelsClick Here
35Political Executive and BureaucracyClick Here
36Public Grievances and Redressal MachineryClick Here

3. Discuss the main hindrances to good governance. 

Ans.: Hindrances to Good Governance Countries at the international and national levels have show much seriousness about good governance. But how is it th they have not been finding it so easy to provide to all their citizen a just, equal and free social order. What are the factors that 230

blocking the road to good governance? There are a number of factors responsible for the failure to achieve the desired ends, but the following are the major threats to good governance: 

  1. Corruption 
  2. Population Growth 
  3. Culture of violence

(i) Corruption 

Corruption is an illegal use of authority for personal gains. Corruption is a universal disease causing harm to the people and government almost everywhere in the world. However, in the countries like India it has assumed the shape of a cancer. Since the days of Kautilya the issue of ethics and integrity in government has been a major concern. At times the political leaders have expressed their helplessness to contain corruption by arguing that corruption is a worldwide phenomenon. But the question of probity and corruption is getting a little more attention than earlier. The exposure of the scams and the demand for action against corruption is now increasing. But no step to fight corruption will be effective unless all forms of corruption – political, economic, moral and administrative are fought with a sense of commitment and will. In order to meet the threat of corruption to good governance, the following steps are necessary. 

  1.  Breaking the nexus between politicians, bureaucrats and criminals.
  2. Ensuring a cost-effective administration of justice. 
  3. Setting up of Public interest litigation courts at the national, state and local levels. 
  4. Making right to information more effective. 
  5.  Strengthening law enforcement agencies in terms of autonomy, skills, attitudinal change and awareness of the social problems. 
  6. Forfeiture of the properties of the corrupt immediately after the charges are framed. Such a property can be released only after the person is proved innocent. 
  7.  Improving bureaucratic functioning by way of simplification of rules, regulations and procedures of work. law 
  8. Mobilizing the society to support the system of rule of 9. Putting an end to the system of patronage and nepotism from government organizations. 

(ii) Population Growth 

Good governance is concerned not merely with effective laws, procedures and practices, but also concerned with mobilisation and utilisation of a country’s social and economic resources in a manner that benefits all the members of the society. However, one finds that development efforts have failed to eliminate poverty, unemployment and illiteracy and to secure to all citizens equitable access to even primary education and health, food, water and a house. From a population of about 35 crores at the time of India’s Independence to more than 100 crores now is a cause for concern. Though some states in India such as Kerala, TamilNadu, Goa and Manipur have already achieved population stabilisation, there are still some states like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh. Rajasthan and Bihar which will take a long time to stabilise their population. The phenomenal growth in numbers requires resources to sustain them. There is an increasing demand on land, air and water resources. Providing adequate educational and health facilities, food, shelter and employment to the growing numbers is a difficult task before any government in India. Look at our large cities where concentration of a very large population poses many problems of health and sanitation, water supply, roads and electricity. In fact, in many respects cities like Mumbai, Calcutta and Delhi are increasingly becoming ungovernable. The rapidly increasing population is, in fact, a means to a breakdown of good governance. Population can be stablized through spread of education, awareness, health education, people’s involvement and development etc. 

(iii) Culture of Violence 

Resort to illegal force is considered to be a law and order problem. But when one looks at it from the point of view of the principles of good governance, it becomes clear that peace and order is the first step to development. Strikes, riots, terror attacks onerant of this harmful culture of violence. The government can focus on economic, social and political development if it is free from the concerns of threat to public safety and security in terms of life and property. Moreover, terrorism is also the greatest threat to the rule of law because terror replaces the law or seeks to subvert the law. Terrorism is a hindrance to progress. No industrialist would be willing to invest in an area, which is affected by violence and terrorist activities. This produces an adverse impact on employment, health, education and the provision of other services to the people in the long run. The social life also comes to a halt and people become almost in house prisoners or suffer from mental agonies of different types if they live under the shadow of violence and terrorism. The issue of human rights also comes to the fore. Terrorists seldom respect the human rights of the comman man. But when the government uses brutal force to contain terrorism, at times human rights of common citizens are violated by the state police. It requires a clear vision, courage and understanding to deal with this menace through dialogue with the violators of law, redressal of their genuine grievances, involvement of the neighbours and wider international governments in the fight against terrorism. 

4. Describe measures for good governance, the government of India has taken. 

Ans.: One can draw a long list of the measures to realize the goals of good governance. Let us discuss two measures viz. ensure people’s participation and the use of computers and information technology, for an efficient, effective, honest, transparent and law abiding system of governance. 

(i) Peoples Participation for Good Governance 

People’s participation is given increasing priority in the scheme of governance. It is recognized that people’s involvement in decision-making and decision implementation would act as : 

  • a check on indifferent and inefficient bureaucracy. In other words people could act as pressure on administration to act and act in time. 
  •  Instruments for a responsive and accountable administration. 
  •  a medium of development administration and self government. 
  •  a mobiliser and user of local resources for local development. 

The people can perform this role either by becoming a member of any social organisation or interest and pressure groups or welfare organisation or a political party or by becoming a part of bureaucracy and government at national, regional or local levels. The governments are seeking to involve people by the democratic decentralisation-the panchayats and municipalities or by association in advisory or consultative committees and institutions. People also organise themselves to demand a policy to meet the expectations of the citizens. They organise as groups to support a people friendly decision of the government as they also oppose anti people measures taken by it. One can mention the name of organisations like: Narmada Bachao Andolan, Bachpan Bachao Andolan, Peoples’ Initiative, Help Age India, Common Cause Shiksha Bachao Andolan etc. in this context. People, thus, can play a significant role as opinion makers both in favour and against the government and administration. At times, individuals tend to work for the resolution of conflicts within the society or between the society and the state. Individuals can also act as a link between the people and the bureaucracy by supplying the information about the action/reaction of the people and their roles. By such feedback the civil servants can remedy the situation. Since the levels of education, information, knowledge of the government, political and the economic status condition people’s participation, a large number of local people remain outside the system of governance. Therefore, our country has made deliberate attempt to include the poorer sections in the process of decision-making and development. Reservation of 33.3% seats for women in the panchayati raj and the urban local government is one such step. There is a provision for reservation of seats for SCS/STs in the proportion to their population in the areas of local government. For instance, if there are 20% Scheduled Castes in a district then 20% seats shall be reserved for them in the Zila parishad. Similarly, if the number of Scheduled tribes is 1% in a village then 1% seats shall be reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the Gram Panchayat. Reservation for the backward classes has been left to the state government. It may not be wrong, however, to state that there is still a gap between what is provided and what is implemented in the area of the people’s participation in governance, especially in the local governments. It is only a handful of people who appear to be empowered.

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