HS First Year English Chapter 5 The Ailing Planet : The Green Movement’s Role

HS First Year English Chapter 5 The Ailing Planet : The Green Movement’s Role. Important questions for HS First Year English Questions Answers brings you latest queries and solutions with accordance to the most recent pointers NCERT. Students will clear all their doubts with regard to every chapter by active these necessary chapter queries and elaborate explanations that area unit provided by our specialists so as to assist you higher. These queries can facilitate students prepare well for the exams thanks to time constraint. HS First Year English Chapter 5 The Ailing Planet : The Green Movement’s Role

HS First Year English Chapter 5 The Ailing Planet : The Green Movement’s Role

Textbook Exercises Understanding the Text

Q. 1. Locate the lines in the text that support the title : The Ailing planet’. 

Ans. The following lines in the text support the title ‘The Ailing planet.’ 

  1. It (the earth) has its own metabolic needs and vital processes which need to be respected and preserved.
  2. The earth’s vital signs reveal a patient in declining health.
  3. The first Brandt Report raised the question, ‘Are we to leave our successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes and ailing environment?”
  4. In some places firewood has become so expensive that ‘what goes under the pot now costs more than what goes inside it.’ 
  5. Since the tropical forests is, in the words of Dr. Myers, ‘the power house of evolution, several species of life face extinction as a result of its destruction.
  6. The world’s ancient patrimony of tropical forests is now eroding at the rate of forty to fifty million acres a year.”

Q. 2. What does the notice “The world’s most dangerous animal ” at a cage in the Zoo at Lusaka in Zambia signity?

Ans.The notice at Lusaka in Zambia is significant because it points an accusing finger at man. The cage leaving the notice bears a looking glass. It does not have any animal inside it. Images of the visitors are reflected by the mirror. Man shares the earth with millions of other species- some discovered and many yet to be discovered. But he thinks himself the most powerful and the most intelligent of the species. In his mad rush for more and more material prosperity he has destroyed the forests, plundered the forests, encroached the grasslands and croplands. Many innocent animals have fallen prey to man’s greed for more material prosperity. In fact man has raped nature in the name of industrialization and consequent progress. He has ruthlessly plundered the forests and other natural resources which in turn have created environmental and ecological problems. Man is going to leave to his successors a barren world. No other animal has done so much harm to the earth as man has done arrogantly.

Q. 3. How are the earth’s principal biological systems being depleted?

Ans. The fisheries, the forests, the grasslands and the croplands are the four biological systems. Mr. Lester Brown has pointed out these four systems. According to him they provide the foundation of the world’s economic development. Not only they supply food to man and other living beings but also provide raw materials to industries. However petroleum products and minerals are not provided by them. Man has plundered them to an unsustainable level. Man’s demand on these four systems has been ever increasing. In a protein conscious and protein hungry world demand on fisheries has led to overfishing. Forests in tropical areas and in other countries including in India are being ruthlessly depleted. Local forests are destroyed for procuring firewood. Wide burning of dung has deprived the soil from a very good natural fertilizer. In the tropical zone itself forests are destroyed at the rate of forty to fifty million acres a year. Man has been encroaching upon the grassland and croplands in the name of industrialization and consequent prosperity. Thus the earth’s principal biological systems are being depleted and man is solely responsible for such damage inflicted upon nature.

Q. 4. Why does the author over that the growth of world population is one of the strongest factors distorting the future of human society?

Ans. The author, Nani Palkhivala has rightly pointed out the danger posed by the unprecedented spurt in world population. He has given a historical account of the rapid spurt. Around the year 1800 the total world population was one billion. The population multiplied over the centuries and the present population of the world is 5.7 billion. The estimated population of India is 920 million. Fertility falls with the rise in income, spread of education and improvement in health care service. Thus development is the best contraceptive. However, development itself is not possible when population goes on multiplying. More children does not mean more workers. In stead they create more unemployed people. Therefore voluntary birth control is the only way to check the growth of population. The choice before mankind is between population control or continuation of poverty. In this context the author has noted that the population of India is greater than the population of Africa and South America put together. Unless the population of India is checked poverty can never be eradicated.

Talking about the text : 

Discuss in groups of four

Q. 1. Laws are never respected nor enforced in India,

(A. B. C. and D form the Group.) 

Ans. A: Yes the statement is true compared to other countries, specially the western countries’ laws are hardly respected in India. 

B: Nor are the laws enforced seriously and earnestly. 

C: What is the value of laws when they are neither respected nor enforced. 

D: Think of the laws relating to the protection and preservation of the forests and wild lives. A: Why don’t the law enforcing agencies do not enforce the laws rigidly. 

B: Are you so dull? Don’t you know the ways our political masters help and encourage us to compromise laws?

D: True, the laws are enforced in case of the powerless and the helpless poor people. The authorities do not dare to tease the powerful ones. 

C: In this regard money plays a vital role. The rich spend money and buy law for their convenience.. 

A: But why not Indians respect the law? Why are they not afraid of the long hands of law?

B: Laws are respected more in their breaches in India. The powerful ones are the worst breakers of law.

C: What about the courts of law? 

D: Courts of law do not execute-laws. They its application.

B: Is there no remedy?

C: The only remedy will be when the executive wing of the state will enforce law with real earnestness. But it is hard to expect such a situation in our rotten social condition.

Q. 2. Are we to leave our successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes and an ailing environment? 

Ans.

A Yes, this is a serious question that touches our future generations and the earth itself. 

B: The earth is our habitat. Also it is the habitual of millions of counted and yet to be counted species. The sad part is that our common dwelling is ailing. It is not in good health.

C What has brought this pitiable state to our dear earth? 

D: Unsuitable greed of man is at the root. Nature has endowed the earth with everything that living beings need. 

A: The sad part is that man never realised that he was an extension in the great scheme of things. He always thought and treated himself as the master and that is at the root of all evils. 

C: Yes, man is definitely the master and measure of the universe.

B: You are right in a sense. But the basic point is that over what and who will be exercising his mastery if the earth and her resources are polluted and exhausted.

D: Do you know man has been plundering the natural resources and polluting the environment? He has been using more and more things than he really needs.

A: You are right. Man has been destroying the forests, killing the fish and other animals for his comfort. In the name of industrialization he has been destroying the forest cover-so essential for ecological balance. 

C: I see, for this reason the author has raised the question whether we are going to leave behind a barren earth for the future generation.

B: The time is still there for man to realise his mistake and undo some of his wrong deeds.

A: Yes, if he really loves his children, man should do something quite seriously to restore the lost ecological balance of the earth.

D: Let us hope for the best. 

Q. 3. We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers: we have borrowed it from our children.

Ans.

A: This is undoubtedly a wise and thought provoking saying. 

B: Yes, man is probably the wisest fool among all the species on earth. Because he does not know how to think about his future. In fact he doesn’t love his children.

C: Does not love his children! How do you know?

B: What is he going to leave for his children but a barren world of extending desert and polluted atmosphere. 

D: Why does not mankind think for his future welfare and the welfare of his children. 

A: It is due to his insatiable greed.

A: You are quite right. In the name of industrialization and material prosperity he has been exploiting natural resources and polluting

the atmosphere. Man has created an economic imbalance. 

B: Mr. Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister has wisely said that no generation of people has a freehold on earth, the common habitation of man and various other species. We have been sent to the earth to live and enjoy life and not to destroy her resources beyond permissible limit.

C: She has also said that traditionally man has been enjoying the resources endowed by nature. If man really loves his children he should leave behind a prosperous world, better than the one he has been enjoying. Because the world belongs to all the future generations. In that sense man has borrowed the world from their children.

D: I hope mankind will learn to live sensibly and leave for his children a world of improved ecology and atmosphere. 

Q.4. The problem of overpopulation that directly affect our everyday life. 

Ans.

A: The author is correct in his observation of the population problem and its evil effects. I praise him for his observation that more children does not mean more workers; more children means more unemployed.

B: I also support his views. He has observed that the population of India at present is more than the population of Africa and South America put together. The root of India’s poverty is her large population. 

C: How can one control the population? Is there any way open?

D: Yes, family planning is widely prevalent all over the world. In India neither the people take it seriously nor the government implement the problem with real earnestness. 

C: Can you tell me Mr. 

A. why the author has said that development

is the best contraceptive?

A: Yes, Mr. 

B. You see, development means the spread of education. improvement in the healthcare system and rise in income. Éducated people can reasonably think of the evil effect of overpopulation. In a developed country people live a life of leisure and pleasure. Naturally they breed less children than the poor who think that more children will earn more money.

D: Mr. A, what do you suggest on this matter? 

A: I earnestly suggest voluntary adoption of family planning and birth control methods by every fertile couple. I also suggest government help in this regard.

Thinking About Language

The phrase ‘inter alia’ meaning ‘among other things is one of the many Latin expressions commonly used in English. Find out what there

Latin phrases mean : 

  1. Prima facie
  2. ad-hoc
  3. in-camera
  4. ad-infinitum. 
  5. mutatis mutandis
  6. caveat 
  7. tabula rasa

Ans.1. Prima facie: Based on what at first seems to be true although it may be proved false later.

2. ad hoc arranged or happening when necessary and not planned in 

3. In camera : In a judges private room, with the press or the public advance. being present. 

4. ad infinitum : again and again, without ever coming to an end.

5. mutatis mutandis: making the small changes that are necessary for each individual case, without changing the main points.

6. Caveat a warming that particular things need to be considered before something can be done.

7. tabula rasa: A situation in which there are no fixed ideas how something should develop. (or) the human life as it at birth, with no ideas or thought in it.

Working with words:

I. Locate the following phrases in the text and study their connotation:

1. gripped the imagination.

2. dawned pon.

3. ushered in

4. passed into current coin 

5. passport of the future

Ans. 1 gripped the imagination of: has been used to mean how a particular thought or idea has captured the thought of mankind. The phase has been used metaphorically.

2. daw: ed upon: has been used to mean occurred for something good. Dawn generally brings the first light of the day. The phrase has been used metaphorically. 

3. under in : means to introduce or bring in something specially some new ideas.

4. passed into current coin: means current use, wide circulation. 

5. passport of the future: means something that provides safe passage to some new land. The future is in the womb of time. We do not know what is in it. But mankind may ensure a safe passage to the future by preserving the environment as a fit place for human habitation.

II. The words grip, dawn, usher, coin, passport have a literal as well as a figurative meaning. Write pairs of sentences using each word in the literal as well as figurative sense: 

Ans.: grip: Literal: Please grip my left hand and you will not slip. 

figurative: Living beings are in the grip of Time. 

Dawn: Literal: Dawn brings fresh light. figurative: The idea of preserving environment has dawned an man. 

usher: Literal: She was ushered into the office.

figurative: New generation will usher in new ideas. 

Coin: Literal: Small coins have gone out of circulation.

figurative: Good writers often coin new words.

passport: Literal: No passport is necessary for Indians while entering Nepal or Bhutan.

figurative : University degrees sometimes are not enough for a sure passage to a bright future.

Things to do:

Q. 1. Make Poster to highlight the importance of the Green Movement.

Ans. Join and Augment the Green Movement

  • Plant more trees
  •  Preserve the grasslands.
  • Preserve the forests.
  • Use organic manure and save the cornfields
  • Stop felling trees.
  • Stop over fishing 
  • *Stop destroying forest cover.
  • Cry halt to Industrialization
  • Check spurt in population Live and let live. 

HORNBILL PROSE & POETRY

Sl. No.LessonLink
1The Portrait of a LadyClick here
2A PhotographClick here
3“We’re Not Afraid to Die…
If We Can All Be Together”
Click here
4Discovering Tut: The Saga ContinuesClick here
5The Laburnum TopClick here
6Landscape of the soulClick here
7The Voice of the RainClick here
8The Ailing planet:
The Green Movement’s Role
Click here
9The Browning VersionClick here
10ChildhoodClick here
11The AdventureClick here
12Silk RoadClick here
13My Impressions of AssamClick here
14Father to SonClick here

SNAPSHOTS

Sl. No.LessonLink
1The Summer of the Beautiful White HorseClick here
2The AddressClick here
3Ranga’s MarriageClick here
4Albert Einstein at SchoolClick here
5Mother’s DayClick here
6The Ghat of the Only WorldClick here
7BirthClick here
8The Tale of Melon CityClick here

Q. 2. Maintain a record of the trees cut down and the parks

demolished in your area or any other act that violates the environment. Write to newspapers reporting any such acts that disturb you.

Ans.

From: Putul Kumar Sharma       13/09/2020

R.C.B. Road, Tezpur

To,

The Editor

The Assam Tribune,

Guwahati-3 

Sub: Environment pollution

Sir.

With due respect I would like to request you to publish the following in your esteemed daily.

Tezpur is the largest and the most important urban concentration in the north bank of the Brahmaputra. This town is reputed for producing several eminent personalities of Assam. But it is sad to note that the environment of Tezpur has been deteriorating with the passage of time. Till about half a century ago Tezpur town bore a cover of lush green trees with the then coal park now renamed as Chitralekha park. Like elsewhere in India and abroad the green cover of Tezpur began to vanish rapidly. In place of its former green cover the town is now full of grey towers. The love of the former citizens for trees and plants has vanished from hearts of the greedy people concentrating in the town and grabbing lands for setting up industries, army camps, air fields and even for raising dwelling houses. The government agencies have been playing a passive role. If the destruction of green cover continues to vanish at the present soon the entire town will wear a barren look.

Through your esteemed paper I would like to request the dwellers of Tezpur to plant as many trees as possible wherever space permits. The government agencies may also inflict exemplary punishment to those who do not obey the rules and regulation.

Yours faithfully 

Putul kr. Sharma.

Additional questions and Answers

Q. 1. When did the Green Movement start?

Ans. The Green Movement started about twenty five years ago. 

Q. 2. When and where was the world’s first nationwide Green Party founded?

Ans. The world’s first nationwide Green Party was founded in 1972 in New Zealand.

Q. 3. What did Copernicus teach mankind? 

Ans. Copernicus taught mankind that the planets revolve around the sun.

Q. 4. Who is Copernicus?

Ans.Copernicus is a sixteenth century Polish astronomer. 

5. Who popularised the concept of sustainable development and when?

Ans. The world Commission on Environment popularised the concept of sustainable development in 1987.

Q. 6. Where is the notice “The world’s most dangerous animal’ seen?

Ans. The notice is a cage in the zoo at Lusaka in Zambia.

Q. 7. What is meant by the notice. The world’s most dangerous animal’?

Ans. Man is meant by The world’s most dangerous 

Q. 8………. a new awareness has dawned upon the most dangerous animal.” What is the new awareness?

Ans. The new awareness is that man has realised the wisdom of a system based on domination to one based on partnership. 

Q.9. With how many species mankind shares the earth? 

Ans. According to the scientists mankind shares the earth with 1.4 million living species. 

Q. 10. According to biologists how many species still long wish unnamed? 

Ans. According to the biologists about three to a hundred million living species have remained unnamed. 

Q. 11. With what did the Brandt commission of deal?

Ans. The Brandt commission dealt with the question of ecology and environment.

Q. 12. Who was the Indian member of the Brandt Commission? 

Ans. Mr. L. K. Jha was the Indian member of the Brandt commission.

Q. 13. What was the question raised by the Brandt Commission?

Ans. The Brandt commission raised the question whether mankind will be leaving to its successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts and impoverished landscapes. 

Q. 14. Who wrote the book “The Global Economic Prospect’?

Ans. Mr. Lester R. Brown wrote the book The Global Economic Prospect. 

Q. 15. What are the earth’s principal biological systems?

Ans.The earth’s principal biological systems are fisheries, forests. grasslands and croplands.

Q. 16. What provides the foundation of the global economy?

Ans. Fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands provide the foundation of the global economy. 

Q. 17. What happens when human claims on the biological system of the earth reach an unsustainable level? 

Ans. When human claims on the biological system of the earth reach unsustainable level fisheries collapse, forests disappear, grasslands are converted to barren wastelands and croplands deteriorate.

Q. 18. How are the forests decimated in poor countries?

Ans. In poor countries forests are decimated in order to procure firewood for cooking.

Q. 19. What is meant by the term the power house of evolution’?

Ans. Tropical forest is called the powerhouse of evolution. 

Q. 20. What precedes and what follows mankind.

Ans.The forests precedes mankind and deserts follow.

Q. 21. ‘But what causes endless anguish is the fact that….. What is the fact?

Ans. The fact is that laws are never respected nor enforced in India.

Q. 22. What according to the author is the best contraceptive?

Ans. According to the author, development is the best contraceptive. 

Q. 23. What does more children mean? 

Ans. More children mean more people without work.

Short Answer Type Questions and Answers

Q. 1. Write a note on the Green Movement.

Or, What is the Green Movement and what are its aim?

Ans. The Green Movement started in 1972. The first nationwide Green Party of the world was founded in New Zealand. Since then it has been gaining wide momentum and captured the imagination of millions. The aim of this movement was to create an ecological awareness among mankind. It wanted to spread the message among mankind that the environment should no more be deteriorated.

Q. 2. ‘We have shifted one hopes, irrevocably. ……… What is the shift that has come in the viewpoint of mankind?

Ans. Man has exploited nature in a way that turned the earth into a patient. He has been the worst wrong door among the species. It is his plundering activities that have damaged earths environment and created ecological imbalance. Till recently man maintained a mechanistic view of the world. Now he has learnt to shift his view to a holistic and ecological one. 

Q. 3. How do the earth’s vital signs ‘reveal a patient in declining health’?

Ans. There is a growing worldwide consciousness that the earth itself is a living organism. It is an enormous being and we are parts of it. It has its own metabolic needs and processes which need to be preserved and respected. It is sad to note that man has plundered the natural resources and destroyed the forest cover on earth so rapidly and ruthlessly that her ecology and environment have been imbalanced. As a result she is like a patient that needs treatment.

Q.4. What is meant by the concept of sustainable development?

Ans. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The idea is that the present generation should not strip the natural resources that the future generation would need. The concept of sustainable development was popularised by the world commission on environment in 1987.

Q. 5. Write a note on the holistic and ecological view of the world (or) show the difference between the mechanical and the holistic and ecological view of the world.

Ans. The holistic and ecological view is quite different from the mechanistic view. The mechanistic view treated the world as a conglomeration of distorted parts. The holistic and ecological view treats the world as a united whole. It holds that the earth itself is a huge living organism having her own metabolism. This is a revolutionary idea and definitely a shift from the mechanistic view. Thus the earth cannot be studied in isolation neglecting the living beings. This is a comprehensive view that teaches us to look at the world as a whole. Man should not destroy the natural world.

Q. 6. How is man the most dangerous animal in the world?

Ans. Who else but can be the world’s most dangerous animal. Man has been called the most dangerous animal because among all the species of living beings staring at the earth, only he has been destroying the earth’s natural resources and environment. To satisfy his green he has been destroying forests. fisheries, grasslands, croplands and almost everything mother earth endowed.

The cage in which the mirror was placed did not hold any animal. The mirror was placed there to attract the attention of the visitors and to give them a shock therapy reminding them to think what great damage they have done to destroy the earth’s environment by way of plundering her natural resources and tempering with her ecology. 

Q. 7. Name the earth’s principal biological importance. systems and their 

Ans. In his famous book “The Global Economic Prospect, Mr. Lester R. Brown has pointed out that forests, fisheries, grasslands and croplands are the four principal biological systems. These four systems form the foundation of the global economic system. These systems provide the living beings with food and industries with raw materials. Mankind’s claim on these systems has reached an unsustainable level. The result of such excessive demand is disastrous.

Q. 8. What happens when human claim on earth’s biological systems reaches an unsustainable level?

Ans. When human claim on earth’s biological systems fisheries, forests, grasslands and croplands reaches an unsustainable level their productivity is impaired. Fisheries collapse, forests disappear, grasslands are converted into barren wastelands and the croplands deteriorate. Overfishing is common in the protein hungry world. Tropical forests and other local forests are destroyed without any consideration.

Q.9. Write a note on the Brandt commission and the question raised in its first report.

Ans. Brandt commission was one of the early international commissions. It dealt among other things the question of earth’s ecology and environment. Mr. L. K. Jha, a distinguished Indian, was a member of the Brandt commission. In its first report the Brand commission raised the vital question whether mankind would leave for their successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes and ailing environment. 

Q. 10. What does the author say about the destruction of the tropical and the local forests? (or) How are the tropical and the local forests are being decimated?

Ans. It has been said that forests precede mankind. The tropical forests are the world’s ancient patrimony and it is also called the powerhouse of evolution. Tropical forest is now vanishing at the rate of forty to fifty million. acres a year. The shrinkage of the tropical forests have endangered many species of living beings while many other species have vanished. Local forests are destroyed in order to procure firewood for cooking.

Q. 11. ‘What goes under the pot now costs more than what goes inside it;’ Explain.

Ans. This is a significant observation. It is said in the context of rapidly vanishing forest cover on the earth. In poor countries local forests are decimated in order to procure firewood for cooking. Gradual shrinking of forests has made firewood costlier. In certain places firewood has become costlier than the food-stuff boiled burning firewood. The idea is the scarcity of firewood because of the vanishing forests.

Q. 12. ‘Forests precede mankind; deserts follow. contained in the above saying. Elaborate the idea

Ans. Forests cover the earth. They grew and flourished before the emergence of animals. The theory of evolution justifies that man appeared last among all the animals on earth. Naturally forests had been there before the emergence of man.

Now man has proved himself a plunderer of natural resources. He has been exploiting natural resources and destroying forests and grasslands etc. If his destructive activities continue, what else but a barren earth of advancing forest could be left behind him? 

Q.13. Why does the writer say that laws are never respected nor enforced in India?

Ans. In India laws are observed more in their breaches. Article 48 A of the constitution of India provides that the state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife in the country.” But such constitutional provisions are neither respected nor implemented with earnestness. In this context the writer has made the above quoted observation. He has also cited the constitutional provisions for abolishon of carteism, untouchability and bonded labour. But they flourish after so many years of the operation of the constitution.

Q.14. Why does the writer say that “the growth of world population is one of the strongest factors distorting the future of human society”?

Ans. The writer has wisely observed the tardy progress of human society primarily because of population explosion. He has recorded some facts and figures in support of his claim. Around the year 1800 the total population of the world was one billion. The present population is 5.7 billion. The increase is explosive. The limited natural resources of the earth cannot. support indefinite number of people. The world population increase at the rate of one million every four days. Fertility fulls as incomes rise, education spreads and health care systems inproves. Development is the best contraceptive. More children means more people without work. The children. of the poor are condemned to poverty. Therefore birth control and family planning can only improve standard of living. 

Q.15. How is population explosion perpetuating poverty?

Ans. Population explosion is at the root of poverty. It has been proved. The earth however spacious it may be does not does have infinite space or unlimited resources to support infinite number of population. Overpopulation leads to more and more demands on forest land for dwelling houses as well as more destruction of trees and plants for firewood etc. This is an example. The world population of one billion in the year 1800 has multiplied to more than 5.7 billion at present. More people means more consumer laying their demands on the limited resources of the earth. Development works cannot be made accessible to all the innumerable people. In an over populated world the poor continues to be deprived. More children does not mean more workers but it creates more men without work. So the author has said that development is the best contraceptive. 

Q.16. “What is at stake is not the survival just of the people but of the planet.” Elucidate.

Ans. To satisfy his greed man has been exploiting natural resources ruthlessly. Already the principal biological systems of the earth the forests. fisheries, grasslands and croplands have been damaged which in turn has created worst environmental problems. Depletion of foresty a large extent has caused ecological imbalance. Over population has thwarted the developmental works causing poverty and unemployment. Rapid deterioration of the biological system will turn the earth into a planet of deserts. For these reasons the author has said that the survival of the planet, the earth is stake. If the earth does not remain fartile and productive what will happen to mankind?

Q.17. “No generation has a free hold on this earth. All we have a life tenancy. Elucidate.

Ans. Man thinks himself to be the undisputed master of the world. Arrogantly he has been exploiting the natural resources and destroying the forest cover in the name of industrialization and consequent material prosperity. He seems to be foolish when he does not try to understand the holy plan of nature. Nature has her own scheme. She has been measuring life and will continue to measure it. If that is her holy scheme man should have been cautious enough to preserve the environment of the earth for his successors. In this context the former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher has made the above quoted observation. She wanted to convey the idea that the earth does not belong to any particular generation. All the future generations will have as much rights over it as the past generations had enjoyed. The earth grants tenancy for a life time and that too with the duties to repair any damage done to her.

Q.18. Why does the writer say that development is the best? contraceptive?

Ans. The writer has said that fertility falls as income rises, education spreads and health care system improves. In an over populated country developmental works ‘can not be done to the expected level. Naturally the poor continue to reel in poverty for generations. The More children means more unemployed. In a developed society having limited population development works can be done for all round development and welfare of the populace. Therefore development is the best contraceptive.

Essay Type Questions and Answers

Q.1. Write a note on the Green Movement and the change in human perceptions it has brought in.

Ans. The Green Movement is primarily a movement aimed at preserving the environment of the earth. The earth’s environment has greatly determined and her biological systems are much exploited. The movement aims at checking further environmental determination of environment. The movement gripped the imagination of mankind as a whole. It started about 35 years ago. The world’s first Green Party was founded in New Zealand in 1972 and since then it has been continuing.

The Green Movement has brought in a shift in human perception. Man’s view has changed from mechanistic to holistic one. The holistic view is a comprehensive one that seriously thinks of the environment of the earth. This shift is a revolutionary one. It has taught mankind to think that the earth itself his a huge living organism, and all living beings are its parts. The earth as a living organism has her own metabolic needs. It has her own processes which need to be preserved and protected. The plundering nature of man has turned the earth into an ailing planet. Mankind should protest her biological system for use of the future generations.

Q.2. Why does the author call the earth a patient in declining health? What does he say about the concept of sustainable development?

Ans. The author has made the above quoted remark based on his comprehensive observation on human activities. Man has been plundering the biological systems of the earth so inconsiderately that it has been created. serious environmental problems. Man has been destroying the forest cover on the surface of the earth. Population explosion has attained a level that has made development impossible. The four biological systems- forests, fisheries, grasslands and croplands have been exploited much. Human activities have reached a level that has made their systems unsustainable. The earth has thus been turned into a sick planet.

Sustainable development meets the needs of the present demands without harming the prospects of the future generations. Interest of the future generations must be protected. The biological systems should be preserved for use of the future generation. They should not be exploited beyond a permissible level.

Q.3. Are we to leave our successors a scorched planet of advancing deserts, impoverished landscapes and ailing environment?” Why does the author make this question?

Ans. The principal biological systems on which depend on the economy of the world are four. They are forests, fisheries, grasslands and croplands. All these four systems have been overexploited. Forests in tropical regions and elsewhere on earth are rapidly depleted. In a protein hungry world overfishing is common. The grasslands have been shrinking because of excessive demand on them. The same is the condition of the croplands. Dung is burnt depriving the soil of a vital natural meassure. Thus all the four biological systems have been exploited beyond permissible level. As a result the area of wasteland has been extending, deserts are advancing, grasslands have been shrinking and croplands have deteriorated. All this indicates a black future of the world. Therefore the author has raised this most logical question asking mankind whether they are going to leave a barren world to the future generations.

Q.4. “We have not inherited this earth from our forefathers; we have borrowed it from our children.” Explain.

Ans. Man has been cherishing the idea that he is the master and lord of the earth. Guided by such misconception he has done irreparable damage to earth’s ecology and environment as a whole. He considers that he has a freehold on the earth and the earth’s resources are meant for his lifetime. He has not learnt to think about the prospect of life for the future generations. He has plundered and depleted the four principal biological systems of the earth that determine the economic condition of the human race. In his mad rush for progress and development, he has depleted forests, grasslands, croplands and destroyed the fisheries.

Observing such activities of man Margaret Thatcher has rightly observed that no generation has a freehold on earth. Man’s right is only a lifetime tenancy and that too with the responsibility of repairing any damage done. Mr. Lester Brown has made the above quoted remark. His idea in saying so is that the earth belongs to all the generations past, present and future. Man has no right to destroy her resources that will deprive his successors. In that sense man has borrowed it from his children whose welfare should be his primary concern. 

Q.5. Sommarise Nani Palkhiwala’s views on population explosion and family planning. 

Ans. Nani Palkhiwala has observed that the population of the world has multiplied from one billion in the year 1800 to about 6 billion at present.

The rate of increase of one million people every four days. In this contest he has observed that the estimated total population of India is 920 million. (At present it is more than 100 crores). Population of India is more than the total population of Africa and South America put together.

Palkhiwala has also remarked that fertility falls as incomes rise, education spreads, and healthcare systems improve. Thus development is the best contraceptive. But development itself is not possible if the present spurt in population continues.More children does not mean more workers. More children mean more people without work. In such a system the children of the poor are bound to reel in continued poverty. This makes family planning essential. He does not suggest that fertile couples should be sterilized like cattles. He advocates for voluntary adoption of family welfare measures so that the number of people can be kept at the desired level.

Telling about India he has observed that most of the suffering of the people is due to over population and resultant poverty. Unless population. spurt is checked the poverty in the hutments will worsen.

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